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New Series. 
Vol. XII.—1916. 
(Oe Sea 
1, The Invention of Fire. 

By H. G. Graves, Controller of Patents, India. 

*¢ When this invention was Rone tell me, what was then the state 
of the Art, what was then kno ? 

In a popular lecture, recently delivered at the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, Mr. J. Coggin Brown dealt with man in the 
ages of stone implements and his development in India through 
roughly hewn and polished stones to the use of metal tools. 
A classification of the various stages throughout the world, 
going back een one ages, led to the mention of one 
great step in the ress of mankind—the invention of fire— 
perhaps somewhere bos fifty eee a pancdred million years 
ago. Necessarily no exact date can be given; only an imagin- 
ative approximation is possible on the eeataiis. but all too 
scanty, data. The geologist, who has to deal with periods of 
time involving millions of years, frankly says that some mil- 
lions more or less in his estimate are of less account nee a 
hundred years or so in the date of an event determined by 
historian in early historic times. In turn, his errors are com- 
mensurable with a week sooner or later for some obscure hap- 
is. a century or two ago. 

invention of fire, or the discovery of fire, cail it what 

you will, what has it not meant to the progress of mankind ? 
Yet it must not be thought of as ‘one great outburst of pro- 
— Rather it should be considered as a gradual develop- 
t, progressing by slow and uncertain stages, many times 
fakeatien and rediscovered in. those days of primitive know- 


2 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Nowadays fire seems a simple thing. A handful of 

sticks, a few dry leaves, or a piece of paper, or some fine twigs 
perhaps, and possibly some coal, are the essentials. Nor must 
the matches be overlooked, and then there is the blazing fire, 
ready to cook man’s food or to warm him when he is cold. It 
is a necessity for existence, and knowledge of its utilisation 
might almost be termed of the axiomatic order. When the fire 
dies down and the coldness grows, it is so easy to add a few 
more sticks or another piece or two of coal to make the fire 
b up again, and again to give warmth. But is it all so 
simple, that addition of another stick? The dog or the cat 

think of replenishing the fire as it grows low. A trick dog 
might be trained to do so, perhaps, or an imitative monkey, 
but that presupposes a teacher. 

In the days of primitive man, there was no teacher save 
necessity , and though necessity may be urgent, she is not very 
audible in her manner of giving advice. Early man must 
be conceived as approximating closely to the animal in his 
deductive and inductive powers and in his easy forgetfulness. 
Or perhaps he might have been compared in those respects to 
a young child, just passed the days of infancy. Give such a 
child some sweets, stuck in the bottom of a bottle, with a neck 
too small to admit his hand. He enjoys the noise of banging 
the bottle on the floor. If, perchance a sweet falls out, he en- 
joys that also, but it takes a long time to associate the extrac- 
tion of the sweet with the pounding performance. It is a still 
further advance to utilise a stick to prise out a sweet when the 
hammering fails. Ten minutes afterwards, he has forgotten 
how to use the stick, and has to rediscover it many times be- 
fore it is part of his mental equipment. 

Much in the same condition was man millions of years ago. 
He threw a stick on a fire and it blazed up again. That did not 

o him as a case of cause and effect. Probably he 
straightway ainda that he had thrown the stick and would 
stand glowering at the red but dying fire, which had warmed 
him, or which perhaps had rendered him service. Or he might 
pelt the fire with green branches or even stones, oblivious of 
the essentials of combustibility. To keep a fire alight is be- 
yond the power of any animal or child, until certain imitative 
or reasoning powers have been de veloped. So it must have 
been with early man. This age is reiterated because the 
‘“‘invention’’ of fire involved so many stages, each of which 
must, in the intellectual ean Ee towe of that day, be imagined 
as constituting an enormous advance. Consider a few of the 

First there was the appreciation of the fact that fire was 
good for anything. Next came the ability to control a fire, to 
keep it alight within proper bounds. Afterwards followed the 

1916.j The Invention of Fire. 3 

power to preserve the fire from day - day and from year to 
year, and to convey it from camp to camp. Then ensued one 

wait for the next forest fire, necessary to renew the happiness 

of the community when the fire-tender had been negligent and 

_ had been soundly Seen on that account by a cold, hungry, 
and very angry commu 

How many tious of years elapsed before that pitch 

of perfection was attained no one can tell, but we do know 

that matches, now two annas a dozen boxes, were only in- 

to help him in applying a discovery. So, as he did it so very 
sinc slowly perhaps a few moments may now be spared for 
ee of his progress. 
mb, in one of his happy essays, described the discovery 
of eect in China after a fire had s swept away t the owner’s 
house. More primitive man found his roast in a burnt-out 
forest, but even then one must conceive much trepidation and 
ore he became educated enough for the taste and 
smell to appeal to him. Or perhaps the comfortable sensation 
near a red-hot lava flow on a cold, wet and windy night first 
created a desire for warmth, when the sun, that only shines ald 
day, had gone. Or did an ‘infuriated man brandish a bur 
branch against a sabre-toothed tiger, and find it more effective 
than a throwing-stone? Anyway, fire always existed, and he 

been discu e selection of proper materials and their 
addition at the right time are not learned in a hurry as any 
picnic party, med to country life, knows only t 

i unaccu J 
well. Then the foresight jae lay re a stock of combustible 

keep his fire in proper bounds. The fl era of fire to cook- 
ing is part of a larger subject with which this note does not in- 
tend to deal. 

The carriage of fire was the next great step to be learnt. A 
burning brand in itself is not a very portable object and is not 
easily concealed in case of emergency. e material is re- 
quired with the property of long anaabienhe nad ready re-igni- 

4 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

reached them. Imagination boggles at the invention of means 
for restoring a fire de novo, and yet it is not the greatest step 
in the ‘‘ invention ’’ of fire as compared with its first utilisation, 

combustion, as occurs with certain compounds such as phos- 

phoretted hydrogen, or to lightning, or to some hydro-electric 

action, or to the impact of ejected stones, is not clear. The 

w rks can be obtained with much difficulty 
from properly chosen stones, such as pyrites or possibly from 
arbonaceo’ as g as there is sufficient combustible 

stick method is very difficult to work and is essentially a 
w, though 

1916. ] The Invention of Fire. 5 

they will glibly say that is the method they would adopt in an 
ergency. When they do try, they generally get much 
warmer than their instruments. 

t in more or less uncivilised places, and here and 
there fo r ceremonial purposes, the match has ousted the 
flint and steel and the fire stick. It, in turn, may be repla ced 
by the spongy platinum or other form of ‘* automatic lighter ”’ 
in which, by the opening of a neat little pocket case, a file i is 

showers of sparks to ignite a small spirit lamp. The distri- 
bution of the fire stick method in its various forms has been 
dealt with very fully and carefully by Mr. E. B. Tylor in his 
** Researches on the Early History of Mankind and the Develop- 
ment of Civilisation,’’ and by Mr. alfour in the Journal 
of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. XLIV, 1914, p. 32. 
The focussing lens and the fire pump, in which tinder is 
ignited by the heat due to the compression of air, are compara- 
tively modern methods, modern that is as compared with the 
‘stone and iron ages. r. H. Balfour describes the five piston 
and its origin and distribution in the ‘* Anthropological Essays 
presented to KE. B. Taylor, 1907. The origin of gunpowder 

saltpetre from the saline accretions on midden heaps, but such 
a mixture — flame for ignition and is not readily set on 
fire af percus 
this anech of the origin of the use and generation of 
fire vai the service of man, the use of wood has been assumed 
as the only fuel. Later on, other fuels would be employed, 

experiments resulted in lighting the Soho works of Boulton 
Watt & Co. near Birmi ingham. 

harcoal, which is wood freed almost completely from 
its volatile constituents, is smokeless and can be considered as 
a development of charred embers from a fire of wood, brought 
into the primitive man’s cave to add to his comfort; but 
probably primitive man, like many of his modern descendants, 

did not object to smoke in his dwelling. en coal was first 
‘employed is very uncertain, but the history of coal mining has 
been worked out by Galloway and other authors. Natural gas 

important religious signification. Within the last fifty years 
the gas wells of America have been an enormous source of 
power. With uses of coke and artificial gas in all their many 
forms in historic periods, this paper is not concerned. Only 
attention is drawn to it in order to show that development in- 

creased in rapidity as time went on, and it may be remarked 
that every step was delayed by allegations of non-utility. 

6 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

he main object of this paper has been to show the exces- 
sive slowness with which the development of the utilisation of 
fire in the service of man has proceeded. This has been here 
ascribed in part to the incapacity of primitive man to appre- 
ciate the effect of any observation he may have made, and to 
his inability to remember and to apply his knowledge when 
remembered. Very largely this was due to want of education ; 
and early man was hampered to an inordinate extent, as com- 
pared with man of the present day, by lack of power to apply 
analogy and to use inherited skill, induction and deduction. 

trouble and pain. In any case involving the infringement of a 
patent, when the validity comes into question, it is more than 
exceedingly difficult to revert mentally to the state of the art 
at the date of the invention, or in other words, to obliterate 
from the mind all the progress that has ensued since the prior 
date. So to us, in the present day, fire and matches are every- 
day things—we know them so well and the state of affairs in 
their absence is almost inconceivable. Fire for the service of 
man probably took ages and ages to develop in the then 
existing stages of primitive civilisation, and life without fire is 
now unthinkable. 

ife without matches is at least a hardship. For the sake 

developed animal race may be considered in view of present 
knowledge. As has been said, flint, steel and tinder, with few 


by contact with strong sulphuric acid. The history may be 

century, matches cost an anna a box at least. Now they can 
be bought, in spite of the war, at two annas (pence) or less per 
dozen and each box contains three score sticks. 

nsider what this means. A neat little box with the 
potentiality of some fifty or more fires at the cost of a farthing 
or even less, and each fire is obtainable with practical cer- 

1916.] The Invention of Fire. 7 

tainty within a second of time. The problem that had to be 

overlook the details. First a composition had to be invented 
which would take fire but would not explode when struck or 

thing which would preserve the flame from it temporarily at 

least—a little stick or strip of paper was the obvious solution . 
It was eminently desirable to stick the stuff on the end of the 
stick so that the two things were rat together and available 
for immediate use. That means the stuff must be such as to 

take fire when struck; it must be sufficiently adhesive to 
remain on the stick while the friction is taking place; and it 

must be sufficiently powerful to set fire to the stick, which, in 
turn, must be able to take and maintain the fire. 

These are oh a few of the problems that have to be 
solved in the production of a really good match. The match 
must be protected to some extent against damp. It must not 
stink like the early sulphur abominations did. The red-hot 
head must not fall off and. for further safety, the match must 
only strike on the box. Wood of suitable quality, not too 
brittle, easily cut into sticks, and sufficiently combustible must 

und in oan quantities. Poison must be avoided— 
and so on and so on. Now we accept matches as a matter of 
course, and we neti all the skill and machinery involved in the 
production of boxes of matches by thousands of millions. 

e match-user put himself back only a hundred 
years into the days of flint and steel and let the fire-user put 
himself back a hundred million years to the days of the man- 
monkey. Then let him consider ‘the absence of the knowledge 
of a match and of the presence of skill to invent it. And let 
him consider the absence of knowledge of how to start or even 

by disabusing the mind of present knowledge in this way can 
the meaning of the “ invention’’ of fire really be brought home 
to us in these days of civilisation. 
** Then tell me, for thou knowest, what is fire ?”’ 
* * 1 * * * * 

Not for myself,.....2..-.-+.++- 
But for my children and the after time 
For — the need thereof, bbb our state” 

Si Pup valuta cot ars a fits 
Of breathing flame which lives to leap on earth 
———_ the. father of oli fre to ae e.” 

Oh lonvenay: fire, tite 8 life, ne eye pes 
(Prometheus the Piregiver.) ey ‘Roet Bridges. ) 

2. On the Genuineness of the Eighth Canto of the 
oem Kumara-Sambhavam. 


Of Kalidasa very little is unfortunately known. Hence 
é any scrap of information about his 
a ork eoukl be welcome. In this paper 
I raise the sours kae whether the eighth canto of his great 
poem the Kumara-sambhavam (the birth of the war-god) is 
spurious or gen 
The older renits on the search of Sanskrit manuscripts 
in India were often silent on the point 
whether the manuscripts of this poem 
contained the eighth canto or not. Where the reports panei 
the number of the cantos, the manuscripts are found to con- 
tain generally not more than seven cantos. Misigheel pee con- 
taining the eighth were rare. Moreover, the commentaries now 
existing run up, in ate Rect instances out of hundred, to 
seventh canto only. Hence arises the question whether the 
oe canto found in a few cindtetiies is genuine or spurious. 
ngal the medieval Sanskrit writers appear to have 
=e been doubtful on the point. Bharata 
ten — se ee (Mallik) in his well-known com- 
ntary on the Kuma ara-Sambhavam 
voiced the traditionary ‘épinibis of Ls predecessors when in 
the introductory verses he remark 
‘* It is said that the great poet mandiie made the epic poem 
Kumara-Sambhavam in sixteen ag seventeen) cantos. The 
circulation of the last eight cantos ceased from supernatural 
gga while the eighth canto is not read from the curse 
f the goddess. A commentary on the (first) seven cantos 

Found in few MSS. only. 

t Sanskrit College MS., vol. VI, 29, introd. verses 2-4:— 
RaCaHe ATA arfeera aerate: | 
qegrt aerate aa: wreath: aaq ule] 
ae aueste SaIySaA: | 
grainy ane Zatarare feea un [ei] 
Stat aqered @ Gare! TarHfa | 
atueea gaa waa faaega ile] 
a Sena’s time is not yet settled. Anyhow he must be older 

Ae rors "T1650 or 1728 4.p., the date of a MS. of his Ghatakarpara-tika 
({R. Mittra, Noteces, vol. IX, No 3172). 

10 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

by name Subodha (easy understanding) is (now) expounded 
oe to the best of his powers by Bharata, son of Gauranga 

ah view of such remarks it is worth examining this ques- 
tion at some length. The question of genuineness may be 
examined in two ways, either 

(i) by external evidence, o 

(ii) from its internal pouiabia. 
By external evidence is meant whether this canto was ever 
commented upon by any old commen- 
tators, or whether any of its verses was 
ever quoted or referred to in any of the older wor 

On examining the existing commentaries it appears that 
Mallinatha, the versatile and popular 
Tika-kara on Kalidasa’s poems, oat 
tated on the eighth canto.! Mallinatha flourished in the firs 
half of the fourteenth century. Though not very old, Mallinatha 
has the reputation of being a commonsense critic, and of being 
very particular as to the text and its different readings. Conse- 
quently his acceptance of the eighth canto as genuine has much 

External Evidence. 

(a) Commentaries. 

"Obing aeMarg back, the oldest existing se sete 
on the Kumara-sambhavam was Vallabhadeva of Kas 
His gloss is naneA th the Panjika. Its ordinary manasoripts 0 init 
the eighth canto. But several are reported to be fuller, con- 
taining notes on the eighth sarga. I myself hae come across 
two manuscripts giving the eighth. One of them is in Sarada 
characters, and the other in Nagri; and both appear to be 
pretty old in age.” They differ tail from each other 
as regards the text of this canto, but as a rule they agree. 
I see therefore no sufficient reasons to doubt that Vallabhadeva 
accepted this canto as genuine. Vallabha notices different read- 

_! MSS. of Mallinatha’s Tik@ on the eighth canto are found in §. 
ik@ has also been printed at Madras and Bombay. Malli- 

an College Library catalogue, Nos. 82 and 72 of 1883-4 
(Sarad@), and No. 333 of 1892-95 (We st ere Nagri). The eighth canto 
notes are on folios 196-201 of the Sar MS. “iid on folios 486 to 566 of 
the Nagri MS. The three introduc rriei verses at the beginni ruler of thie 
re are omitted by the Sarad& MS., but are thus given in the Nagri 
(fol. la) :— 

we darare: we qaeraieyiea | 

vita SRraare@a 8 grarfgaraa: 2 (u] 

aera ea: Ha MSA saz He: | 

afed dette aratpsarna ie [i] 

aurfa farvasenttu: dfsrar wr TEs | 


1916.] The Poem Kumara-Sambhavam. 1k 

ings of ag text, which must have been therefore much older than 
his time. 

In the final colophon Vallabhadeva calls himself son of 
Anandadeva.? He wrote commentaries on several other poems, 
such as Kalidasa’s Rayhuvamsam and Megha-dutam, Magha’s 
Sisupala-vadham, Strya-satakam, Vakr-okti-pancasika, etc. Val- 
labhadeva’s Pafijikais quoted by Hemadri and Mallinatha. He 
must therefore be older than the thirteenth century at least. 
He is probably to be identified with Vallabhadeva, the grand- 
father of Kayata the Kasmirian who wrote a Tika on Annanda- 
varddhana’s Devi-sa oe ne nab of ee in 

Sanskrit rhetoriciansis Anandavarddhanacarya. Inhis Vriti or 
gloss on the Dhvany-dloka (the light on suggestiveness), + this 
author remarks that the famous descriptions of the amours of the 
highest deities by great poets, though (essentially) improper, 
are sav rom the fault of vulgarism by their genius ; for 
example, the Haare of the amorous enjoyment of the Devi 
Parvati in the (poem) Kumdara-sambhavam. The author adds 
that such amorous descriptions by a poet without genius would 
gr bed faulty. 

ommenting on this passage Acarya Abhinava Gupta 
notes "dint descriptions of the amours of the highest piers are 
as improper as descriptions of the amours of one’s parents.° 

mention of different readings see, forexample, under verse 
32 of at eighth canto (No. 28 of the Nagri MS.), farzetaasar”? 
qretat: | 
2 The oe tira final /Seaensonsger (fol. ede — 
amt —' Be ad i ae i al 8 Be TVN aie hd De 8 - 8 aat Sara: | 

4 The Kavya-mala, A, pe tOl, foots 
+ The Dhw any aloe, Gayot ee avi 6 7 See, Press, 23 

oo aut TSH 
| wala — a afaarea : aut at Hara | 2aidiiweray 

> ers se 
5 The Dhvany-Gloka-locanam, p- 138 :-— 

12 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

thus sri shea the eighth canto of the Kumara, 
wih es bes morous life of Siva and Parvati after 

time falls in the fourth quarter of the tenth and the first 
quarter of the eleventh century. The latter flourished, accord- 
ing to the Raja-tarangini, in the time of the Kasmirian king 
Anantavarmman (second half of the ninth century).! 

Several other older rhetoricians quote even particular verses 
of this canto. Without burdening this article with all the 
arta a the following few may be mentioned as samples :— 

e Sarasvati-kanth- oe attributed to the king 
Bhoja of ae (1021 a.D.), verse 11 is quoted to illustrate 
upamana (similitude) subhead prativimba (reflexion), verse 
49 for anadara-krta-vikara (passion from lover’s Drei g verses 
79 and 80 for mada (intoxication).? 

(ii) Ksemendra alias Vydsadasa, living in the time of 
the king Sonieene (1028-1080 4.p.), quotes in his Suvrtta- 
tilakam * the e 63 as an example of the metre Rathoddhata, 
and in his a gt gp criticises the verse 87 as not 
proper for Lord Siva, the Guru of the three worlds. 

(iii) In the Tippani (gloss) of Namisidhu on Rudrata’s 
Kavy-alankara (composed in Samvat 1125 or 1068 a.p., some 
manuscripts give Samvat 1176 or 1119 A.D.), the verse 2 is 
quoted to illustrate ni a as (shyness) in a girl lover. + 

(iv) In the commentary of Paget on Dhanafijaya’ 8 
Dasa-rupaka (twelfth century), ame verse 2 is cited 
for Mugdha (a young artless neh aa for Sl daosblaee 
(feeling of anxiety 

(v) In the Kavy-anusasanam of Hemacandra, a prolific 
Jaina writer (Samvat 1145-1229 or 1088-1172 a.p.), verses 5, 6, 

srazaariagian 3 feediia <a wendarfear RSH TRTI 
Tare: | awarsta ast aftagal ofaaraaar afear aur aaa faare: 
<a Telwiguan aq a ceria! 

cf. Hemacandra’s Kavy-anusasanam (N. 8. Press), p- 124. 

! The Introduction to the Dhvany-loka, pp. 1-2. 

2 The Sarasvati-kanth-Gbharana, A. Barooah’s ed. > pp. 188, 286, 305, 

8 The Suvrtta-tilakam in the Kavya-mala IT. p- 51, under aur waa, 
that is Kalidasa’s. The Aucitya-vicéra-carccé with his own. gloss, in the 
KaGvya-mala, I, p. appa! aT (then quotes verse 87): 
WWeasdaaes gaara featae fafacrfaa 

3 La EEN SS 

vias ett 
~ . = 

gaarta | 

: Rudrata’s Kavy-Glankara, Nir. Sag. ed., p. 
5 Dha anika’s commentary, the Aloka, N. 8. can to 54, 128. 

1916.} The Poem Kumira-Sambhavam. 13 

11 and 63 are quoted. The poem itself is quoted therein 
as an example under the sub-heads, description of night, 
of sunset, of moon-rise, of wine-drinking and of amorous dalli- 
ance, sabiowe which are peculiar to the eighth canto only.! 

s thus clear that this canto was known to the rhetori- 
cians on before the ninth century, and that none considered 
it to be spurious. Ksemendra in see the verses 61 and 
87 calls them distinctly as Kalidasa 

et us now turn to internal nae The first point is 
metre. The general metre of the canto 

age cy Berane is Rathodhata, but the las t verse is in 

poet, for instance, in the body of the eleventh canto of the 
Raghuvamsam. Malini metre was also use im several 
times for end verses, for example, in the second canto of the 
Raghuvamsam, and in cantos first and second of the Kumara- 

In grammatical constructions I have come across no marked 
variations from the general run of Kalidasa’s w 

Next the subjects. They may be divided into +56 groups 
of ideas, erotic and non-erotic. The erotic ideas and descriptions 
need not be discussed at length. But in respect of them 

Raghuvamsam bears to the rest of the cantos in that epic. 
The standard of rhetorical excellence is similar. In fact the 
rhetoricians while treating of the general ideas and various 

erotic sentiment, quoted ‘the verses of the eighth 
canto more frequently than the nineteenth, and quoted them 
generally as models of the poetic art 

non-erotic group include verses describing natural 
scenery, such as the sunset (30-47), and the evening (52-75) 

on mountains The easy flow of the lines, the general accu- 
racy of the descriptions, the profusion and appropriateness 
of the similes, and t igh passionate imagery of some o 

ideas are not ee of the great poet. For example, 
Sake the following :— 

38. e deers are entering the courtyards of the huts ; 
the trees by wabeapeakling are looking up vigorous; the cows 
required for the Agnihotra (ceremony) are entering; the fires 
are burning (for the evening homa) ; in these ways the hermitage 
ig shining. 

40. The western sides touched by the ruddy sun from 

1 e Kavy-Gnusasanam, N. 8. » pp. 40, 102, 355-6 (in ihe 
tika of Me sds For his time, see —— s Fifth Report, Introduc- 
tion, p. Ixxxv 

14 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

a distance and therefore with few rays only is looking lovely 
like a virgin a ado: med on the forehead with pollened flowers 

. Eyesight iails to pass upwards, downwards, side- 
Sak frontwards and backwards. This world is living in the 
night like an ovum in the (dark) ovary. 

7. Between the pure and the impure, the stationary 
and the moving, the curved and the ome all (differences) 
have been obliterated by this darkness. Shame to the dark- 
ness for removing the distinctions (between the good and the 

oe The moon with its finger-like rays removing the 

(black) hair-like darkness from the bud-like (shut) lotus eyes 
is, as it were, kissing the pom IEF nig 

Sufficient facts have now bee pore and they fairly 

e Cat the eighth canto formed 

ane ‘ean bod cca part of the original poem. Why then 

has it been omitted from most manu- 

scripts ? Its disappearance is, I think, due to the subject 

selected. The amorous dalliance of ane Divine Being and His 

consort, described like the dalliance of an ordinary human lover 

condemned such descriptions directly and indirectly; and their 
condemnation was followed by the gradual dropping of the canto 
from ordinary manuscripts. Finally we see the disappearance 
attributed to a curse of the goddess Parvati. 
I conclude this paper with a discussion of the question 
as to the position of the age canto 
in the original poem. Was it the last 
to, or was it followed by nine iecince 
cantos as now alleged ? On this point the following facts 
are worth noticing. Firstly, the cantos nine to seventeen ap- 

Ninth to seventeenth 

nised any of the 

by any reliable critics like Mallinatha. Thirdly, neither the 
cantos generally nor any of their verses particularly have 
been quoted or referred to in rhetorical or other works. Fourth- 

these cantos descr ribe the growth of the Kumara, his fight 
with the demon Tripura and his followers, and his destruction 
of them. These subject-matters disagree with the title of 
the poem which is expected to describe only the events leading 

1916. | The Poem Kumara-Sambhavam. 15 

up to the birth of the war god. Sixthly, - comparing with 
the Raghuvamsam the intention of the poet appears to be to 
end his poem in the sweetness of erotics (srngara). Its last 
(nineteenth) canto deals with the love and amorous dalliances 
of the king Agnivarna. Similarly, the Kumdara-sambhavam 
should om in the eighth canto dealing with the loves of Siva 
and Parva 

A Gaiddcuiito of these facts and others leads to the 

spurious. At least it would be safer to treat them like 
Nalodayam and other poems attributed to Kalidasa, as not 
his until proved otherwise. 

In the present paper I do not propose to ‘nagtcne the vexata 
questio of Kalidasa’s tim Twelve 
years back I had an occasion ag discuss 
this subject. I then came to the con- 
clusion that Kalidasa should belong to 
a period of great culture, that this period can only be the period 
of the Imperial Guptas, and that internal evidence point to his 
flourishing in the time of Kumara Gupta and Skanda yeeainge 
say in the third quarter of the fifth century a.p.! Since then I 

ave come across no authentic facts pointing otherwise, A 80 
must leave the date question as it was then. 

Kalidasa’s Time—Thi 
oN ter of the fifth cen- 

1 J.R.A.S. 1903, pp. 183-186; Do. , 1904, pp. 158-161. 

NN SN ena aes 

3. Taxila as a Seat of Learning in the Pali Literature. 

By Bimata Caaran Law, B.A. 

Taxila has been frequently referred to in the Pali Litera- 

various arts and sciences. According to Dhammapadatthaka- 
tha, Pasenadi, the king of Kosala, was educated at Taxila.! 
Jivaka, the renowned physician at the court of King Bimbisara 
was educated in medicine and surgery here.* Princes from 
various kingdoms used to be sent to this place for their edu- 
cation.’ In one place* there is a reference to a young man of 
the Lalha country going to Taxil4 for education. Lalha is the 
Pali form of Radha. As to its identification I agree with Mr. 
Nandaial Dey who in his ‘Notes on the History of the district 
of Hugli or the Ancient Radha’ (J.A.S.B. New Series, Vol. 
_VI, 1910, p. 604) writes: ‘‘ It should be borne in mind that 

while she was proceeding from Vanga to Magadha (Modern 
Behar), and therefore Lalha must have been situated between 
Vanga and Magadha and not in Kalinga. The identification of 
Lala or Lata, the native ri! oe moeye with Guzerat by 
some writers cannot be at all correc In several places in 
the Pali Jatakas,° there are references to highly renowned 
teachers living at Taxila and various subjects that were taught 
there. one of the Jatakas, a very beautiful picture of the 
student life of those days has been drawn (Jataka, Vol. II, 
p- 277). A son of the King of Benares went to learn arts at 
Taxila from a renowned teacher. He carried with him 1,000 
gold coins as the teacher’s fee. In those days, there were two 

like his eldest son. Corporal punishments for offences were not 
unknown in thine: days as there is reference to a prince being 
beaten by his preceptor for an offence. From the Cittasam- 
bhita Jitaka,® it appears that the instructions were given to 
the higher classes only, namely, to the eee — — 

I PTS. edition, p. 211. 
2 Mahavagga ee Pitaka edited by Dr. eps. VALE S. 
& Jatakas, Vol p. 259; Vol. V, pp. 161, 210, 
. oe z 
5 Ibid., Vol. VI, p- 347; Vol. I, pp. 402, 463, 317. 
§ Tbid.. Vol. IV, p. 391. 

i8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N-S., XII, 

triyas, for it has been said there that two Candala youths 
disguised as Brahmins were eee sciences from a teacher, 
but were expelled when found out. Of the subjects taught, 
the three Vedas and eighteen Vijjas are frequently mentioned. 
The three Vedas are the Rigveda, Samaveda, and Yajurveda. 
The Atharvaveda as the fourth Veda has been mentioned no- 
where in the Pali Jatakas. In many places! pupils have been 
described as learning sippas (Silpas) only, but the word sippa 
Sheet to have been used in the comprehensive sense of 

Tit the Kosiya Jataka’ it is stated that during the reign of 
Brahmadatta, the King of Benares, Bodhisatta being born in a 
Brahmin family studied the three Vedas and eighteen Vijjas 
at Taxila ; became a renowned teacher at Benares and used to 

princes and the Brahmin boys. In the Dummedha Jataka® we 
find that during the reign of Brahmadatta of Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born in the womb of the chief queen of Brahmadatta 
and was called Brahmadattakumaro. At the age of 16, he 
went to Taxila and mastered the three Vedas and eighteen 
Vijjas. There is a description in the Bhimasena Jataka* as to 
how the Bodhisatta learnt the three Vedas and the eighteen 
Vijjas from a renowned teacher at Taxila, and in many other 
Jatakas® we find that the Bodhisatta became well versed in the 
three Vedas and eighteen Vijjas at Taxila. 
In the Bhimasena Jataka® we find that the Bodhisatta 
cites earnt archery at Taxilaé and afterwards 

eeucoaiee got the appointment as an archer to the King of 

ares, he was asked by the king to kill a tiger which was 
avousnty all his subjects. Bhimasena at once killed the tiger, 
being guided by the Bodhisatta, and was rewarded. On another 
occasion he killed a wild buffalo. He became proud of his 
strength and valour and began to disregard the Bodhisatta. 
Shortly pala a foreign king attacked Benares. Bhima- 
sena was sent 0: elephant but he was so frightened that 
he was about to ‘fall down from the back of the animal. The 

! Ibid., Vol. VI, p. 347; Vol. I, pp. 406, 431, 447; Vol. V, pp. 177, 

‘2 Ibid., Vol. I, z be 3 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 285. 
+ Thid., Vol. I, p. 356. 
5 Ibid., Vol. I, iS: 505, 510; Vol. IV, p. 200; Vol. II, p.87; Vol. 
TI, pp. 115, 122. 
6 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 356, 

1916.] Taxila as a Seat of Learning. 19 

Bodhisatta sent him home and defeated the foreign king. In 
the Asadisa Jataka! we find that the Bodhisatta mastered the 
three Vedas and the eighteen Vijjis at Taxil4. He was born 
as the eldest son of the King of Benares named Asadisa and 

a younger brother named Brahmadatta. His father 

the kingdom and gave it over to his younger brother. The 
councillors intrigued. Upon this, he left the kingdom and went 
the dominion of another king where he made himself known 
a bowman. The king appointed him as his archer. In order 
to remove all doubts about him from the minds of his old 
bowmen, the king asked him to bring down a sve Se from 
the top of a tree with his bow and arrow. He succeeded in 
doing so by shooting an seitag to the sky which came to the 
earth with the mango aimed a 
In the Sarabhanga Tate. * the Bodhisatta was born in 
the womb of the wife of a priest. His father sent him to 
Taxila to learn arts. He studied arts and paid fees to the 
famous teacher. After completing his education, he received 
from his teacher Khaggaratana (a valuable sword), Sandhi- 
yuttamendakasingadhanum (a bow made up of the horn of a 
ram), Sandhiyuttatunhiram (a quiver made up of joints), Sanna- 
hakaficukam (an armour), Unbisa (a turban). The Bodhisatta 

trained up 500 young men and then returned home. The king, 
in order to see arts of the Bodhisatta, collected 60,000 
archers and he caused his drum to be beaten in the city 

intimating to ses: pore to come and see the arts of the 
Bodhisatta. He came to the assembly with a son only in 

ropes requested the sing? to encircle a space in the senbes with 
cloth and entered into the enclosure. After entering into 
turban and k hi He 

Valavedhi, Saddavedhi, and Saravedhi. Then the king sum- 

moned the archers. The Bodhisatta gave 30 arrows to each 

and asked them to shoot them at him simultaneously while he 

would prevent them alone. The archers refused to shoot at 

the young Bodhisatta. They afterwards shot and the Bodhi- 

ra prevented them by ndrdca (a light rac The Bodhi- 
t M4 a 

requested to show more feats, namely, saralatthi (a stick of 
arrows), sararajjum (a rope of arrows), saravent (a row of ar- 
rows), sarapasada (a palace of anton saramandapa (a pavilion 

1 Tbid., Vol. II, p. 87. 2 Thid., Vol. V, p. 127. 

20 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

of arrows), sarasopdna (a ladder of aes sarapokkharani (a 
tank of arrows), sarapadumam (lotus of arrows), saravassam 

plant (vdtingana). In the Pancavudha Jataka,’ we find that 
in the past when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, Bodhi- 
satta was born as his son and the Brahmins foretold that he 
would be the beat man in the Jambudipa in using five kinds of 
weapons. He went to a famous teacher at Taxila to learn arts. 
When he finished learning arts he was given five kinds of wea- 
pons by his teacher. From Taxili on his way to Benares he 
met a Yakkha named Silesaloma. When Bodhisatta was 
attacked by the Yakkha, he first of all shot 50 poisoned arrows 
one after another. He then used sword and spear, and struck 
with the club, with the right hand, with the left hand, with 
the right leg, with the left see and at last with the head. 
When the weapons proved to be of no effect, and when he was 
caught by the Yakkha, he said that he had Vajiravudha (a 
weapon of knowledge) with him with which he would be able to 
put an end to the life of the Yakkha. At last the Yakkha 
was defeat 

In the Sustma Jataka,’ the Bodhisatta was born in the 
istinaciaeee womb of the wife of a priest. At the 
ee age of 16, he lost his father. His father 

was a hatthimangalakarako. When the king wished to perform 
hatthimangala ceremony, his ministers requested him to choose 

be able to learn Hatthisuttam and three Vedas. His mother 

asked him to go to Taxila which was at a distance of 20,000 

Yojanas. The young son went to Taxil4é in a day and learnt 

Hatthisuttam in a day and he returned on the third day. 
He took part in the ceremony on the fourth day. 

n the Campeyya Jataka* it is related that a young man 

of Benares learnt Alambanamantam (man- 

we for charming snakes) at Taxilé. The 

Bodhisatta was born as the Naga-king in the Campa River 

between Anga and Magadha. He was very righteous. On a 


shore out of water. The young Brahmin on his way 
the Naga-king and charmed him by his mantra, ioe i was 
afterwards saved is his wife. 

1 Usabha is a measure of distance=20 atthis, and | = 
nas (Abhidh@inappadipika, pp. 196, 996). , a 
Jataka, get ee 8 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 47. 
4+ Ibid. 7, p. 456. 

1916.] Taxila as a Seat of Learning. 21 

It is mentioned in ce Vrahachatta Jataka' that a son of 

ing of Kosala learnt Nidhiuddharana 
m iets at Taxila. He then found out 
the hidden treasure of his deceased father 
and with the money thus obtained he engaged troops and re- 
conquered the lost kingdom of his father. 


| Jataka, Vol. III, p. 115. 

ai or Se et a lle STS a beleaes 

4. A Note on the Bengal School of Artists. 

By S. Kumar, M.R.AS., Supdt. of Fe ices Room, 
Im perial Library, Caleut 

n 1869, Dr. Anton Schiefner of St. Petersburg (now Petro- 
grad) ‘si bienad, under the auspices of the Russian Imperial 

; Oo 
Buddhism in India. The work is originally in Tibetan and it 
is almost a sealed book, as it were, to many who are not very 
well acquainted with the language. But the translation has 

nowadays, with a certain section of ipccage ed to speak of 
it as an aathoritative work on the history of Northern India 
during the pre-Muhammadan period. The origiiiel work sie 
written in about the beginning ‘of the 17th century a.p. Iti 
an embodiment of traditions in the shape in which they chal 
the author, mostly garbled and strongly biased, and with a 
large amount of personal equation which might be accounted 
for the creed of the author. An analysis of Taranatha’s 
statements has not yet been completed, so that for the "neoete 
the actual batons value of the work cannot be estimated 

with any a of definiteness. But so much has beats 
been ae as ead enable us to say that it would not be 
quite safe to regard Taranatha’s work as a record of unadul- 
terated historical facts, or of reliable traditions. It is a curious 
jumble of facts and fiction, of truth and untruth, of proved 
historical facts and garbled Buddhistic traditionary accounts. 
What we have said above might be illustrated by referring 
to a particular instance taken out of Taranatha’s History. 

Just before the accession of the Palas of Bengal there were 
anarchy and lawlessness in the cquntrys--6 fact recorded by 
Taranatha in the following terms:—‘‘ Zu der Zeit waren schon 
viele Jahre vergangen, ohne dass in Ba ala Konige waren, 

und alle Einwohner des Reichs waren in Ungliick und Kummer 
Spats: \’? Further he says,—‘‘ Da sagten alle, dass er im 
Besitz grossen Pagendverdienstes sei, wahlten ihn bestiindiz 
zur Herrschaft und gaben ihm den Namen Gopala.’ 

There can be no doubt about the truth of these state- 
ments, as it has been borne out ny the copper-plate grant 

1 Tar. Gesch. d. Buddh. i. Ind. Ueberset. v. A. Schiefner, p. 203. 
2 Tbhid., p. 204. 

24 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S. XII, 

executed in the reign of Dharmapala.' Let us take another 

instance; we find it stated by Taranatha that MahIpals I and 
Rampila reigned for 52 and 46 years respectively.2, This might 
probably be regarded as not very far from truth, as many metal 
images have been discovered which were executed during the 
48th year of Mahipala’s reign and one of stone dated the 42nd 
year of the reign of Ramapaladeva. But Taranatha fails to give 
a correct genealogy of the Palas of Bengal in spite of their im- 
portance in the history of Northern School of Buddhism. 
They were the last of the royal patrons of the religion and it 
was under them that so many sects and doctrines originated, 
such diverse opinions were entertained, and such an abstruse 
metaphysics was developed as made the Mahayanism a pro- 
found subject of study for the Onientalices According to Tara- 
nath ,*? Devapala was the father of Dharmapala and Yaksapala 

was the son of Ramapala* But from the inscriptions and 
copper-plate grants we have come to know that Devapila was 
the son of Dharmapala® and that Yaksapala had no blood- 
relationship with the Pala Kings of Bengal. In the Manahali 
ee ee inscription of Madanapaladeva’ a complete gene- 
alogy of the Palas has been found which, when compared with 
the one given i in aiciabiiat nd s History, will show the discrepan- 
cies in the latt 

The list of Palas as given by Taranatha. 

Gopala. | Srestapala. 
Devapala. Canakapala 
Rasop§la. Virapala 
DharmapAla. | Niyapala 
Masuraksita. Amarapala. 
Vanapala. Hastipala 
Mahipala. | Ksantipala 
Mahapala. Ramapala. 
Samupala. | a 

he genealogy of the Palas as derived from the copper- 
plate grants of Dharmmapala and Madanapala, the 2nd and 
the last kings of this dynasty respectively :— 

! Epi. Ind., Vol. IV, 243 ff., A.S.B. 1894, I, 46 ff. 
2 Gesch. d. Bud. i. Ind. Schiefner, pp. 225 and 251. 

-»p- 251 
5 Ind. ‘Ant., Vol. XX, 253 ff. 
6 Thbid., Vol. XVI 
1 J.AS.B., Vol. LXIX, Ae 66 ff. 

1916.] A Note on the Bengal School of Artists. 25 


(1) ER I = Deddadevi. 

(2) Dharmapala = Rannadevi. ’ Vakpala. 
| | 
Tribhuvanapala. (3) Devapala. Jayapala. 
Rajyapala. (4) Sarapala I or 

VigrahapAla I. 

(5) N&@rayanapaéla. 

(6) Rajyapala = Bhagyadevi. 
(7) Gopala IT. 

(8) Vigrahapala IT. 
(9) Mahipala I. 

(10) NayapAla. 
(11) Vigrahapala III = Yauvana-Sri. 

fo RE Eiieodiet ss | 
(12) Mahipala II. (13) Siarapala II. (14) Ramapala. 

(15) Kumarapala. (17) Madanapala = Chitra- 
Matika Devi. 

(16) Gopala III. 

By a comparison of the above we see that Taranatha’s state- 
ments, like the accounts given in the genealogical works of 

Magadha a detailed account of the events has been given down 
to the reign of Ramapala, and that in the ‘‘ Buddhapurana,’’— 
a work said to have been written by Indradatta of Ksatriya 
caste, the history of the first four kings of the Sena dynasty is 
to be found. But these two works are yet to be discovered, 
and the mere mention of their names by Taranatha cannot, at 
present, be of any use to us. Ghulam Husain Salim of Maldah, 
the author of Riyaz-us-Salatin, has said in many places of his 
book that the accounts collected therein have been found in 
certain works, but he has not given their names, and up till 
now, in no work have been found those new facts which have 

26 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

been included by Ghulam Husain in his History of Bengal. 
' However, his statements have been supported by a number of 
Arabic inscriptions and hence there cannot be any hesitation 
in accepting as pieing facts the accounts given in Riytz-us- 
Salatin. But the case is different with Taranatha. Evidence 
is not lacking @fick proves that accounts given by him are 
mostly fictitious, rather than historical. 

Relying on the statements of Tarnatha, which are mostly 
contradictory and untrustworthy, Mr. Vincent A. Smith 
writes :—‘‘ The Naga productions of Nagarjuna’s time were 
rivalled by the creations of Dhiman and his son Bitpalo, na- 

Devapala and Dharmapala. Both father and son were skilled 
alike as painters, sculptors and bronze-founders. Bitpalo, who 
remained in Bengal, was regarded as the head of the Eastern 
School of Bronze-casting. But his disciples in painting being 
numerous in Magadha (South Bihar) he was also held to be the 
chief of the ‘ Later Middle Country’ school of that art, whereas - 
his father was considered to be the head of the Eastern School 
of paintings 

Mons. Foucher in the course of his remarks, on the minia- 


century, they may represent the ‘ Eastern’ School of Dhiman 
which, sarap tity to Taranatha, was favoured in Nepal at 

e only source of information to which Mr. Smith ae 
referred, in the above passages, is Taranatha’s work. In n 
inscription, neither in any copper-plate grant, are to be fexisid 
the names of Dhiman and Vitapala (or Bitpalo, as Taranatha 
calls him). Mr. Aksaya Kumara Maitreya of the Varendra 

search Society in his introduction to the ‘‘ Gauda-rajamala,’’ 
—a Bengali work published by the Society,—probably follow- 
ing Taranatha, says that in this age (during the reigns of Dhar- 
mapala and Devapala) Dhiman and his son Vita apala of Var- 

by the 
specimens, and that these will be described in the ‘‘ His- 
pe aE Art’’ to be published by the Varendra Research 
Society. He further adds phi the writers on the subject being 
not so well-informed are in the habit of explaining them away 
as specimens of provincial at of Magadha and Orissa of this 

** History of Art’’ above referred to has not vet seen 
the eat of day. But on the occasion of the visit of His Ex- 

erent vd ee Art in India and Ceylon, p. 305. 
: Tbid., p. 

1916.] A Note on the Bengal Schooi of Artists. 27 

cellency Lord Carmichael to the Museum of the Society, they 
published a Guide Book in English. In this, it will be found 
that the Society have come to the conclusion that among the 
specimens exhibited, there are a few stone images which might 
be attributed to Dhim&n or his immediate follower.! None 
of these, we presume, contain any inscription, as iiiee is no 
mention of any in the Guide Book. We are at a loss to under- 
stand how a particular image might be regarded as a specimen 
of artistic creation of any particular person when there is noth- 
ing in the shape of inscription indicating the name of the artist. 
It is needless to say that such assertion, unsupported by evi- 
dence, has no place in history. 

any of the specimens of art which have been discovered 
in Southern and Western Bengal are not in any way inferior to 
those found in Northern Bengal, or Varendra. Recently Mr. 
Nagendranath Vasu has discovered, in the village of Attahasa, 
in the District of Burdwan, a stone image of a goddess seated 
or squatting on her haunches. It is a figure of an old, emaci- 

female, of a horse and of an ass. We have not yet leoeeied 
in finding what goddess it represents, but one would surely be 
convinced of the genius of its author by merely looking at it. 
The figure is draped by a ae piece of cloth tied in the loins 
in the Indian fashion, but the upper part of the body is un- 
draped. The skill, with which the ribs" and the emaciated 

faint smile, testifies the high order of artist’s conception. On 
the neck of the i image, there is a charm hanging by means of a 
thin string necklace, and on the wrists a pair of bangles is in 

evidence. Ther rienced on the body of the 
Her hair is dishevelled and thrown on her back. A 
portion of the fi is broken away, yet what remains is a 

standing testimony of the high order of art, of which South 
and West Bengal may justly be proud. We do not sapppeaanis: 

his successor oar and foun indepen aasene schools. A comparison 
of exhibits Nos. 11, 14, 34, 95, and 99, which may be Sally attributed 

to the Peg sete of Relics of Antiquity and Manuscripts on the Occasion of 
the Visit to Rajshahi of H. E. Lord Carmichael, Governor of Bengal, p. 8. 

28 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIT, 1916.| 

that any such image,—a specimen of such a high order of 
artistic skill,—has ever been discovered anywhere else in Bengal, 
or in Bihar. 
ears back in Kandi sub-division, in the District of 
e do 

not think such figures have, up till now, been found in hae. 
endra. Mr. Rothenstein, the celebrated artist, has said that 

rator of the Eastern School of Indian Art, of which the history 
is yet to be written. From the specimens discovered up to the 
present time, we can safely assert that there was but one 
school and one system in the whole of Bengal and Bihar. The 
special features of the images collected should be studied before 
ae can be said in the a of history about the ‘‘ East- 
n School ’’ of the Indian artist 

arge number of dated i page both in metal and stone, 
executed during the reigns of the Palas and the Senas of Ben- 
gal, has been discovered. These are to be studied with refer- 
ence to a certain period of the national history before any 
serious attempt is made about a historical exposition of the 
** Eastern School’’ of Indian art. 

5. Notes on the Geography of Orissa in the Sixteenth 

By Rat Monmowan CHAKRAVARTI, Banapour. 

The special use of geography for historical studies has been 
oftenemphasized. Unfortunately very little is known about the 
sce geography of Bengal and Orissa. So in the present paper I 

ropose to discuss the available geographical details of mediz- 
val Orissa, and its fiscal divisions 

By medizeval Orissa, I mean ‘the time of its latest Hindu 
kings, and of the earliest Musalman occupation, that is, the 
sixteenth century. For the Hindu period the main authority i is 

second list gives a table of gods with their places throughout 
Orissa who were endowed with money grants from the govern- 
ment. These lists thus supply us with the names of many 
villages and their fiscal divisions as existing towards the close 
of the Hindu rule. 

For the early Musalman period our main authority i is the 
Ain-i Akbart of Abul Fazl.? In the Ain 15 he describes the 
Imperial coe as existing in the fortieth year of the [ahi 
era (1594-5 a.p.). In this account Orissa is placed under Subah 
Bangalah, but only nominally. In fact its description and its 
list of mahals are all put at the end quite separate from those 

f Bengal. 

The information given in the Madala Panii are only 
incidental to other topics, and therefore though valuable are 
incomplete. But the Atn purports to give a complete list of 
the fiscal divisions constituting Orissa under the Mughal rule. 
Hence the Ain’s list has been made the basis of the present 

During the subsequent Mughal rule the fiscal divisions of 

1 The meaning of Madala is not ay gir sgl It is derived, I think, 
from Mudala, Rocca with mudi or ring. The word mudalena is used in 
inscriptions. e , Baidi- Maisendpat:mudatena C. A.S.B., 1895, p. 149), 
again ena to, mudale ( 152) ; — Hali-Prahlada-mudalena 
(J.A.S.B., 1896, p. 254). Co Sack e also Mudra a, mudra and hasta, seal- 

anded. an officer in the temple of Jag; nei § whose duty is to seal the 
sania doors at the end of the daily “ceretho onies. Mada la Panji went 
thus Paget - eidab te cle of the (royal) ord 
s English Translation, Bib. Ind. ed., vol. II, pp. 126-129, 

30 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Orissa underwent aoe change. But their basis, the mahals, 
though increased in number, were not radically changed. 
Hence in checking and identifying the Atn’s list considerable 
help has been obtained from the list of pexeanee supplied to 
the British at the time of their occupation. 

General Remarks. 

Madala Panji reveals that the basic unit of the 
administration was the ga (Sansk. grama) or village. The 

Dandoasi (Sansk. danda-vasika, staff-holder).” Through these 
the revenue was collected and order maintained. A number of 
villages were grouped under an administrative subdivision, 
called generally Bisi (Sansk. Visaya) and a subdivisional head, 
Bisoi (Sansk. Visayt). This general name for the subdivision 

Caura or Caura (meaning probably a tract cleared), as in North 
Balasore and South Midnapur, or Bhiim (land) as in West and 
North Midnapur. The suffix Mutha of several parganas in east 
Midnapur Lepage is not found ae in the Maddala Panji or in 
the Ain, and is therefore more recen 

The next higher step in the rite arrangement was the 
Dandapata (division). It consisted usually of a number of 
Bisis, Khandas, Cauras, etc. It covered zeverall a consider- 
able tract of the cou nt and ccrresponded to the Sanskrit 
Bhukti used in Bengal and Mithila. Occasionally a Dandapata 
had no Bisis. 

The country was essentially rural. The only town life 
traceable was in some sacred tirthas or in some headquarters of 
the king. ‘The principal tirthas or places of pilgrimages 
usually — head-quarters of the king when he toured over 

territory. All these stations were called Kataka, a Sanskrit 
word ine at an In inscriptions we come across the 
following Katakas: Purusottama, Krttivasa, Varanasi, 
Remuna, Rauhatta, sre bee mai ‘Devakiita. To these the 
Madala Paiji adds Asika, Khurdha, Cauduara, Jajapira. 

At each Kataka the king had generally a masonry building 
for his residence. The most imposing of such edifices was at 
Varanasi Kataka. This town appears to ate been the orks 

Musalmans as their chief semester: in Orissa. 

This information is summ eristadar J. Grant’s Analysis 
and Review of the Bengal hong es. (1757), seo me as Appendix III to 
the Fifth Parliamentary Report, 1 I quote from the Madras Reprint, 

asi Ohora (watchman’s tax) is mentioned in an Oriya in- 
‘catpaitas of the Fionn temple, J.A.S.B., 1893, p. 91. 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 31 

The Madala Panji contains an interesting statement, attri- 
buted to the king Anangabhimadeva, about the extent 
income of the Orissa kingdom. This may be literally translated 
thus :— 

‘‘In the times of the kings beginning with the Kesaris, 
up to me, the sixth ruler of the Ganga dynasty, the following 
revenue in the kingdom of Oris&i was realised. e revenue 
was (then) realised from a kingdom that extended on the east 
from the arka ksettra (Kanaraka) on the sea to Bhimanagara 
Dandapata on the west, from the Kasabasa river on the north 
to the Rsikulya river on the south. From this circle of lands 
the revenue realised was jiti gold fifteen lakh Marhas. By the 
grace of the Lord Jagannatha, by the blessings of Brahmans 
and through faith in god Visnu, conquering with sword the 


Bhuyas and Puranas (elders), I have extended my kingdom, 

Bhimanagara to Sunupura on the borders of Boda. 
conquering on the three sides I got an (additional) revenue of 
twenty lakhs Marhas in jiti gold.’’ 
he ascription of this statement to Anangabhimadeva is 
certainly apocryphal. In the Madala Paaji several things 
which were done by his predecessors or successors were attri- 
buted to this king, e.g., the building of the temple of Jagan- 
natha, the causing of a survey of the kingdom and so forth. 
But otherwise the statement contains a real geographical 
truth, as will be seen later on. 
: The Madala Panji supplies us with the names of 31 Danda- 
patas (including the Purusottama Ksettra as one) and of 110 

In the Ain Orissa was subdivided into five sarkars and 
seventy-nine mahals. The arrangement of the Ain ealls for 
special attention on several points. Firstly, as remarked supra, 
the list of mahals is given at the very end of the Bengal table, 
and not alphabetically arranged with its sarkirs. Secondly, the 
sarkars of Orissa, unlike those of Bengal, are arranged geogra- 
phically from north to south, and not alphabetically. Thirdly, 
in the two southernmost sarkars, Kalanga and Rajamahen- 

mans shows practically no change from the Hindu arrange- 
ment; while in the Sarkar Jalesar occur some Musalman yaria- 

32 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

tions of the mahal names, while some singe ee. of 
the Dandapatas were turned into separate m 
he ignorance of the fact? that the pat i ‘of the Ain were 
a further development of the Hindu fiscal divisions, has now 
and then led to mistaken remarks, for example, by Beames. 
Furthermore, the want of knowledge of the old Hindu names 
mre prevented a satisfactory checking of the names in the Am, 
ose manuscripts show a lamentably corrupt state of preser- 
vaughn in addition to the actual difficulty of gga ag the 
vernacular names correctly i in the Persian. The names the 
fiscal divisions have since then changed greatly, and as aliett 
nowledge is now more or less disappearing, the di culty of 
their identification with modern divisions can be well ima- 
: Before proceeding to identify the mahals, it is better to 
give here some account of the fiscal changes introduced by the 
Musalmans. Orisa was one of the provinces conquered very late 
by the Musalmans. The northern part up to the Cilka Lake 
was conquered by the army of the Bengal Sultan Sulaiman Kara- 
rani in 1568-9 a.p. The southern part was invaded and the 

compiling the Ain ‘the Musalmans had thus been in possession for 
only a quarter of a century, and that possession, too, was very 
much disturbed and partial owing to the continual fights be- 
tween the Afghans and Mughals. The Musalmans had thus little 
time and less leisure to make radical changes, a fact that ex- 
plains the general Belpre of the old Hindu subdivisions, 
both in name and in e 

The next ‘TnpORERAR change in Todar Mal’s rent-roll was 

Prince Shah Sujah (1646-58 a.p.). Orisa which had been ad- 
ministered by a separate governor, generally appointed direct 
from Delhi, had been then added to the prince’s viceroyalty of 
Bengal. In his time ie was rearranged into three groups of 
four sarkadrs each, or twelve sarkars and 276 mahals (Grant, 

. 527). Of these the hase tacts six sarkars were dismem- 
bered from Orissa and annexed to Bengal. The main reason 
for this change was said to be to protect the growing port of 
Balasore and its sea-coast against the ravages of the Arra- 
canese (G., p. 246). 

e next great change was introduced in the ‘ perfect ’ 
rent-roll of Murshid Kuli Khan (1722 a.p.). He changed the 
general name, mahal, into pargana, and for the khalsa re 
added an administrative division higher than sarkars, the 

d un 
caklas, Bandar Balasore (17 parganas), eee Hijli (35 parganas) 
besides the zamindari of Tamluk (G., p. 253). 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 33 

n 1728 was prepared the corrected rent-roll of Nawab 
Suja-ud-daulah. The southern half of the dismembered por- 
tion with the port of Balasore was re-added to Orissa for ad. 
ministrative purposes, but kept in Bengal for revenue purposes 
(Nos. 20 and 23, G., p. 265). 

1 a.p. the Bengal Sultan Alivardi Khan tired of 

n 175 
fighting with the Marathas ceded to them Orisa up to the 

year 1777-78 a.p.). 

I. Sarkar Rajmahindra. 

This is Rajamahendri Dandapata of the Temple chronicles. 
_ No details of its 126 mahals are given. Both inscriptions and 

Colair lake. Purusottamadeva of the Siryavarhéa (1469-96 
A.D.) ceded Kondapalli and Rajamahendri to the Bahmani 
Sultan Muhammad Shah II for his help in securing the throne 
of Orissa. But the loss was temporary and he had recovered 
Rajamahendri before 1488-89 a.p. 

The headquarters of this division was Rajamahendri, a 
town on the north bank of the Godavari. In 1510 a.p. it was 
visited by Caitanya, the Vaisnava preacher of Bengal, in the 
course of his pilgrimage to the south. The accounts of the 
pilgrimage mention that Ramananda Raya was then the Oriya 
governor of Rajamahendri on behalf. of the king Pratapa- 

During the dissensions brought about by the death of the 
last independent Hindu king of Orissa, Telingaé Makunda 
Haricandanadeva, in 1571 a.p., the army of Ibrahim Kutb 
Shah overran the east coast up to Chicacole. But the Musal- 
man occupation of the Rajamahendri division remained more 
or less precarious until the time of Asaf Jah Nizam-ul Mulk, 


mahendri and the other at Chicacole. In 1753 a.p. the nor- 
thern sarkars passed into the hands of the French from whom 
they were conquered in 1759 a.p. by the Bengal army of the 
East India Company under Colonel Forde. Loe 

The Dandapata corresponds to the present district of 
Godavari plus the southern part of Vizagapatam district. 


34 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 


II. Sarkar Kalang Dandapata. 

It is the only place in the Ain where Dandapata, the 
Hindu word for the older higher divisions, has see eae § 
ad 27 mahals, but no details thereof are given. Kalinga 
Dandapata is mentioned in the temple chronicles, aa without 
any Bisis. 
Kalinga is one of the oldest names recorded in Indian history 
and is mentioned in Asoka’s inscriptions. It is not my inten- 
tion to trace here its old history. Its medizval history has 

with inscriptions recording grants of the Ganga kings. 
road to Kafici (modern Conjeveram) passed by this town, and 
its pei was visited by Caitanya in 1510 a.p. 

uring Musalman occupation the ge was changed 
to Chicacole, 8 miles west, on the north ba the Langulya 
river. Its Musalman occupation is shown by here mosques, 
of which the oldest existing goes back to 1030 H. (1620 a.D.), 
mage the next oldest, the Jumma Masjid, to 1055 Hu. (1644 

Bi alinga Dandapata was bounded on the north by the?’ 
Rsikulya river and extended southwards probably as far as 
Vizagapatam, thereby including the notable tirtha Simhacalam. 
It would thus comprise the greater part of modern Gafijam and 
the northern part of Vizagapatam district. 

III. Sarkar Katak. 

This sarkar covered a very large area, and was assessed 
with the highest revenue in Bengal, 91,432,730 dams, or at the 
rate of 40 dams per Ilahi Rupee, Rs. 22,385,818}. It lay ap- 
proximately between the Baitarani river on the north and the 
Rsikuly& river on the south, with the sea on the east, and the 
ill-defined Garjat state of Bod on the west. It comprised thus 
almost the whole of Katak district, the whole of Puri district, 
the northern part of Gafijam district, and several Garjat states 
on either bank of the Mahanadi river, ‘such as Athagara, Tigiria, 
Baramba, Khandapara, Narsingapura, Daspalla, ‘Dheakanala. 
Bod, besides Ranapura and Nayagara further south. 

The heading of the Ain gives 21 mahals, but the details 
below supply only 20 names. The mahal omitted in the 
text was probably Lembai Dandapata: see infra. There is not 
a single Mahomedan name in the mahals, a fact due to its very 
recent conquest by the Mahomedans and to its imperfect pos- 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 35 

session on account of the continuous fight between the Afghans 
and the Mughals for the possession of Bengal. By the treaty 
of peace concluded between the Mughal viceroy Munim 

conquered Orissa in 1000 8. (1592 a.p.). So Katak could have 
been known to the Mughals mostly by hearsay, and was only 
nominally subject to the emperor at the time of the compila- 
tion of the Ain. 

now pass on to identify the mahals.!_ They are arranged 
in the Atm according to Persian alphabet. 

(1) Al. The Ali Dandapata of the Temple chronicles, of 
which no Bisis are named. It has survived in modern times as 
Killa Ali, a pargana in the Kendrapara subdivision of Katak 
district, lying between the Kharsué on the north and the 

rahmani on the south. From the large revenue assessed 
(Rs. 1,60,728}) the eastern sea-board of Kanika would seem to 
have been attached to it at the time. 
resent zamindar of the killah is a lineal descendant 
of Mukunda Haricandanadeva, the last Hindu king of Orissa. 
On the reconquest of Orissa, Manasimha recognised three chiefs 
in the Mughalbandi, Ramchandradeva in Killah Khurda 

(2) Asakah. The Asiké Dandapata of the T. chronicles. 

The mahal has survived in a zamindari and in a town of that 

Mahendra hills) lay in this division. The Dandapata spread 
therefore from the Mahendra hills on the west to the sea on the 
east, and from the Rsikulya on the south to the Cilka Lake on 
the north. Drained by the Rsikulya the land must have been 
fairly fertile, as the revenue of Rs. 79,0094 indicates. The 

uota of men, 15,000 infantry, indicates that a considerable 
hilly tract of the west with its militia of paiks was included. 
Aska town, 25 miles N.-N.-W. 0 rhampur, is noted at pre- 
sent for the manufacture of sugar and rum. 

J.R.A.S., 1896, pp. 743-764, are, on account of his personal knowledge of 
Orissa, useful. Dr. R. Mittra’s footnotes on this sarkar in the Antiquities 
of Orissa, vol. 1, p. 2, are unsatisfactory. 

2? Blochmann, Ain-i Akbari, vol. I, p. 526. 

36 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

included not only the present tributary state of Athagara, but 
also Banki and Domeparah of Katak district, with the ad- 
joining tributary state of Tigiria. In spite of the wild rugged 
nature of the country, the mahal had a revenue of Rs. 29,6344, 
in addition to a quota of 200 cavalry and 7000 infantry, and 
so must have covered a considerable area. The name is derived 
from asia=eight + gara=forts. Only one fort is mentioned in 
the Ain, probably the one near Kakhari, on the other side of 
the Mahanadi river. This one must have been best known to 
the Musalmans from its proximity to Katak town. 

(4) Purab Dikh, with four forts. Kanika, Kujang, Harish- 
pur and Mirichpur (Beames). Anerroneous suggestion. It is 
the Parbadiga Dandapata of the T. chronicles, which included 
a southern section separately named therein, Barabisi Danda- 

ata. e former is said to have contained twenty-one Bisis 
and the latter twelve, but the names of fifteen and seven Bisis 
only can be traced. They are noted below, alphabetically 
arranged according to Oriya letters :— 

Pirbadiga Dandapata (15)—Asuresvara, Kusamandala, 
Caudakulata, Dahanga, Derabisi, Tikona, Pa-ida, Paend, Bali, 
Birumolo, Brahmabaydlisi, Mohara, Yadisahi, Sarasvati, 
Sukhana-i. ii 

Barabisi Dandapata (7)—Apila, Kaluniya, Khandi, Gandi- 
to, Tirana, Benahara, Yakhemra. 

Of the first group all except Nos. 4, 11 and 12 survive still 
as parganas, some in a rather altered form, such as Balubisi 
for Bali, Karimula for Birumolo. In the second group all but 
No. 2 can be traced. The last one, Yakhemra, is the old 
name for modern Pargana Jhankara, and appears as such in 
the Bharata of Sarola Dasa! composed during the reign of 
Prataparudradeva (1496-1540 a.p.). 

From the present position of these pargands, Purbadiga 
lay entirely on the east side of Katak district. It lay en- 
closed between the Brahmani river on the north, and the main 
branch of the Mahanadi on the south, having its apex at the 
bifurcation of the Mahanadi and its branch Biripa, and thence 
spreading eastward fanlike until the saliferous tract on the 
coast is touched. 

The Barabisi Dandapata lay south of Purbadiga, between 
the main branch of the Mahanadi on the north, and its Devi 
branch on the south. It was separated from the Kodinda 
Dandapata on the west by a wedge of the northern part 

1 J.A.S.B. 1898, p. 346, Jakhenrapiira-vaseni Hingula Candi Sarolo, 
or (the goddess) Hingul& Candi, resident at Jakhemra-pira. 

1916.) The Geography of Orissa. 37 

of Dakhinadiga wpa yg eH a as the sea by the saliferous 
tract of Kujanga and Hari 
ome of the Bisis are iris old. Lands were granted 
in Dera-visaya and Svaiga-visaya (Bisis of Pirbadiga) by a 
copperplate grant dated 6th an. oa 1296 a.p., under orders of 
the Ganga king Narasimhadeva IT.! 
ood many names of the above Bisis can be derived, and 
therefore could not have been very old. For sei eal take 
gee or Lord of the ANGERS, the name of a ; Kusa 
= grass + mandala = circle; cauda = fourteen + Lillia on : forts ; 
Dera = tess Visaya = adi vision; ti = three + kona = angle; 
payas= milk + da = giver; bali—sand ; Birhi = a kind of pulse + 
mula = source; Brahma = the name of a god + bayalisi = ped 
twa (villages); Yadi = an aboriginal tribe + sakt = quar 
Sarasvatt = the name of a holy stream ; swkha = pleasant + na-i 
= river; Khandi = tract; bena = grass + hara = removal. In 
fact the very names indicate that cultivation progressed east- 
wards with increase in pasturage and reclamation of wastes and 
sandy tracts. 
The mahal covered a very large tract, and had the largest . 
revenue payable in whole Bengal, Rs. 5,72,039}. 

(5) Pachchham Dikh. This included kilas Darpan, Madhu- 
pur, Balrampur and Chausathpara between the Brahmini and 
Mahanadi, and probably also Dompara and Patia, south of the 
latter river (Beames). Another erroneous remark. It is really 
the Pacchimadiga Dandapata of the Temple chronicles, sub- 
divided into thirteen Bisis, of which eight have been named, viz. 
Alti, Katarkua, Kinalakha nda, Kulakhanda, Koroarakhanda, 
Khandilokhanda, Tapanakhanda, Dharmupiira. Of these Nos. 1, 
5 and 7 still exist as parganas in West Katak. Dharmupira 
included the present killah of Darpana, as the Mahavinayaka 
temple of Barunai is said to have been init. In this Dandapata 
the substitution of the suffix khanda for Bisi is worth noticing. 

From the Rang ee still existing taken with the special 
use of the te eo the A since of this mahal can be 
roughly rey spread above the Birtipa branch of the 
Mahanadi north- pe towards ri Brahmani river which formed 

able-bodied man was counted as a soldie 
The old Padshahi road passed ecu this mahal. Todar 

' JAS.B. 1896, p. 255, ‘ont ace eres bane Edara.grimam, 
Svanga-visaya-madhy-Gsinarn ‘sunailo-gr 

38 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Mal in his pursuit of Daid forwards Katak reached Kalkal- 
ghati where he halted for some time. This would be some- 

apparently extended the killah of Kalkalla, though it is now 
restricted to the south-west corner s Darpanagara. Chatia 
was in old days a place of some importance. In the tour of the 
kings, Chatia was th@next halting italion north of Cauduara, 
being only 13 miles therefrom a road. Here are the remains 

of an old fort with Hindu rem 
(6) Bahar. All the eater? tract of country now known 

are named, Olasmi and Ahara. he former Bes survived as 
Olasa in subdivision Jajapura District Katak. This pargana lies 
between the bifurcation of the Brahmani river and its branch 
the Kharsua. a present it is flooded very much by these two 
rivers. But to judge from the large revenue assesse ed, Rs. 
1,28,2453, the ‘aha must have been in the old days very fertile 
and much larger, extending eastwards probably up to Ali. 

(7) ae Diwarmar, B. Diwarpir, B. Diwarbar, B. Di- 
warnd, or B. Purba, Basudebpur Arang, 14 miles north-east of 
Bhadraich (Beam es). This identification is not acceptable as 
it would take Sarkar Katak too far north, 30 to 40 miles beyond 
the Baitarani river, the real north boundary of the sarkar. 
At the same time the second part of the name appears so 
corrupt that no correct identification is possible. 

(8) Barang, with nine forts among the hills and jungles. 
No place of this name known, but it should be identified with the 
celebrated fortress of Sarang Gar, four miles south-west of Katak 
city (Beames). This is really, the Paranga Dandapata of the 
Temple chronicles. It 2S six Bisis, of which three are named 
Atiri, Paranga, Sabhari. Paranga means in Oriya upland and 
is ‘thus applicable easly to the highlands of modern Khurdha 
Atiri has survived in t the modern Atiri Gara, seven miles west 
of Khurdha town. Sabhari refers evidently to the Savaras, an 
aboriginal tribe that still survives in Khurdha subdivision. 
The Dan ndapata Paranga corresponds therefore to the northern 
part of this subdivision, and included the important town of 

huvaneswara, famous for its numerous temples and for the 
neighbouring Jaina caves of Khandazgiri hills. 
ahal of the Ain apparently included another Danda- 
pata, Gee Kandhra or Kondhra in the T. chronicles. Bana- 
pura and Ramesvara Gara were in this division, which therefore 
comprised the southern Khurdha (south of Mu resp river) 
with part of the adjoining Ranapura tributary st 

Khurdha subdivision is studded with many as or small 

forts, and the more important of these are, of course, referred to 

1916.] _ The Geography of Orissa. 39 

in the Ain by ‘‘ nine forts among the hills and jungles.’’ The 
country was wild and hilly, and must have covered a large 

the laterite table-lands of Khurdha and Ranapura, the preva- 
lence of the Gaura caste is not unlikely. A poet from Ranapura 
T. state, by name Acyutananda Dasa, calls himself a Gaura.! 
(9) Bhijnagar with a fort. Bhanjnagar or Gumsur in 
Ganjam District, some 20 miles north of Aska (Beames). It is 
really the Bhimanagara Dandapita of the T. chronicles, This 

state of Bod and that of Banki-Athagara, and comprised evi- 
dently the intervening tributary states of Daspalla, Nayagara, 
Khandapara, Narsingpura, Baramba, and possibly Angul and 
Hindol. That the mahal covered a large tract of these wild 

(10) Banju, Banjud, or Banhu. Banchas in Central Puri 
(Beames). More probably it is Bhafija, the title assumed by 
several chiefs of tributary states. That the mahal should refer 
to the wild tract of tributary states is clear from the note that 
the zamindar was a Rajput, and in addition to a small revenue 
of Rs. 21,655, had to furnish a large quota of men, 100 cavalry 
and 20,000 infantry. By calling the chief a Rajput, the mahal 
should, I think, be identified with the Bod tributary state which 
is expressly mentioned in the chronicles as lying on the western- 
most border of Orissa, and which included at the time probably 
parts of Daspalla, Gumsur and Angul. It could not have been 
applied to Mayurabhajija, whose position adjoins Jalesar Sarkar 
and was thus far off from Katak Sarkar. The Bod chiefs 
actually claim to have been descended from a Rajput relation 
of the Jaypur Raj in Rajputana. 

(11) Parsotam, detailed in each sarkar. This refers, of 
course, to the desa khanja of the T. chronicles, describing the 
numerous land grants to the god Purusottama of Puri town, 
the lands being taken from various Bisis of Orissa. 

(12) Chaubtskot with four forts. The Caubisakuda Danda- 
pata of the T. chronicles, of which only one Bisi is named, 
Raetirana. Manikapatna and Malud are said to be in this 
Dandapata. It included therefore not only the present pargana 

1 J.A.S.B., 1898, p. 349. Gaura-kulare mu bolai Mahata, or among 
the Gauras I am called Mahata or head. 

40 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

of Caubisakuda, lying between Puri town and the Cilka lake, 
but also the sandy strip separating the Cilka lake from the sea. 
e name is derived from caubisa = twenty-four + kuda— 
heaps (rising above water). 
r forts were probably Killahs Andhari, Parikuda, 
Malud and Bajrakot, all found in the sandy strip. There must 
have been other killahs, for the quota of men to be furnished 
(500 eee and 20,000 infantry) approach the tenure of Garjat 


doubt Beames’ identification. The mahal had a considerable 
revenue, Rs. 59,9744, and included not only the present pargana 
of Jajapura, but also Parganas Tisinia and Dolagrama. It was 

thus bounded on the north by the Baitarani, on the west and the 
east by the Burha branch and an old branch of the Baitarani. 

and on the south by the Kharsua branch of the Brahmani river. 

In the subsequent rent-roll of the Prince Shah Shujah, Jajapur 
was formed into a separate sarkar with five mehals. 

The fort at Jajapura now lies in ruins at Gara Solampura. 
This fe is situated opposite Jajapura town on the left bank 

of the arani, and thus lie within the jurisdiction of Thana 
Diicueaetas Subdivision Bhadraka, District Balasore. Ac- 
cording to traditions it was built wt the king Ka pilendradeva of 
the Sarya dynasty (1434-1469 a.p.). Traditions speak also of 
an older fort near the temple of Biraja, two miles south of the 
Baitarani river. The name of this place Nahara-pada signifies 
“the land of the palace.’’ 

(14) Dakhan Dikh, with four forts. The four forts of the 
southern region, Parikad, Malad, Bajrakot and Andhari 
(Beames). A mistake, for they lie in Caubisakuda (see No. 12). 
It is really the Dakhinadiga Dandapata of the T. chronicles. 
Of this no less than seventeen Bisis are named, viz., Athaisa, 
Antarodha, Oldhara, Kate, Kurulo, Kudahara, Kotarahanga, 
Kodhara, Damarakhanda, Dega, Pacchimaduai, Pubbaduai, 
Bacasa, Marada, Rahanga, Saibiri and Sailo. 

Except No. 6 all these still exist as parganas, Marada being 
the older name of Hariharapura. Kate, ipa Marada, Saibiri 
and Sailo are in south-east Katak, and the rest are in eastern 

1916.) The Geography of Orissa. 4] 

The Dakhinadiga Dandapata with Antarodha and BAacasa 

twenty-eight (villages or Sasanas); Antarodha = obstruction ; 
Ol me + dhara = bank or stream ; Kate = cut; Kuda = 
heap + hara = removal; Kota = own + Rahanga = a Bisi name: 

Khanda = tract; Deo = god’s + gi = village; Pacchima = 

of the T. chronicles, of which two Bisis are named, Oromalo 
and Koromalo. According to a copperplate grant of the king 
Narasimhadeva IV,* Kosthadesa was divided into eight khandas, 
of which two are named in the inscription, the Uttara-Khanda 
of Kalabho, and Oramola Madana khanda. Oramolois evident- 
ly the same as Oromalo of the T. chronicles. Kothadesa still 
exists as a pargana in Central Puri, lying along the both banks 
of the Kusabhadra branch. The name is derived from Kostha = 
own + desa = lands. 

The original fort is said in the Ain to be a kasbah (town) 
or kusaibah (small town), meaning that the town itself was 

2 Ep. Ind., vol. III, p. 32, Daksi(na)-Tosalayam Marada-Visayiya- 
Canda-grame. Fleet corrects the first word to Daksina-Kosalayam (see 
note 11); but this is unnecessary as Tosali was the name of a tract in 
South Orissa : vide Asoka’s rock inscription of Dhauli. 

3 J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 152, Atha-khanda-Kosthadesa Madanakhanda- 
Visaye, Oramolo-Madanakhanda-madhye, and p. 149, Kalabhora Utara- 
khanda-madhye. ; 

42 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XIT, 

(18) Haveli Katak Banaras, with a fort and a masonry 
palace within. This refers, of course, to the city of Katak with 
its suburbs. The mahal is represented i in the T. chronicles by 
Kodinda Dandapata, and comprised the modern parganas of 
Kodinda, Sperber and Patiyaé. Bakhrabad is the abad or 
clearance of Bakhir Khan, who was governor of Orissa towards 
the end of Jahangir’s rule, and in the beginning of Shahjehan’s. 
This mahal was bounded on the north by the main branch of 
the Mahanadi and on the south and west by the hilly jungles 
of Domaparagara and Khurdha. The tract was not large, and 
being too much liable to floods did not yield much direct 
revenue (Rs. 15,140 only). 

The is, of course, noteworthy for its containing the 
capital of Orissa. In the inscriptions, the Temple chronicles 
and the older Musalman records! the name of the capital appears 
as Varanasi Kataka or Katak Banaras (Musalman), Varanasi 
being usually pronounced Banaras by upcountry people. The 

the Kathajori branch, a little below its bifurcation from the 
main river Mahanadi, and two miles west of the fort. The 
double-worded name was apparently found cumbrous, and so it 
was reduced to simply Kataka, a form found not only in the 
Ain but also in the older Vaisnavite works like the Caitanya- 
bhagavata. At Pato the second part of the name has been 
entirely forgott 

The city ewe syaoneeiccalete inthe Ain. But Jarrett’s 
translation evidently requires correction in two places. Firstly, 
** this city has a stone fort sitabted at the bifurcation of shee 

Deo built a palace here nine stories in height; the 66 storey 
was taken up for the elephants and the stables ; the second was 
"AAR by the artillery and the guards and aati for 

endants’’ ; and so on. nine-storied building, if not entirely 
ocanis in those days, is prima facie incredible. From 
William Bruton’s description of Katak city and palace in 
1632 a.p. (O.S.) it is clear that the translation for ashinah should 
be not storey but quarters? A similar description of various 

! For the mention of Varanasi kata in Sanskrit Ping rect 

J.A.8.B., 1895, p. 149, Ravi-vare’ Varta i-katake; and p. 15! 
Mamgala-vare Varanasi-katake ; in Uriyaé in ptions seo J. A.S. 893, 
p. 100, Baranasi-katake, Srinaara-Gopalapriyajagatira. daksina-merhare. 
Varanasi Katak was first mentioned in Musalman accounts in connection 
with Sultan Firon | Shah’s invasion of creme in 761 H. (1360 a.p.). 

iroz reached this amg the capital of Jajnagar-Udisah, sites 

having crossed the river Mah@a-nadri; see ae ingens D Need eae of 
Shams-i Siraj Afif (Elliot, III, pp. 313-5, mary thereof 
Raverty’s footnote to pages 591-2 of his Gecdeuee of the Pabakat ~t 

2 For a description of Katak town in 1632 a.p. (O.S.), see William 

1916.| The Geography of Orissa. 43 

- quarters before os the main building of the courtesan 
Vasantasena is given in the Sanskrit drama Mrccha-katika. 
The present temple of Srirangam has similarly seven quarters, 
one separate from the other by high wall, before entering the 
sacred precincts of the god. 

the time of the Aim the palace in the fort was the 
residence of the governor.. But by the time of Bruton the 

were called sahis in Hindu time, but generally bazars in Musul- 
man time. Besides Biranasi, the oldest part of the town, is, of 
course, the fort named Bara-bati from its covering an area of 
twelve Batis of land. 

(19) Khairah, Khadah, or Khazah, with a fortress. The 
khetra or the sacred area round the city of Puri (Beames). The 
Purusottama Ksettra of the T. chronicles whose luna pentha or 
store of salt is mentioned. The Ksettraor sacred area is generally 
taken to be paiica-kost or five-kossed in extent 

The sacred city was at the time of the Aim under the 
charge of Ramacandradeva, the Raja of Khurdha. The city 
had been plundered by the Afghans just a little before and had 
been saved from further pillage by Manasirnha in 1593 a.p. In 
the Ain Raja Ramchandra, Zamindar of Orisa, appears as a 
Mansabdar of 500 (No. 250). From some undescribed Persian 
manuscripts Stirling however gives him a rank of 3,500. Ac- 
cording to a version in the Madala Panji, Rameandradeva was 
a whe of the king Danei Vidyadhara, belonging to the Bhoi 
The fortress in Puri town refers to the fortified palace of 
the Oriya kings where they halted when they visited the temple. 
This palace was probably situated in Bali Sahi near the old 
nahara or palace of the Khurdha kings. 

(20) Manakpatan. Manikapatna in the sandy strip between 
th Cilka lake and the sea. The mahal was purely of salt taxes, 
the village itself being in Caubiskuda Dandapata (No. 12). The 
salt revenue is estimated roundly at six lakh dams or Rs. 15,000. 
The Cilka lake was a great centre of the manufacture of the salt 
known as karkac. This manufacture was stopp y Govern- 
ment towards the end of the last century. 

(21) The heading gives 21 mahals in Sarkar Katak. But 
the twenty-first is omitted in the detailed list. I think the 
omitted mahal was the Lembai Dandapata of the Temple 
chronicles. No Bisi of it is mentioned therein, but the villages 
Delanga and Kalupara lay within it. Hence it is identifiable 
with the modern oo of Lembai, in Central Puri, oe 
Bruton’s 3 Vera. 1638, in a Collection of Voyages and Travels, 1745, 
Vol. Il. See the Antiquities of Orissa, Vol. II, p 

44 Journal of the Asvatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XU, 

from the Khurdha subdivision by the branch Daya. A con- . 
siderable number of land grants to the god Jagannatha lay in 
this Dandapata. 

IV. Sarkar Bhadrak. 

A small division consisting of seven mahals only, but with 
a considerable revenue, Rs. 4,67,179}. It consisted part of 

hurried back, defeated the Afghans in a great battle at Sher- 
pur Atai in Murshidabad and recovered Orisa and Western 
Bengal. . 

(1) Barwa with two fortresses, Banak and Raskoi. A pargana 
lying between the Brahmani and the Kharsua rivers in north 

tance, the Padshahi road passing through it. The mahal had 
. 81,000 and therefore comprised 
not only the present pargana of Barua, but also Jodh. It would 

Shah Sujah’s rent-roll Barwa was raised into a sarkar with nine 
mahals and added to Katak group. 

The two forts at Banak and Raskoi lay apparently on the 
Padshahi road. The first may be Banka-sahi as identified by 
Beames; but his identification of the second with the insignifi- 
cant village of Rispur on the Kharsua is open to doubts. 

(2) Jaukajri. Jogjuri village on the southern slope of 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 45 

“hel hills Bri A very small mahal with a revenue of 
. 1,428} o 

(3) aaa "Bhadrak with a fort at Dhamnagar. The 

Bhadrekha Dandapata of the T. chronicles. Of this the following 

five Bisis are named, viz. Amkora, Uripara, Dhamanagara, 

Raede, Sonatiri. Nos. 1 and 3 still survive as Na in 

branch of the Brahmini above Jari. This old course shoe 
formed the south-western boundary of this mahal, separating it 
from Jajapur Mahal on the west. The Haveli extended on the 
east up to the sea and on the north up to the Matai river. It 
had a high revenue of Rs. 2,38,569. In Shah Sujah’s rent-roll 
Bhadrak continued to be a sarkir with 19 mahals, belonging 
to Balasore group. 

The governor of the sarkar resided at py yaa ci 
which, as Beames pointed out, has still a number of Musalm 
age The old Padshahi road passed from Bhadrak ie 
south to Dhamanagara and thence south-west to Jajapura 
fae in 1575 a.p., when Datid invaded the Mughal territory, 
his first attack fell on the governor at Dhamanagara. 

(4) Sahansu with two forts. Sohso pargana, fifteen miles 
west of Bhadrak (Beames). The Soso Dandapata of the T. 
chonicles. Three Bisis of it are named, Caudabisi, Purusanda, 
Hethaba-i. No. 2 still survives as a Tappa and Soso itself as a 
pargana, both in Thanas caigga ta and Soro of Balasore district. 
The mahal must have been a fertile one, to be assessed with a 
revenue of Rs. 87,857. It ae between the Salindi on the south 
and the Kasabfsa on the north. 

(5) Kaiman, with a fort. Now divided into three parganas, 
Kaima, Kismat Kaima and Killa Kaima, lying on both sides 
of the Baitarani (Beames). The Kaema Ponisphes of the T. 
chronicles, no Bisis of which are named. In modern time 
Pargana Kaéma lies in Thanés Dhamanagara and Candabali of 
Bhadrak subdivision; Kismat Kaema in Thana Ahiyasa of 

sage therefore lay on both sides of the modern Baitarani; but 
pointed out, the present stream in its lower part 
was evidently. not the main channel in the old days. 

(6) Kadsu or Garsu. Garh Sokindah in north-west Katak 
(Beames). Not satisfactory. Not traceable in the T. chronicles. 
The text seems corrupt. 

(7) Mazkurin, independent Talukdars, with three forts, 
Pacchham Donk, Khandait, Majori Pachhimkot village in 
Pargana Ragadi, saree west ‘intake, Khanditor on the Kharsua, 
ten miles west of Jajpur, Manjari, a pargana on the north bank 

46 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

of the Baitarni, four miles above Jajpur (Beames). The first 
identification is possible, but doubtful; the second unsatis- 
factory as taking the sarkar too far south; the third correct. 
The forts are, of course, in vernacular called killas. 

V. Sarkar Jalesar. 

This sarkar! was very largein area and was heavily assessed 
(Rs. 12,51,3184). On the south from the Kasabasa river it 
extended first north-east and then north until\the rivers 
Bhagirathi and the Ripanarayana were reached; and then on 
the north it was bounded roughly by the Palaspai Khal and 
the Silai river, while the western boundary was ill-defined, 
consisting of jungle mahals. The sarkar thus comprised north 
Balasore, nearly the whole of Midnapore (except Hijili Islands 
and the eastern half of Ghatal subdivision), and small parts of 
the districts Bankura, Manbhum, Singbhum and of the Maytra- 
bhafija tributary state 

The formation of the sarkar is due to the Musalmans. 
By the treaty of peace with Daiid on 12th April, 1575 a.p., the 
northern sarkars of Orissa passed into the hands of the Mughals. 
Murad Khan was the first Mughal governor of Jalesar. Later 
in the year when Daiid attacked and killed the governor of 
Bhadrak and marched northwards, Murad Khan retreated to 
the capital Tandah. Jalesar was then occupied by the Afghans, 
and remained in their possession until Manasimha’s reconquest 
in 1593 a.p. Even after that in 1599-1600 a.p., the Afghans 
again rose under Usman, defeated the Imperialists near Bhadrak 
and reoccupied Orissa with Jalesar Sarkar until defeated by 

Prince Khurram, when he rebelled against his father 
Jahangir, passed through this sarkar on his way from Katak 
to Bardwan, and again when he retreated southwards to Deccan. 
In the revised rent-roll of the Prince Shah Sujah (c. 1650 a.p.) 
Sarkar Jalesar was subdivided into seven sarkars (Soro, Remna, 

Orissa and added to Bengal with the port of Balasore and the 
Nilgiri Hills. In the ‘ perfect’ rent-roll of Murshid Kuli Khan 
(1722 a.p.) these dismembered sarkars were placed under two 
chaklas, Bandar Balasore and Hijili, and in the zamindari of 
Tamluk, comprising 104 parganas. The Sarkars Soro, Remna 
Basta and Jalesar were dependent on Balasore, but were, how 
over, readded to the Subah of Orisa for administrative purposes. 

In 1751 a.p., Alivardi Khan ceded to the Marathds the 
whole of Subah Orisa up to the Suvarnarekha river, and beyond 


a Professor Blochmann had a few notes on Jalesar Sarkar in Hunter’s 
Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. I, pp. 370-71. 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 47 

Kanthi (Contai). Father Manrique (c. 1630 A.D.) mentions 
Banga as an important centre of trade where the Portuguese had 

e mahal yielded considerable revenue, Rs. 1 05,2853, 
and therefore must have covered a large area. It extended 
probably from the Suvarnarekha river north-east to the Bagri 
river. Some of the following joors or cauras included under 
Sarkar Jalesar by Grant (p. 533) must have formed part of the 
seven cauras of Basadiha mahal ,—Gozaljoor, Lodenjoor, 
Agrajoor, Lanojoor, Akrajoor, Phulwarrahjoor, Narajoor. 

(2) Bibli. Pipli Shahbandar on the Suvarnarekha (Bl. and 
Beam.). Not traceable in the T. chronicles. Probably it did 

not exist in the Hindu time. It bas survived in argana 

pargana was in area a small one, but the revenue was consider- 
able, Rs. 50,2853, which consisted chiefly of port dues. 

Of the port no trace now exists. Probably it has been 
vashed away. But it existed in Rennell’s time (see his Atlas, 

and as Piplipatan in DeBarros’ map (circa 1570 A.D.), and 
other subsequent maps. Father Manrique visited this port in 
636 A.D 

(3) Bali Shahi. Kalindt Balishahi (BL), lying among the 

48 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

he mahal, as its name signifies, lay along the sea coast. A 
quarter of Puri town goes under the same name (Balisahi). 

(4) Balkohsi, B. Kohi, B. Khosi or B, Kothi, with three forts, 
Sokrah, Banhas Tali, Daddhpir. Balikothi in Pargana Sat- 
malang (Bl.), Barah Kosi, the twelve kos between the Subarna- 
rekha and the Barhabalang (B.), Sokrah is Sohroh and Banhas- 
tali is Bhainsbati on the Ka nsbans, six miles south-east of 
Sahroh (B). No oe: name found in the Temple chronicles. 
The text of the Aim seems very corrupt. The mahal ma 
represent the Soro Dandapkis of the T. chronicles, an important 
division which would otherwise remain unnoticed in the Ain. 
Eleven Bisis of Soro Dandapata are named :—Amkora, Kaenda, 
Kure, Khajuri, Ganasara Khanda, Ja-epira, Bicasa, Basili- 
khanda, Benahara, Saraghara, Suneri. Except the last, all 
still exist as parganas, and the last (Suneri) may have been 
altered to Sunahat or Sunhat. The Dandapata thus lay roughly 
from the Nilgiri Hills on the west, to the sea on the east, and 
from the Matai tributary of the Baitarani on the south to the 
Jamka stream on the north. Soroh was raised to a sarkar with 
15 mahals in Shah Sujah’s rent-roll. 

The first fort was at Sokrah which is probably Soroh, - 
letter & being a copyist’s addition; while the second fort a 
Banhastali may be in Bancasa, one of the Bisisnamed. As a 
old Padsh&hi road passed through this mahal, the three forts 
lay evidently near this road, which was much infested by robbers 

and thieves in old days. 

(5) Parbada or Barpada, with a fort partly on a hill partly 
fenced by forest. Biripada in Morbhanj (Bl.) Garpada village, 
half-way between Jellasore and Balasore (B). The Bhafija- 

i nas Kespur and 
Salbani, north of Midnapur town. " A wild hilly tract, it fetid 
part of "“Mayirabhaiija tributary sage Ge to the Persian 
documents seen by Stirling. Hence the name Bhafijabhum, 
Bhafija being the — title of Mayalebhainie chiefs. Baripada 
is still the name of the headquarters of Mayirabhafija, being 
situated on the ier Aaah of the Burhabalanga river. The 
revenue was in fact the tribute assessed on this chief, and hence 
was in round figures six lakh forty thousand dams or Rupees 
sixteen thousand. 

( hograi with a fort. A large pargana at the mouth of 
the Subarnarekha, partly in Balasore, partly in Hijili (BI. vag. 
B). Not traceable in the T. chronicles. It survives in 
pargana partly in Thana Baliapal of Balasore District, wkd 
partly in Thana Ramnagara in Contai subdivision. The mahal 
lay along the sea coast from the Subarnarekha north-east, a fact 

which explains the statement that it had to supply a quota of 
100 cavalry and 2200 archers and matchlockmen. Matchlocks 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 49 

in the days of the Ain .could have been red Pane in that part 
only by Europeans trading up the Subarnarekha 

(7) Bugdi. Innorth Midnapore (Bl. and B). " Not traceable 
in the T. snee ee It survives as a pargana, partly in Thana 
Candrakona of Ghatal Subdivision, but mostly in Thana Garbeta 
of Midnapir Sadar subdivison, misspelt in the Bou ndary 
Commissioner’s list as Bhograi and thus making it liable to be 
confounded with No. 6. The parganaé is shown in Rennell’s 
Atlas (plate VII, 1779 a.p.). 

The mahal, though considerable in size (444.15 square miles 
at present), had the smallest revenue in Orisa, less than a 
thousand rupees (Rs. 9874). This revenue was therefore only a 
nominal tribute from the then zamindar of a wild hilly tract, 
inhabited chiefly by the aboriginal tribes. The zamindar is said 
to have been a Rajput. He was probably Bir Bhan Simba, the 
zamindar of Chandrakona. His son Hari Bhan alias Hari 

arayana is mentioned in the Tuzuk-t Jahangirt as having 

rebelled in 1617 a.D.; but in the Padishahnama his name a 
among the mansabdars of five hundred. From a Bengali inscrip- 
tion recorded on a loose stone kept in the Lalji temple at 
Chandrakona it appears that Laksmanavati, the widow of Hari- 

mother of the wie tng: king Mitra Sena and a sister of 
Narayana Malla. tra Sen died childless, ait Bagri passed 
to the maternal meres the Mallas of Bisenpur. In a Jama- 
Kharac account of Orissa dated 1707 a.p., the name of Raja 


19,006 in 1771 a.p., and to Rs. 55,679 in 1870 a.p. The 
greater part of the pargana is now in perpet tual lease to Messrs. 
Watson & Co. 

8) Bazar. Dhenkid Bazar on the Kasai, south-east of the 
town of Midnapore (BI., B.). It could not have the name of 
any ee division, for then the name itself would have 
been give e.g., Bazar Chataghat in Sarkar Ghoraghat, Bazar 
Pasha ies in Sarkar Sharifabad. I think it refers to the 
market dues of a large town like sea and as the amount 

Dan sara. 

(9) Babbanbhum. Brahmanbhum in north Midnapur (BL., 
B.). Not traceable in the T. chronicles. This pargana lies 
north of Bhaijabhiim, partly in Thana Salbani, but mostly in 
Thana Kespur of the Sadar subdivision, Midnapur district. 


50 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

The suffix bhum is peculiar to names of tracts in the 
Jungle mahals, e.g., Bhafijabhim, Barahabhim, Tungbhim, 
Dhalbhim, Manbham, Singbhim. The zamindar of Brahmana- 
bhiim was a Brahman, evidently of the same family with whom 
a few years later Kavikankana Cakravartti, the author of the 
well-known Bengali poem Candi, took refuge. Kavikankana 
mentions Viramadhava, his son Bakura Raya, and his son 
Raghunatha, the last being his patron. They resided at Arara, 
a village some four miles off from Candrakona. In course of 
time the zamindari passed into the hands of Bardwan Raj. 
Its revenue, assessed in the Aim at Rs. 2,855: only, had in 
the early British assessment of 1178 B.s. (1771 a.D.) been raised 
to Rs. 35,910, or more than twelve times 

(10) Taliya with Kasbah Jalesar which has a brick fort. 
Jalesar in Midnapore and Balasore (BI., B.). The first name 

Beveridge would read it Takiya. Unfortunately for these sug- 
anor: the Madala Pa7nji supplies us with a very similar 
me, Tania or Tandiaé Dandapata, and the following six 
Bisis of it are named :—Ekhra Caura, J. alesvara Caura, Dan- 
tuni Caura, Naranga oer Binisara or Banisara Caura, Berai 
Caura. Except No. all still exist as parganas, and the 
fourth may be Bectewers in Thana Dantan. J eg is now in 
Balasore district and the others are in Midna 
The mahal covered a large area, and paid the th reve- 
nue in the sarkar, Rs. 3,00,1773. It extended from the 
Subarnarekha river northwards to the Kaliaghai river, and 
was traversed by the old Padshahi road that crossed the Subar- 
— at Jalesar town. 
wn is an old place, and was visited by Caitanya 
during his pilgrimage to the south in 1509-10 a.p. During the 
early Mughal occupation it was the headquarters of the gover- 
nor. Murad Khan was the first governor in 1575 a.p. When 
Daiid invaded Bengal on hearing the death of the Mughal 
viceroy Munim Khan, Murad retreated to Tandah, and the 
sarkér was occupied by the Afghans. It remained in their 
possession until the reconquest of Orissa by M4@nasimha in 
1593 a.D. 

In i rent-roll of the Prince Shah Sujah (c. 1650 a.p.), 
Jalesar tinued to be a sarkar with 22 mahals, but was 
Hic os ts yar This feucalied sarkar was retransferred to 

Orissa in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. When 
Alivardi Khan ceded to the Marathas Orissa south of the 
Subarnarekha, Jalesar town lying just on the north bank of 
the river, became of importance as a frontier town of Bengal, 
and continued to be so until the British conquest of Orissa in 

(11) Tanbulak, with a fort. Tamluk (Bl., B.). The old 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 51 

Tamralipti.! From the old maps of Gastaldi and De Barros 
Tamluk appears to have been connected with the sea by 
another channel flowing direct south into the Haldi river. 

enabled it to flourish as a port. The silting up of this chan- 
nel must have been a main cause of its decline. At that time 
the Thanais Maslandpur and Sutahata formed an island, with 
this channel to the west, the Bhagirathi on the east, the Rip- 
narayana on the north and the Haldi on the south. In the 
early British period an attempt was made to deepen this silted- 
up channel, and under the name of Banka Nala it was formally 
opened for traffic on 21st April, 1784. But all efforts to keep off 
oe proved a failure, and the scheme had to be given up. 

12) Tarkol, with a fort in the jungle. Tarkua (BI., B.). 
Not traceable i in the T. chronicles. The Tarkua Caura lies east 

which was fought on 3rd March, 1575 a.p., the decisive battle 
age Munim Khan and Daad, a battle that lost Bengal and 
Orissa to the Afghans. In 1584 a.p. the Afghans retreated to 
Takarot gee took refuge in the neighbouring forest of Dharma- 
pur. The importance of the place was due to the fact that 
the old Padishahi road to Orisa passed close by, between dense 
woods on either side. 

(13) Dawar Shorbhim urf Barah or Tarah. Parah, the 
tract of saliferous land otherwise known as Shorparah, ia the 
sea coast from the Subarnakekha to the Rasiilpar river 
(Beames). Not identified by Blochmann. Beames’ idesibifion. 
tion is not satisfactory , because the saliferous tract was included 
in Mahal Maljyatha (No. 25). The name Barah is evidently the 
same as Baraha (-bhim), and Shorbhum is another form of 
Savar-bhim, the land of Savara tribe. riienange now lies 
in Manbhiim district, drained by the upper reaches of the 
Kasai river. From the rather considerable sev ats assessed , 
Rs. 33,559, this mahal seems to have included the whole of the 
hilly jungly tract on the west of Mi nome ied district from the 
Subarnarekha northwards to the Kasa 

(14) Ramna, with five forts, in the Haveli, Ramcandpir, 
Ramka or Rarka, Dit and the new (panjam jadid ast). Rem- 
na, 6 miles north-west of Balasore town (BI., B.). The Re- 
muna, Dandapata of the Temple wooslepanrereS of which no less 
than pene among Bisis are name 

osa(?r)da, Arimola, Kandi: Guneu, Chanua Caura, 
enero) Talanga, Talasam ohi, Nagara aura, Narua 
Caura, Nunikhanda, Panua, Bayes, Biusada Caura, Manada, 

1 See my article on mn TSmralipti, J. AS. B., 1908, pp. 280-91, 

52 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Manacia Caura, Mulags. Mulapai, Mokhara, Raikama, Rae- 
ata, Remuna, Laukera Caura, Laigalesvara Caura, Srilora, 
Sakintia Caura, Suniba Cau(ra), Surumkuta Caura. Of th 
a Caura was raised into a separate mahal (No. 1) with 
six other cauras. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 16, 18, 21 and 23 still 
exist as parganas. Tan-(or Tin-) mangala is related to Paiic- 
mangal and Dasamangal Parganas, Talasamohi to Talasabanga, 
anada to Mulida. 

e Dandapata was large in size, and judging from the 
ees identified spread over north Balasars, in Thanas 
Balasore, Basta and Baliapal, and over part of the eastern 
Mayirbhajija too. It yielded also a considerable revenue, 
Rs. 1,26,5574. In Shah Sujah’s rent-roll, Remuna ice i d 
to be a sarkar with 20 mahals, but was added to Ben ngal 

emuna Visaya is pretty old. In Saka year 1218 (1296 
a.D.) lands in two villages of Remuni Visaya were granted to 
a Brahman by order of the Orissa king Narasimihadeva II.! 
Among the boundaries of the villages were the Suvarnarekha- 
nadi-setu, and Suvarna-nady-uitara. These statements show 
that the Visaya —— at that time at least as far north as 
the ag mag 

e of the ree — was in ri Haveli, i.e., in the 
suburbs of pe town Remuna. The t was naturally the 
halting place of the king in ga soutinng 4 tour and had a forti- 
fied palace. In a copperplate inscription the king Narasimha- 
deva II made a grant while halting a =r Remuna Kataka, and 
this pe is dated 6th August 1296 a.p.? 

Before Balasore rose into importance Remuna had been the 
chief city in north Orissa. Its temple of Ksira-cora Gopinatha 
was famous, and was visited by Caitanya in 1509-10 a.p. It 
was also well known to Europeans who traded up the Bura- 
balanga river, and Remuna lying so near the river formed 
their great mart in this tract. Hence it appears in old maps of 
Gastaldi, De Barros, Blaev and Valentyn. The old Padshahi 

halting station after the Suvarnarekha had been crossed at 
Jalesore, followed by a crossing over the Burabalanga river 
above Balasore 

The second fort was at Ramchandpur, eight miles north- 
east of Remna (B.). This village lay on the old Padishahi road 
and was shown in Rennell’s Atlas (plate vii, 1779 a.p.). The 
sites of the other three forts are not traceable. 

(15) Rayn, on the borders of Orissa, with three forts. It 
must be north of Midnapore (BI.). Raibaniain, seven miles 

1 See the Visvakosa of Babu Nagendranath Mons article Gangeya, 
Remuna-visaya-madhyavartti N rsimhara-mandoi gra 

2 J.A.S.B., 1896, p. 254, Soma-vare Romusd-bataba navar-Gbhyantara- 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 53 

from Jellasore, on the western side of the Subarnrekha (B.). 
Blochmann’s identification is not clear and Beames’ attempt 
is a mistake. The significant expression ‘on the borders of 
Orissa’’ must take it far north. In the Akbarnamah, at one 

la rpur and at other places Cittua are said to be inter- 
mediate (barzakhe) beween Bangalah and Orisa. In Valentyn’s 
ma D.) @ monument is drawn west of Barda to 

mark the frontier between Bengal and Orissa, and Barda Par- 
gana (Ghatal) adjoins pargana Cittua on the north-west. It is 
thus clear that the frontier of Orisa {with the Mahal Rayn) 
lay west of Cittué and Barda Parganis. So far as rivers 
could have formed the boundary, the Silai and the Palaspai 
khal would have been the northernmost limit. The old Padi- 
shahi road from Jehanabad passing through Cittua apparently 
crossed the Palaspai khal, which was probably a continuation 
of the Silai in those days, near this pargana, and then crossed 
the Kasai river lower dow 

The pargana formed part of Bisenpur Raj so late as 
1707 a.D., but was occupied by the Bardwan Raj and included 
in its general sanad of 1728 a.p. (G. 462, 478). It is shown in 
large letters in Rennell’s Atlas (plate vii, 1779 A.D.) and was 
therefore a place of importance in those days. 

abang, with a fort in the jungle. A pargana in 
central Midnapore (Bl., B.). Not traceable in the T. chronicles. 
The old Padishahi road passed to its west. It is now noted 
for its mat manufacture, and lies in the thana of that name. 

(18) Siyari. Chiara in Midnapore (Bl.) A pargana on 
the Subarnarekha, sixteen miles south-east of Jellasore (B.). 
Not traced in the T. chronicles. Of the two different parganas 
thus identified, the one in Balasore seems to be correct. This 
is a small pargana in Thana Baliapal of Balasore subdivi- 

(19) Kasijora. In Midnapore (BI.), in East Midnapore 
(B.). Not traced in the T. chronicles. The modern pargana 
lies partly in Thana Debra of Midnapur sadar subdivision, but 
mostly in Thana Pisakura of Tamluk subdivision It was in- 
cluded in Goalparah Sarkar, and gave the name to a large 
zamindari often mentioned in the early records of Midnapur 
district (G. 532). The mahal supplied a quota of 200 cavalry 
an ; matchlock and bow . The matchlocks were 
obtained probably from the Portuguese who had settled at 
Tamluk and Banga. 

20) Kharaksur, with a fort in the wooded hills. Kharak- 
pur in Midnapore (BI., B.). Not traced in the T. chronicles, 

54 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N-.S., XII, 

The modern pargana lies in the thana of that name. The old 
Padishahi Road from Midnapur town passed through it south- 
wards. ‘‘Currackpore’’ is shown in Rennell’s Atlas ze Vii). 
Its quota of 500 footmen and matchlockmen are interes 

(21) Kedarkhand, with three forts. In Midnapore (Bi. ‘ 
Not traced in the Temple chronicles. The modern setae 

part of ae zamindari at the time of the early British 
poe ( 
22) Karat, eRen or Kerai. In Midnapore (Bl.). Kasiari, 

20 miles south-west of Midnapore (B.). Both the identifications 
doubtful. It may be the Kudei Bisi of Soro Dandapata, the 
modern Kurai Pargana in Thana Soro of Balasore Sadar sub- 
division. A small mahal with a revenue of Rs. 7,1 

(23) Gagnapur. Gagneswar, in Midnapore (BI., ). Not 
traced in the T. chronicles. The identification is a ae 
Gagnapur is quite distinct from Gagneswar which lies in Thana 
Dantan, while Gagnapur lies in Thana Pasakura of Tamluk 
subdivision. It formed part of the Kasijora zamindari (G. 

(24) Karohi or Kerauli. Not identified (Bl.). Pargana 

Not traced in the T. chronicles. Kurul Caura lies in Thana 
Dantan of Midnapur must subdivision and Thana Egra of Con- 
tai subdivision. It a very small revenue of Rs. 1,714} 

only, and was probably covered with jungle. The old Padi- 
shahi road passed by i 

(25) Malchhata or “Maljikta. Portions of Hijili rie the 
tract on the sea-coast of Midnapore from the mouth of Rasul- 
pur river in the Ripnarayan (B.). The Malajesthiya Danda- 
pata of the T. chronicles. No Bisis of it are mentioned and 

of Shah Sujeh, and was annexed to yay In the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries the tract was placed under a 
Faujdar. In the early British a. o this Faujdari of 
Hijili consisted of five subdivisions, Jellamutah, Derodumna, 

parganas of Maljyatha Sarkar were also included at the time 
in Cakla Midnapore (G. 533). 
n the Caitanya-carit-amrta (Antyakhanda, ninth pari- 
ccheda) it is narrated that Gopinatha Barston’, brother of Rama- 
nanda Raya, was in charge of this Dandapata. He fell into an 
arrear of revenue, two lakh kahans of cowries, and was ordered 
by the king Prataparudradeva to be put to death. From this 
fate he was saved by the a aitstien of Caitanya’s disciples. 
The mahal was assessed in the Ain with the second highes 
revenue of the sarkar, Rs. 2,32,815}. This —— in- 

1916.] The Geography of Orissa. 55 

cluded the salt revenue, which in the time of the Hindu 
kings was paid largely in kind. 

(26) Mednipur, having a large city with two forts. Mid- 
napur (Bl., B.). Not traced in the T. chronicles. The modern 

in the Ain at Rs. 25,498} only. But before British occupation 
it had absorbed the adjoining pargana of Bhafijabhim. In the 
early British assessment of 1777-8 a.p. Pargana Midnapur 
formed part of the large zamindari of Kasijoraé paying a reve- 
nue of Rs. 1,79,378 (G. 532). 


1509 a.p his way to Puri. In the daring pursuit of Daad 
by Todar Mal, the latter passed through Midnapur and here his 
colleague, Mu m Kuli Khan Barlas, died in Ramzan 

Alivardi Khan halted with his troops and officers at Midnapur 
for several months in 1750 a.p., watching the Maratha advance 
from Nagpur and Orisa 

The new fort is evidently the one near the courts which 

(27) Mahakanghat urf Kutabpur, with a fortress. In Mid- 
napur (BI., B.). Not traced in the T. chronicles. The modern 

(28) Narainpur urf Kandhar with a fort on a hill. In 
Midnapore (Bl.). Two separate parganas, a few miles to the 
south of Midnapore (B.). The Naranapura of the T. chron- 
icles. It must have been a fairly large mahal as the revenue 

ra were included in the large zamindari of Kasijora (G. 532). 
The old Padishahi road passed i 

56 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.] 

this road on the Kalighai river and near the modern Narayana- 
gara village. Narayanapura is mentioned in a copper-plate 
inscription as a Kataka where the Orisa king Narasimhadeva IV 
halted and passed orders on 24th February, 1397 a.p., about 
a land grant.' According to the karca (diary) of Govinda Dasa 
Narayanagara was visited by Caitanya in 1509-10 a.D. after 

1 J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 152, Nardyanapura-katake Sricarane pija uttaru ° 

JANUARY, 1916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
ee was held on Wednesday, the 5th January, 1916, at 
9-15 P 

Ligvut.-Cotonen Sir Leonarp Roasrs, Kr., C.1.E., M.D., 
B.S., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.S.B., LMS., President, in the 

The following members were eee — 

Mr. H. G. Carter, Mr. J. A. Chapman, Dr. F. H. Gravely 
Mr. H. G. Graves, Mr. W. H. Phelps, De. Satis Chandra Vidya- 

Visitors :—Mrs. Bignold, Mrs. H. G. Carter, Mr. Codd, Mr. 
F. C. Griffin, Mrs. J. R. Halliday, Mr. C. Humble, Mr. J. E. 
Judah, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Miller, Mr. S. H. Smith, Mr. H. T. 
Tooze, Mr. Widnell, and two others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-nine presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Lieut.-Col. E. A. R 
Newman, I.M.S., had expressed a desire to withdraw from the 

The General Secretary reported the death of Lieut.-Col. F. J. 
Drury, I.M.S. 

The General Secretary gprs the following orders of 

the Council meetings held o: e 24th November and 14th 
December, 1915, relative to the se and consultation of manu- 
es — 

‘In the case both of members and hm Amaya 
must be furnished before a MS. is lent out. Thea 
form of the security to be determined by the Sininest + in each 
case. 99 

** Manuscripts can be consulted in the Society’s rooms 
only on application to the Assistant Secretary, who shall 
direct a Pandit or Maulavi to be in attendance oe 

ii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Jan., 1916.] 

The following gentlemen were balloted for as Ordinary 
moe Si— 

cg ane Nath Chatterjee, B.A., , Attorney-at- 
Law peer Zamind 12, Madan Mohan oe Lane, 
percentage proposed te Babu Rakhal Das Banerji, seconded by 

F. H. Gravely; Kumar Devendra Prasad ders se pl 

AlvTndia Jain Association, Arrah, proposed Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana, seconded by Hon. J ai ie Kaxtosb 
Mukherjee, Kt.; Babu Harendra Kumar Mookerjee, M.A., Asst. 
Prof., Cale utta University, proposed by Hon. Justice Sir 
Asutosh Mukherjee, Kt., seconded by Dr. Satis Chandra Vidya- 
bhusana; C. J. Hamilton, re University Professor, U. S. 
a proposed by Mr. 8S. W. Kemp, seconded by Dr. W. C. 


The following papers were = eed: —- 

1 new species: se Tephrosia from Sind. By M. S. 
RAMsoweMt, M.A., 

2. On Calcutta Spiers. (With lantern slides), By W. H. 

These papers will be published in a subsequent number of 
the Journal. 

The President announced that there would be no meeting 
of the Medical Section during this month. 

FEBRUARY, 1016. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held on Wednesday, 

the 2nd February, 1916, at 9-15 p.m. ; 
Lievut.-CoLoneL Sir Leonarp Rogers, Kt., C.LE., B.S., 

F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.S.B., I.M.S., President, in the chair. 

The following Members were present :— 

land, I.M.S., Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana. 

Visitors :—Mr. C. C. Bhattacharyya, Mrs. H. G. Carter, 
Mr. K. C. Chakravarti, Dr. 8S. Ghosh, Mrs. A- H. Harley, Mr. 
A. C. Shaha, Dr. W. H. Young and another. 

The President ordered the distribution of the voting papers 
for the election of Officers and Members of Council for 1916, 
and appointed Maulavi Abdul Wali and Dr. C. P. Segard to be 

The President ordered the distribution of the voting papers 
for the election of Fellows of the Society and appointed Babu 
Nilmani Chakravarti and Mr. H. C. Carter to be scrutineers. 

The President announced that the Elliott Prize for Scienti- 
fic Research for the year 1914 would not be awar ed, as none 
of the essays received in competition was of sufficient merit to 
justify the award of the prize. 

The Annual Report was then presented. 
pores erage 


The Council of the Asiatic Society has the honour to sub- 
mit the following report on the state of Society’s affairs during 
the year ending 31st December, 1915. 

iv Annual Keport. [February, 1916. 

Member List. 

The number of Ordinary Members at the close of 1915 was 
445, against 473 at the close of 1914. Twenty-seven Ordinary 
Members were elected during 1915. Out of these 6 have not 
Pe paid their entrance fees. The number of Ordinary Mem- 
bers added to the list is therefore 21 in addition to 1 member, 
elected in 1914, who has paid his entrance fee during the year, 
making a total of 22 Ordinary Members added to the list. On 
the other a 25 withdrew, 8 died, and 17 were struck off 
under Rule 
The ee of Ordinary Members in the past six years are 
as follows :— 

paaere a ——— tani —<——— — ——— 
PAYING. Non-Payina. | 4 
ieee rete A aeveineeanisn Pn Peet) INe SM: ee ar et» 
ee me “ps : e 
Tee ae ea | ear ag 
ae ees 36") eae a Ps g @ | 
Ss) |S eat ee ye 
Se ee liisas ae eae ee ke | 
| care et ? 
1910 . | 209 | 217 | 16 | 442 | 23 | 43 | 66 | 508 
1911 200 | 225 | 19 | 444 | 22 | 53 | 75 | 519 
1912 203 | 229 | 19 | 451 | 23 | 43 | 66 | 617 
1913 200 | 211 | 19 | 430 | 23 | 46. | 69 | 400 
1914 .| 191 | 187 | 19 (397 26 | 50 | 76 | 473 
} | 
1915 .. a | 171 | 188 | 21 | 380 | 26 | 40 | 65 | 445 
} } } 

The following members died during the course of this 
year :— 

Mr. H. S. Bion, F.G.S., Mr. C. B. N. Cama, LC.S. (Life 
spend B Ree Raj Chandra Chandra, Lieut.-Col. F. J. Drury, 
I.M.S., . M. Humphries, I.C.S., Captain J. G. L. Rank- 
ing, I. ite Me, ALC. Rigo-de-Righie, and Mr. St. John Stephen, 

The number of special Honorary Centenary Members 
remains unchange 
During the year, we have elected Prof. Paul Vinogradoff, 
Mons. Jean Gaston Darboux, Sir Patrick Manson, Sir Joseph 
John Thomson and Sir William Turner as Honorary Fellows, 
the number now standing at 29. 

The name of Rev. Father J. Hoffmann, 8.J., has been re- 
moved from the list of Associate Members at his own request , 
and the names of Mr. E. Brunetti and Pandit Jainacharyya Shri 
Vijaya Dharmsurishwarji have been added to the list. The 
number is now 15. 

February, 1916.] Annual Report. v 

No members compounded for their subscriptions during 
this year. 
¥oilows of the Society. 

At the Annual Meeting held on the 3rd February, 1915, 
a W. D. ey ipa MP I.M.S.; Mr. G. H. Tipper, 
, F.G.8S.; Mr. D. B. Spoo r, Ph.D. , and Mr. H. H. Haines, 
: i: H., F.L.S., were elected Vilicwa of the Soc 
There were 31 Fellows on the list at the aad ni 1915. 


Dr. E. P. Harrison continued Physical Science Secretary 
until September, when he resigned owing to his transfer to 
ombay on nary aed and Dr. P. J. Briihl was appointed 
in his place. In July Dr. N. Annandale resigned his office of 
Anthropological Secretary, as he was going on leave for 6 
months out of India, and Mr. J. Coggin Brown took charge of 

officers of the Society . H. Gravely held the post of the 
General hs ea id edited the Proceedings. Mr. R. D. Mehta, 
-E., remained Treasurer. Mr. S. W. Kemp was Honorary 

Librarian throughout the hea Dr. W. C. Ho ssack continued 

theca Indica, while segs of fe Bares Haraprasad Shastri 

Wright, and either he or Mr. C. J. Brown has reported on all 
Treasure Trove Coins sent to the Society. 

H. Elliott has continued as Assistant at ists 
sdteions the year, with the exception of three months fro 
une to August, when he was granted privilege leave and Babu 
Balai Lal Dutt, B.A., the First Library Assistant, acted for him. 

There have been no other changes in the establishment. 

vi Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

Society’s Premises and Property. 

he building of new premises for the Society has not yet 
been taken in hand. 

The Society has received from the Board of Trustees for 
the Improvement of Calcutta, a notice under section 45 of 
Bengal Act IV of 1911 relating to the acquirement of a portion 
of the land syottieaai to the Society for the purpose of widen- 
ing Park Street. The area of land required is approximately 
144 seed and the compensation which the Board proposes 
to ‘offer i is Rs. 60,0 

The roof of the Society’s building was in a very bad 
state of repair, and Rs. 145 has been spent for repairing leaks 
over the skylights, for mending other defects in the main roof, 
and for repairing a crack in one of the walls. 

The room rented by the Automobile Association of Bengal 
was — and repainted at a cost of Rs. 79-12. 

Permission was granted to Col. Sir 8. G. Burrard, K.C.S.I. 
to make a ejstion of the Medallion of James Rennell belonging 
to the Society. The Medallion has been lent to him for the 

Indian Museum. 

ne Babar shi cries were made to the Indian Museu 
the year there has been no change in the ‘Society’ . 
Bedhyeaahie and the Hon’ble Justice on Penn 7 Pisces 
padhyaya, Kt., C.S.1., D.Sc., F.R.A.S., F.R.S.E., inues to 
be a member of the Board of Trustees on neha of a ‘Rociaty 
under the Indian Museum Act X of 1910. 

Indian Science Congress. 

The Second Indian Science Congress was held in Madras 
on January 14th, 15th, 16th, 1915, under the presidency of the 
Hon. Surgeon General W. B. Bannermann, C. I.M.S. 
The membership numbered about 150 and ‘about 60 papers 
were pace ie cated. An account of the Congress was pub- 
lished in ur Proceedings for February, 1915. 

ha ba arranged that the third Indian Science Con- 
gress ‘vill be held at King George’s Medical Hall, Lucknow, on 
January 13th, 14th and 15th, 1916. 

His Honour Sir Jam es Scorgie Meston, K.C.S.1., has con- 
sented to be patron and Col. Sir 8S. G. Burrard, K.C.8.1., R.E., 
FBS, a been appointed President with Dr. J. L. Simonsen 

Ss. : 

and circulated. The Society has asked the Government of India 
to continue their support in connection with the meetings. 

February, 1916.] Annual Report. Vii 

The Society’s General Meetings have been held regularly 
every month with the exception of October, 1915. 


Dr. H. H. Hayden, ©.L.E., F.R.S., F.A.S.B., delivered a 
lecture on the Hindukush and the Russian Pamirs in the Society’s 
rooms on 17th December, 1915. This was the only lecture 
delivered during the year. 

Mr. Bernard Quaritch has continued as the Society’s Agent 
in Europe, and Mr. Otto Harrassowitz has ceased to act as 

Since the commencement of the war, no copies of the 
Society’s ‘‘Jouwrnal and Proceedings ’’ or ‘‘ Memoirs,’’ or of the 
‘* Bibliotheca Indica ’’ have been sent to Mr. Quaritch, but it 
is intended that all the numbers issued since the last despatch 
Shall be sent during 1916. 

The two cases containing the Society’s publications, sent to 
Mr. Otto Harrassowitz on the 9th July 1914 per SS. ‘* Katten- 
turm,’’ have not yet been recovered. 

Barclay Memorial Medal. 

On the recommendation of the Barclay Memorial Medal 
Special Committee, the Council awarded the Medal for 1915 to 
Mr. J. S. Gamble, C.I.E., M.A., F.R.S., late of the Indian 
Forest Department, in recognition of his biological researches. 

Elliott Prize for Scientific Research. _ 

cient merit to deserve a prize. Moreover, they were ineligible 
in the terms of the notification which required that the essays 

No having been awarded for Mathematics for 1914, 
the prize available for that subject is offered for the year 1915, 
in addition to one offered for Natural Science. is notifica- 
tion was published in the Calcutta Gazette of the 15th De- 
cember, 1915. In view of the delay in the publication of the 
notification, the Trustees have decided that the essays for 1915 
shall be received up to the end of March, 1916. 

At the request of the Hon. Mr. K. C. De., the Council 

Vili Annual Report. (February, 1916. 

has agreed to take over the work now done by the office of the 
Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, in connection with the 
award of the Elliott Prize. 


The appendix contains the usual statements showing the 
accounts of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for the year 1915. 

Statement No. I contains receipts and expenditure. 

Statements Nos. II and III show how the money of Orien- 
tal Publication Funds Nos. 1 and 2 has been spent. These 
funds of Rs. 9,000 and Rs. 3,000 Binet are adminis- 
tered by the Society for the Government of Bengal. 

In Statement No. IV will be seen the Select spent during 
the year from the special grant given the Government of 
Bengal printing an English translation of the Akbarnama. 

Sta o. V shows how the yearly grant of Rs. 3,200 
from ihe (he eae of Bengal towards the Sanskrit MSS. 
Fund has been used. 

Statement No. VI shows how the Government of India’s 
grant of Rs. 5,000 for the Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund has 

een used. 

In Statement No. VII is shown the money spent in con- 
nection with the work of the proposed Bardic and Historical 
Survey of Rajputana, including Dr. Tessitori’s salary o 


Statement No. shows how we have used the grants 
for the purchase of anthropological books and the publication 
of ee al papers 

Statement No. IX refers solely to the salary of the officer 
in charge of the Bureau of Information. 

Statement No. X shows the state of the Barclay Memorial 

Statement No. XI gives an account of amounts due to and 
from the Society for subscriptions, books, manuscripts and 
contingent expenses 

Statement No. XII contains an account of the Society’s 

the time of writing this report is nominally Rs, 79-8. 
Besides the above we have invaded Rs. 10,100 in 4% Govern- 
ment Terminable Loan of 1915-16 at par. In addit ition we have 
34°, Government Promissory Notes of the face value of Rs. 500, 
belonging to the Barclay Memorial Fund. 

Statement No. XIII shows the sums invested in Govern- 

ent Promissory Notes known as the Trust Fund, the interest 
of “which is applied to the payment of pensions to old servants of 
the Society. 

February, 1916.] Annual Report. ix 

Statement No. XIV gives an account of interest since 1911 

33 % Government Promissory Notes for Rs. 40,000, earmarked 
a the Building Fun 

The cash rosie and expenditure of the Society, as well 
as those of the different funds, are summed up in Statement 
No. XV. 

Statement No. XVI is the balance sheet of the entire 

The Budget Estimate for 1915 was as follows: Receipts, 

Giedtvines for ordin nary cadeaim and expenditure are: 

' receipts Rs, 20,320-1-10 or Rs. 287-14-2 less than was estimated ; 

expenditure Rs. 20,775-13-1 or Rs. 3,052 less than was prone 
The expenditure includes Bs, 698-13. 0, which was not provi 

for in the budget of 1915, but was sanctioned by the Coan 
during the year under review for Dr. Tessitori’s travelling ex- 
_penses incurred in 1914. 

There are increases in Receipts under the heads of Sub- 
scriptions for the Society’s Journal and Proceedings, and 
Memoirs, Rs. 240; Interest on Investments, Rs. 300-3-9; and 
Admission fees, Rs. 96. 

The falling-off in the ne from Members’ Subscriptions 
is Rs. 179-12-0; from Sale of Publications, Rs. 424-11-0; and 
from Rent of Room, Rs. 350. The rent will be realized in 


Our expenses have been well within the sanctioned Budget 
Estimate except in respect of salaries. 
the close of the year the Permanent Reserve Fund 
amounted to Rs. 1,66,200, and the Temporary Reserve Fund to 
Rs. 44,200, against Rs. 1 ,65,500 and Rs. 36,200, respectively at 
the close of mak at 
nent Reserve Fund has been increased 

The Trust Fund at the close of the year remained at Rs. 1,400. 
The Building Fund has increased by Rs. 1,400 from the interest 
realized on Rs. 40,000. 

Thee expenditure on the Royal Society’s Catalogue (includ- 
ing subscriptions of Rs. 224-12-6 remitted to the Secretary, 
Zoological Society of London) has been Rs. 786-1-9, while the 

x Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

receipts from subscriptions received on behalf of Central Bureau 
has been Rs, 1,0: 

The Balan Estimate of sn A and Disbursements for 
the year 1916 has been calculated a 

Receipts en ae 20,810 
Ordinary Expenditure «es Res 22, 2.928 \ 4,022 
Extra Expenditure Gov orse 

the Budget Estimates of Receipts for the year 1916 
fiterat on Investment is expected to be higher owing to the 
purchase of Rs. 10,100, 4% Terminable Laas of 1915-16; Rent 
of Room is expect ted to be higher owing to the fact that the 
rent due from the Automobile sae an, bai Bengal has fallen 
into arrears since May, 1915; and Admission fees are expected 
to be higher on account of members pee not paid their 
fees who were elected during November, 1915. 

Budget Estimate of Expenditure has been increased 
under several heads. Salaries have been increased owing to 
increment allowed to the office staff and for the appointment 
of a new Mali onahigher pay. The estimated cost of books has 
been heavily increased on oe of an invoice for £123-2-8 
received from Mr. Bernard Quaritch, London, for books sup- 
plied to the Society, and of the balnbe re? Rs. 865 to be paid to 
Messrs. Johnston and Hoffmann, being the cost of nine Albums 
purchased last year. An extra expenditure of Rs. 1,694 has been 
budgetted for during the year 1916, this ae the amount of the 
expenses incurred by Dr. Tessitori during 1915 in connection 
with the proposed Bardic and Historical | Sarvey of Rajputana. 
The other items of Receipts and Expenditure are based upon 
the Estimate and Actuals of 1915 

ine Excess Expenditure expected, viz. Rs. 3,220, will be 
t by drawing on the Temporary Reserve Fund, unless the 
income should prove larger than anticipated. 


GS." YOis, : FO1G. 
Estimate. Actuals. Estimate. 
Bs. Rs. Rs. 

Members’ Subscriptions... 9,600 9,421 9,400 
Subscriptions for the 

ciety’s Journal ~ Proceed- 

ings, and Memoi: 1,608 1,848 1,700 
Sale of Publications . we 1,006 575 6 
Interest on Investments eh is AAO on 2 OU dee 

Carried over -- 19,268 19,204 19,060 

February ,.1916.} 

Annual Report. xi 

Rs. Rs. Rs. 

cone Lopate 19,268 19,204 19,060 
Rent of Roo 600 250 950 
ldiecblig hacia ei 100 130 100 
Admission fees .. 640 736 700 
Total 20,608 20,320 20,810 
Salaries 6,600 6,930 7,092 
Commission 600 541 550 
Pension 180 180 180 
Stationery 150 163 150 
ights and Fans 200 156 175 
Municipal Taxes 1,495 1,495 1,495 
Postage > 700 594 700 
Freight 225 22 150 
Contingencies 600 317 400 
Books 2,000... 1,758, .- 3,127 
Bi nding 1,000 940 ~—-:1,000 
sig rh and Proceedings, and 
moirs 8,000 =5,391 6,000 
Printing (Circulars, etc.) 500 381 500 
Audito 150 150 150 
Petty Repair 100 7 25 
Insuran 344 344 344 
Grain iwenss: 200 124 150 
Furniture : a 300 287 150 
Extra Expenditure. 
Repairs a bd 500 225 
Anthropological Instruments. 87 
Loan (Dr. itori’s travel- 
ling expense for ) 699 
Bardic Chronicles (Dr. Tessi- 
tori’s dane eo 
for 1915) 1,694 
Total 23,844 20,791 24,022 
total number of volumes and parts of magazines 

added to the Library during the. yea 

r was 2046, of which 261 

were purchased and 1785 were either presented or received in 


xii Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

complete set of L’ Anthropologie from Vols. 1 to 25 has 
been psi for the Society’s Library, and it has been 
decided to continue subscription to this periodical. In addi- 

Udaigiri, Khandagiri and Dhauli Hill, Khajurahao, Brindaban, 
Muttra, Madura, “Gaur and Pacicti ua, sae Caves and Nasik 
have been purchased for the Society’s Libr 

A large collection of Oriental books selieaisy to the late 
Mr. C. B. N. Cama has been presented to the Society’s Library 
by Mrs. Cama and has been labelled ‘‘ The Cama Collection of 
Oriental Literature. 

Mr. W. H. Miles presented to the Society a number 
books and other articles belonging to the Calcutta seat 
cal Society. 

onnection with the loan of MSS., the Council has 

nity bond to be used in this connection is under consideration. 
New rules have also been, passed regarding the consultation 
of MSS. in the Society’s rooms 

The compilation of the Catalogue of the Scientific serials 
available in Calcutta has now been taken in hand and specimen 
pages have been printed and approved by the Sub-Committee 
appointed to consider the preparation of the Catalogue. Nebe 
number of slips received is about 3000; they come from more 
than 20 different libraries. It is hoped that the Catalan 
will be published during the course of the next six months. 


There were published during the year ten numbers of 
the Journal and Proceedings (Vol. LXXV, Part 4; Vol. X, 
Nos. 9-11; Vol. XI, Nos. 1-6) containing 472 pages and 16 

Two numbers of the Memoirs were published (Vol. ¥; 
No. 3, and Vol. V, extra No.) containing 168 pages and 36 

Numismatic Supplement No. 24 was published in the 
Journal and Proceedings, Vol. X, Nos. 10 and 11, under the 
Editorship of Mr. H. Nelson Wright 

The Index to the Journal and Bisestines, Vol. VII, 1911, 
was also _ ted. 

Owing to a demand for complete copies of the Society’s 
Edition of ‘Come de Koros’ Tibetan Grammar printed in 

February, 1916.] Annual Repori. xili 

1834, 26 copies which lacked the last five pages have been 
sme Re and copies are now available for sale. 

vised edition of the Society’s Rules and Regulations 
is in pri of publication. 

Exchange of Publications. 

During the year no applications were accepted by the 
Society for exchange of publications 

n an application from the J ibrerian of the Johns Hop- 

kins University, Baltimore, certain back numbers of the 

Journal and Proceedings of the Society were supplied to them. 

Philology, ete. 

r. W. Ivanow contributes a paper on the Persian Gypsies, 
a Becton tribe of mixed Aryan origin, who dress like Persian 
rustics, and are Muslims of the Shiah sect. gins lye = 

is near the Kahol Gate at Delhi, and not a t Lahore, as consi- 
dered by some. He cites eye-witnesses, and further says that 
the tomb does not exist now, but was demolished when the 
as ess Railway was constructed. 

. H. Hosten’s paper on Western art at the Moghul 
Court sueihads five chapters. The first chapter deals with the 
Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan described by Tavernier, and 
incidentally mentions several other thrones with peacocks. The 
writer says that the throne in question was not taken to Persia 
by Nadir Shah. The second chapter deals with forgotten Euro- 
peans of Shah Jahan’s time, who were mostly artists. A list 
of their names is given. The last three chapters are on Indian 
architecture, as manifested in the structure of the Taj. 

Rev. H. Hosten contributes another paper on the elephant 
statues which existed at Agra and Delhi in the reign of Akbar, 
some of which hs destroyed by Aurangzeb. 

Mr. H. ves Law contributes 98 quatrains of Abu Sa’id 
bin Abul Khair haces by him from two sources, viz. a MS. 
copy containing 161 quatrains, and a small volume of a litho- 

ition containing 24 quatrains. From the former he 
has selected 84 quatrains, and from the latter 12 with 2 more 
found in both. 

Khan Sahib Maulavi Abdul Mugtadir describes a history of 
Herat by Sayfi. He shows that the well-known history of 
na viz. Rauzat-ul-Jannat by Mu’in, is mainly based on this 


xiv Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

‘* So-sor-thar-pa’’ is the title of a paper in which Mahamahopa- 
dhyaya Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana gives the Tibetan text 
with an English translation of a complete code of Tibetan monas- 
tic laws, which will enable scholars to compare it with the code 

Davids and Oldenberg i in the Sacred Books of the East series. 
The same writer gives in English an explanation of a Tibetan 
scroll in the possession of Hon’ble Justice Sir John Woodroffe 
under the title of ‘‘Subduing an Enemy by Charm.’’ This 
scroll contains pictorial representations of certain magical pro- 
cesses adop for t urpose. 

‘‘The Palas of Bengal’’ is the a of a memoir in which 
Babu Rakhal Das Banerji brings together all essential evi- 
dences, epigraphical and Biblionrapaioal: published and un- 
published, throwing light on an important epoch of the History 
of Bengal, viz. the oe cere of the Pala Kings who 
flourished from about 750 a.D. to the beginning of the 12th cen- 
tury 4.p. Under the title of “hs ie Forged Grants from Farid- 
pur’’ the same writer defends, against Mr. Pargiter, his posi- 
tion as to the spuriousness of four inscriptions, viz. two of 
the time of Dharmaditya, one of the time of Gopa-c Mendes 
and another of the time of Samacara Deva. 

Babu Nanda Lal De in his ‘‘ Notes on ancient Anga’ 
gives an elaborate account, "hi storical and traditional, of the 
ancient kingdom of Anga, known to the Chinese pilgrims early in 
the 5th century A.D. as the country of Campa and cerrespond- 
ing to the modern Bhagalpur. A note on Bodicatiste Nartles- 
vara Image Inscription’? by Babu Nalini Kanta Bhattasali 
gives a revised reading of an inscription published in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Baciots for March 1914, and confirms 
the conclusion that the bit round Comilla was called 
Samatata in ancient times 


The most important iy ad of the year was Sir George 
D. S. Dunbar’s memoir on the and Galongs, which com- 

Pie and a Cogan Brown contribute an 2 ler sup- 
plement to the w 

It is to be rogretted that the map which was to accom- 
pany the memoir was not printed in time to be published with 
it. It will be published in 1916, — with an account of 

pee ae a i i Sa 

February, 1916.] Annual Report. XV 
Sir George Dunbar’s later explorations in the Upper Dihong 

Five papers dealing with anthropological matters have ap- 
peared in the Journal of the Society. Pandit Hirananda Sas- 

byal’s account of Dakshindar, a godling of the Sunderbuns, and 
Sarat Chandra Mitra’s note on North Indian folk medicine for 


hydrophobia and scorpion sting. 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 
Of the highly interesting report on the Biology of the Lake 
of Tiberias three papers, constituting the Fourth Series, had 

Chironomidae. They are Pelopia cygnus, Trichotanypus tiberi- 
adis, Polypedilum genesareth, Polypedilum ttberiadis, Tendipes 
bethsaidae, and Tendipes galilaeus. Dr. Annandale concluded 
this series of i igi istri 

XVi Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

number of endemic species and one endemic genus, the latter 
being a sponge Cortispongilla. 

To Mr. F. H. Gravely the Society owes an interesting paper 
on the evolution and distribution of Indian spiders belonging 
to the subfamily Aviculariinae. Of the eleven groups into 
which the Aviculariinae have been divided, five occur in the 
Oriental Region. These are the Ischnocoleae, Thrigmopoeeae, 
Selencosmieae, Ornithoctoneae and Poecilotherieae. The Isch- 
oc i 

chelicerae and palps. On the other side of the Ganges the 
Ischnocoleae are almost extinct, having presumably suffered in 
competition with the Selenocosmieae, a far more highly special- 
ized group, which appears to have arisen from them in that 
part of the Oriental Region in much the same way as the 
Thrigmopoeeae have in the Indian Peninsula. The stridulat- 
ing organs of Chilobrachys, the most highly specialized genus of 
the Selenocomieae, are far more elaborate than those found in 
any genus of the Thrigmopoeeae; and Chilobrachys, alone among 

Ischnocoleae and Thrigmopoeeae from the northern and eastern 
parts of the Indian Peninsula, the Parts in which Chilobrachys 

of pearls were exceptionally large, whilst the oysters from 
the Kanangadu beds resembled those from Tinnevelly and 


February, 1916.} Annual Report. XVii 


During the year under review the twenty-fifth part of the 
Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula has been pub- 
lished under the editorship of Mr. J. Sykes Gamble. Of the 

aceae, Myricaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fagaceae and Salicaceae 
were dealt with by Mr. J. S. Gamble. The following species 
are new :—Rhopalocnemis ruficeps, Ridley, Pasania Kingiana, 

Gamble, Castanopsis Andersoni, Gamble, Castanopsis megacar pa, 
Gamble, Castanopsis Ridleyi, Gamble. The new species had 
been previously described, with Latin diagnoses, in the Kew 

Miss Maude L. Cleghorn presented an interesting note on 
the Floral Mechanism of Typhonium trilobatum, in which is 
described the trap-mechanism of the spathe, by means of which 
beetles are captured at night. The paper is illustrated by four 
photographs taken by the author. 

r. W. Burns and Mr. 8. H. Prayag gave an account of ex- 
periments on the artificial production of mixed inflorescences of 
Mangifera indica by grafting inflorescences either on a vegeta- 
tive branch or on another inflorescence. 

Mr. M. O. Parthasarathy Iyengar in his paper on the defolia- 
tion of some Madras trees comes to the conclusion that the leaf- 
fall of the trees referred to is due, not to the failure of water- 
supply, but possibly to the necessity of a replacement of the 

attention to the fact that prolonged wet weather may cause 
trees to shed their leaves. 

In a note on the Flora of the South Indian Highlands, 
Mr. P. F. Fyson deals with the flora of those parts of the Nilgiris 
and the Palnis which rise above the 6500 feet level. Twenty- 
two of the species occurring in these regions had to be re- 

XViil _ Annual Report. [February, i916. 

named ; be seis new species have been described in the 
Kew Bullet 

Prof. S. ©. Banerji described an instance of mechanical sym- 
biosis of Ficus bengalensis with Barassus flabellifer. 

. H. Burkill, in a note on the Terai Forests between 
the Gandok and the Tista, discusses the influence which man, 
aided by fire, has exercised on the history of the Terai belt, 
and the part ‘played by the river-deposited sand-cones in deter. 
mining the trade routes from Tibet to the plains of Bihar and 


In his highly interesting paper on the Geological History of 
Southern India Dr. W. F. Smeeth gives an account of the main 
components of the Archaean complex as exhibited in Mysore. 
The views expressed by the author differ considerably from those 
held by various other Indian geologists, in so far as he consi- 

and the banded nt or quartzites to represent a 

hi hly f altered > eir banded char 
ter pire largely secondary. ~ He further suggests the t many “of 
the quartzites, which are sometimes felspathic and at other 

‘iar mie are crushed and recrystallized quartz-veins or 
quartz-porphyries and that the aqueous origin of a number of 
the bands and beds of dolomite and limestone is doubtful. 
He holds that at the close of the Dharwar age the whole of 
Southern India was covered with a mantle a concn rocks, 

which later on was penetrated and eaten into by successive 
intrusions of granite ; and that the earliest of the post-Dhar- 

Peninsular India, consisting of a great variety of granites. The 
author maintains that evidences of intrusion of the ** Peninsular 

popes field of resea 

In his Palsaonsoloaiel Notes from Hazara Prof. Hem- 
chandra Dasgupta describes some fossils obtained from the 
Triassic, Jurassic, Gieumal rocks and Tertiary rocks of Hazara, 

February, 1916.} Annual Report. , xix 

two new species being noticed, namely Corbula middlemissii and 
Nautilus hazaraensis. 

.E. Pilgrim exhibited a fossil jaw, possessing ancestral 
human characters, from the Miocene of the Punjab. 

Physics and Chemistry. 
Mr. J. Evershed’s interesting paper on Sunspots and Prom- 
inences, read at the Science Congress at Madras, is being pub- 
lished in the Journal. 

Medical Section. 

exhibited a case and read a paper on ‘‘ The Speedy Recovery of 
a case of Kala Azar by Intravenous Injection of Sodium Anti- 
mony Tartrate with Sodium Cimamate and Berbarine Hydro- 
As was to be expected, the attendance at the meetings was 
poor. The only exception was the meeting held on Decem- 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 
During the year 316 copies of the International Catalogue, 

completing the 10th annual issue and ine 

from subscribers. Ten subscriptions have been despatched 
under these terms and one received at the end of the year has 
still to be remitted. 
Catalogue slips numbering 1807 have been despatched 
during the year. 
e expenses of the Regional Bureau for the year 1915 
amounted to Rs. 786-1-9. 
The Bureau of Information. 
the publication of the Government notification 

issued on the 24th September, giving wider publicity to the 

xx Annual Report. [February, 1916. 

existence of the Bureau, enquiries are coming in from various 
quarters on a variety of subjects ; and they are being promptly 
attended to. 

Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts. 

As the staff was engaged i in preparing the oo very 
little new work was done in the search for manuscripts. A f 
ee paper manuscripts were purchased. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts. 

The number of MSS. catalogued up to December, 1915, was 
7768, the work of the year being represented by 630. A spec 
men volume of the catalogue, namely that of the Buddhist 
manuscripts, has been prepared and sent to the press. The pr 
face to the second volume of the Catalogue of Palmleaf dnd 
Selected Paper Manuscripts of the Durbar Library of Nepal 
has been issued. 

Bibliotheca Indica. 

f the six fasciculi of texts of different a published 

in the Bibliotheca Indica series during t 
two belong to Brahmanic Sanskrit, one nat fal o Kashmiri 
literature and the remaining three belong to Arabic and 
Persian literature. Among these, five are continuations of works 
taken in hand some years ago and only one is a new work 
published this year. The new work is ‘‘ Faridatu’l-‘Asr’’ ; 
it is a comprehensive index of persons, places, books, etc. 
referred to in the Yatimatu’l-Dahr, the famous anthology 
of Tha ‘Alibi, and has been prepared by Maulavi Abi Musa 
Ahmadu’l Haqq of Dacca 

For want of funds a sufficient number of text books could 
not be published last year. As there are savings this year in 
the Bibliotheca Fund and as new rules have been framed for 
the guidance of the editors and the press, it is hoped that 
the Bibliotheca publications will be adequate and regular in 
the coming year. 

Search for Arabic and Persian MSS, 

During the year no MSS. were purchased on behalf of 
the Government. The efforts of the Officer-in-charge of the 
search were directed rather to ascertaining the existence and 
whereabouts of rare and interesting MSS. than to purchasing 

travelling Maulavi has been engaged in the preparation of short 
bibliographical account of MSS. in various libraries, book- 
stores, etc. in India which he has visited. Considerable progress 
has been ads with the preparation of these notices, and the 
results of his labours will shortly be published monthly in 

February, 1916.) | Annual Report. Xxi 

the Proceedings of the Society. The first instalment of the 
notices, which is already in type, is preceded by an introduction 
by the Officer-in-charge, containing short descriptions of the 
various libraries visited by the Maulavi. 

As a preliminary step towards the compilation of a catalogue 
raisonné, the second Travelling Maulavi has been principally 
engaged in arranging and classifying the MSS. already acquired 
by the Society for Government. An additional Travelling 
Maulavi was appointed in June last, and was directed to prepare 
a Hand-list of the Government of India collection under the 
supervision of the Officer in-charge. The Hand-list of the first 
collection (1903-07) is nearly complete, and will be sent to the 
press shortly. 

Bardie Chronicles. 

In this field, the precarious situation created by the scarcity 
of funds and want of local support have largely handicapped 
research work and prevented the publication of the materials 
prepared. Dr. Tessitori started the regular work of the Survey at 
Jodhpur from the Ist of January, in accordance with the sugges- 
tions made in his scheme published 1m the Society’s Journal for 
December 1914, the Society guaranteeing him Rs. 1,000 to meet 
expenses during the first three months, pending the sanction of 
the necessary grant, which had been asked from the Government 
of India. For three months he was able to carry on his work 

tate. The disappointment was a bitter one, as Jodhpur was 
the State in Rajputana from which the largest help had been 

2 2y : & 

y to try 1 I gements with 
some other State. An offer was made to Udaipar, for which 
State Dr. Tessitori prepared a new scheme, on a reduced scale. 
But before a reply was received H.H. the Maharaja of Bikaner 

XXii Annual Address. [February, 1916. 

at the beginning of December, and will submit his plan in 
March, when the question of the continuation of his work in 
Bikaner will be decided. 

In spite of the difficulties, some noteworthy results have 
been achieved. The edition of a bardic poem—the Vacanika 
Rathoya Ratana Singhaji rt Mahesadasota ri—has been prepared, 
and also that of a minor work—the Uktiratnakara: and both 
are ready to go to press 
available. A Descriptive Catalogue has been started, and the 
first fasciculus is ready for the press. A Progress Report on the 

vb > 
and 68 copied under Dr. Tessitori’s supervision. Lastly a 
collection has been made of impressions of about 130 inscrip- 
tions, all from places visited in the Jodhpur State. 


Five gold, nine silver, and thirteen copper coins were pre- 
sented to the Society’s Cabinet during the year. Among them 
were two silver coins of the Chandela King Madanavarman and 
ten copper coins of the Audambara series described in Numis- 

3 Af), Panjab (10 At) and Assam (3 AR) Governments and from 
Bombay R.A. Society (3 &) and Rewah State (2A). 


Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., President, delivered 
an Address to the Society. 

Annual Address, 1916, 

The work of our Society has gone on steadily during the 
past year in spite of the war which is convulsing the world, 
and which has led to a further slight reduction in the number 

February, 1916.] Annual Address. Xxili 

ably connected with the Calcutta Medical College. The Annual 
Meeting of Fellows has recommended for election to-night to 
the Fellowship of thes Society , Lt.-Colonel C. Donovan, I.M.S., 

joint angina of the Leishman-Donovan sar of firs dreaded 

kala-azar, the Hon’ble Mr. Burn, I.C.S., wh ii work at numis- 
icitide i is so widely known, and Dr. Fermor, whose researches 
eology in India are of the ashes importance. The 

Much Senin work has been undertaken during the 
year. The cataloguing of the Sanskrit manuscripts has now 
eet a stage which will enable publication to be shortly 
commenced. New rules have been adopted by the Council 
arenes the publications of the Bibliotheca Indica, which are 
expected to have important results in the future. The Society 
has also financed Dr. Tessitori’s expenses, other than his 

of I 

opens work would have had to be suspended. Fortunately 
H.H. The Maharaja of Bikanir has now come forward with a 
proposal to support the work. 

The general meetings of the Society have been well attend- 
ed and many important papers have been published. The 
arrangement by which Philological and Scientific papers are 
respectively read at different meetings, has worked well. The 
Medical Section, however, has fallen on evil days owing to so 

many members having gone to thefront. Only three meetings 
have been held with very poor attendance of members, although 
@ number of visitors came to hear a paper on the treatment ‘of 
Som e much-needed anthropological works have been added 
to the Shekes, 
rs. Cama has also presented to the Society a valuable 
collection of ees works, which are being kept separately as 
the Cama bequest 


he work of our Society is fully set forth in the Annual 
Was anc’ has been circulated to all our members, I do not 

XxiV Annual Address. [February, 1916. 

propose to review it further in my address to-night, but instead 
to deal with a subject which I do not think is receiving the 
attention it deserves at the present time, in the hope of stirring 

up renewed interest init. I refer to the investigation of indi- 

recent years, but remarkably little accomplished. I shall first 
bring before you some examples of valuable work which has 
been done in India in the past in order to show the immense 
value of successful investigations of this branch of medical 
science, and then indicate the lines on which further simila 
results may be expected to be obtained, and point out what is 
necessary in order to allow of their being attained. 

I will first deal with a very old and long-forgotten episode, 
which I came across when reading early works on medicine b 
Anglo-Indian writers (original and not the present incorrect 
official sense of the word) when preparing the historical section 
of my book on Fevers in the Tropics. It is one which has left 
its mark even on present-day practice in the rooted objection 

cases of fever in Lower Bengal with large doses of cinchona 
bark with only two deaths, giving the drug during the slightest 


In September 1804 a Dr. James Johnson arrived in the 
Hoogly and as the result of the loss of a single case of malaria 

In 1816 a Dr ay drew attention to the very high mortality 
attending this spoliative treatment, and t 
much as 80 900 grains of calomel were given in a single 

attack of fever and that in a single month 13,337 grains of 
calomel were given in the General Hospital, Caleutta. His 


Syaiesis Stes 

February, 1916.} Annual Address. XXV 

the form of its active alkaloid quinine, given during fever, is a 
most interesting one. Edward Hare came to India in 1839 
and in 1842 he had to treat malarial fever in the deadly Nepal 

ery in the history of medicine in India. There is still, however, 
much to be learned regarding the therapeutical value of the 

XXxvl Annual Address. [February, 1916. 

different alkaloids of cinchona bark, as the excellent investiga- 
tions of Major MacGilchrist in Calcutta during the last two 
years have shown. 

with it, the secret was bought from him by the French Govern- 
ment and made public. In those days it was used in large 

1846 advocated equally large doses in the Madras Presidency. 

end of the nineteenth century there was much difference of 
opinion regarding the class of cases it benefited, as it was not 
then known that there are two totally different forms of dysen- 
tery, and that it is only useful in that which has now been 
shown to be due to a pathogenic amoeba. The amoebic form 
of dysentery was discovered by Koch and Kartulis in Egypt as 
far back as 1883 and in 1890 in America by Sir William Osler. 
In 1887 Kartulis also recognized the same organism in the pus 
of a liver abscess, while McConnel, the very able physician and 
pathologist of the Calcutta Medical College Hospital, was the 
first to confirm this observation in India, although curiously 
enough he does not appear to have recognized the occurrence of 
amoebic dysentery in India. When I came to Calcutta early 
in 1900 there was still great confusion and difference of 
opinion regarding the relationship, if any, between dysente 

and liver abscess, and it was one of the first subjects which 
attracted my attention. I very soon discovered the presence 
of amoebic desentery as a very common ease in India, 
and after two years’ work established the fact that tropical 
liver abscess is always secondary to amoebic dysentery, and 
never follows the bacillary form of bowel disease. Next I 
showed that ipecacuanha has a specific action in the amoebic 
disease only, which at once explained the widely divergent 
views of physicians in different countries regarding the value of 
this drug as it is only effective in places where the amoebic 
form is prevalent. It was only a step further to recognize that 
ipecacuanha was also a specific in amoebic hepatitis which 
always precedes abscess formation, as had indeed been held by 

February, 1916.] Annual Address, XXVii 


In 1891 Surgeon-Major Warden, I.M.S., working in the 
chemical laboratory of the Calcutta. Medical College, prepared 
rom ipecacuanha emetine mercuric iodide, which Surgeon- Major 
Tull-Walsh, I.M.S., administered by the mouth in the General 

When I first read of Vedder experiments on the harmless 
water amoebae with emetine I also failed to grasp their value. 
I had indeed some years previously attempted some unrecorded 
experiments with watery effusions of ipecacuanha on dysentery 
amoebae, but without obtaining any striking results, doubtless 
owing to the alkaloids being present in a relatively insoluble 
orm. Late in 1911, while on a voyage back to India, I took 
advantage of the leisure to tabulate and analyse the notes 
of the amoebic dysentery cases I had treated during the pre- 

over twenty per cent in spite of very full doses of ipecacuanha, 

XXViii Annual Address. | February, 1916. 

and I realized a more powerful remedy was essential if more 
lives were to be saved. Vedder’s experiments then came back 
to my mind, and I determined to try to obtain some soluble 
form of emetine which might be injected subcutaneously. 
for although I expected it would cause much sickness, I 

difficulty I obtained from England a few grains of the former. 
I had not long to wait for an opportunity of testing it, for 

Oo my surprise one-sixth of a grain, equal to fifteen grains 

ing an soon clear to me that a specific treatment 
of a common and deadly disease had at length been found, and 
one that I soon pro Oo equally effective in the pre- 

vention of tropical liver abscess. One curious point regarding 
the history of ipecacuanha remains to be mentioned, namely 

which an attempt was made to remove the specific alkaloids 
and give only the sawdust. Naturally the more completely 
the alkaloids were removed the less efficient was the result : 
a good example of the danger of incomplete knowledge of 
the composition and action of important drugs. I have dealt 

ics Think 
been lost through quinine and emetine. which were both dis- 
covered nearly a century ago, not having been efficiently used 
in the treatment of malarial fevers, amoebic dysentery, and 
hepatitis respectively until the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury in the case of quinine, and until 1912, 95 years after 
its discovery, in the case of emetine 

Are there not many other important indigenous drugs 
which might well repay scientific study ? To take one example 
which has been engaging my attention during the last seven 

February, 1916.] Annual Address. XXix 

months. The Indian drug, which has for very long retained 
its reputation as the best known remedy for leprosy, is chaul- 

early to say more at present than that much further work 

tly, I come to the all-important practical question, 
namely what facilities exist in India and especially in Calcutta 

and I shall never forget my astonishment on perusing one 
of the earliest of them, issued a good many years ago, an 
finding it to contain numerous routine office letters asking 

tion to a serious retrogression in one important respect. Up to 
two years ago we had at the economical section of the Indian 

xxx Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Feb., 1916. 

this terrible war, of a whole-time Professor of Pharma- 
cology, while the Hospital for Tropical Diseases now being con- 
structed entirely by public contributions, will afford additional 
and excellent scope for the very difficult work of testing 
clinically any drug whose physiological action may have been 
worked out by the pharmacologist. We also have at the Museum 
in Dr. Carter, who is kindly showing some specimens of medici- 
nal plants to-night, an Economic Botanist to collect plants 
for analysis and search for alkaloids, ete. The one missing link 

of physicians all over India. If my address to-night helps 
forward this much-to-be-desired advance I shall not have 
spoken in vain. 


The President announced the election of a and 
Members of Council for the year 1916 to be as follow 
President : 
Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., C.I.E., M.D., B.S., 
F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.8.B., LMS. 
Vice- Presidents : 

The Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, Kt., C.S.L., 
D.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., F.A.S.B. 
Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad. Shastri, C.I.E., M.A., 

H. H. Hayden, Esq., OLE, U.Se., F.RS., B.A., B.A... 
E.GS., FAS; 
N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc., C.M.Z.8., F.L.S., F.A.S.B. 

Secretary and Treasurer : 

General Secretary :—F. H. ai bn D.Se. 
easurer :—R. D. Mehta, Esq., C.I. 

Feb., 1916.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxi 

Additional Secretaries : 
Philological Secretary :—A. Al-Ma’ mun no opel di Esq. 
Iftikharul Millat, M.A., Ph.D., Bar.-at-Law 
Msisthgt —P. ef Bruhl, Fag. D.Sc. 
Natural History F.A.8.B. 
Secretaries: Physical Science:—P. J. Bruhl, Ksq., 
Sc., F.A.S.B. 


Drees hee Secretary uit . Coggin Brown, Esq., M.Sc., 
F.G M.I.M.E. 

Joint Philological Secretary :—Mahamahopadhyaya Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A., Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

Medical Secretary :—W. C. Homack, iad., M.D., D.P.H. 

Honorary Librarian:—S. W. Kemp, Esgq., B.A., E. A.S.B. 

Other Members of Council : 
C. 8S. Middlemiss, Esq., B.A., F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 
Major D. McCay, M. “yt S. 

. James, Esq., 
The Hon’ble 3 ustice “i 7 G. Woodroffe, Kt., M.A. ; BOA: 
The Hon’ble Mr. F. J. Monahan. I.C.S. 
C. J. Hamilton, Esq. 

; ca arenident announced the election of Fellows to be as 

Ae -Col. C. peeks M.D., I.MS. 

The Hon. Mr. R. Burn, I.C.S. 

L. L. Fermor, fea. A.R.S.M., D.Sc., F.G.S. 

The oe was then resolved into the Ordinary General 

The suggestion of Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., 
regarding the transfer of all cent journals to the School of 

The following gentlemen were balloted for as Ordinary 

Mr. “ee sef Orlando shed Cuban Consul, 5, Hastings Street, 
Calcutta, proposed by Mr. J. A. Chapman, seconded by Dr. 
F. BH, Grav. ely; Mr. W. rs "Andrews, B.A. (Oxon), La Martin- 

iére, 1] ga don Street, Calcutta, proposed by Mr. 

Watts, seconded by Mr. A. C. Atkinson ; mae Narendra Tuna 
Mazumdar, M.A., Asst. Professor, Calcut a University, pro- 
posed by Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh eave Kt., seconded 
by Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana; Rev. R. 
Oka, c/o Messrs. Banjai & Co., 35, Park Mansions, Calcutta. 

xxxii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Feb., 1916. 

proposed by pee napa Haraprasad Shastri, “Saat 
by Babu Panchanana Mukhopadhyaya; Mohammad Yusuf 
Hashmi, M.A., Head Master, Calcutta Madrassa, and Superin- 
tendent, Baker Madrasah Hostel, Calcutta, tae by Mr. 
A. H. Harley, seconded by Maulavi Hidayet Hos 

The General Secretary reported the death of Monsieur 
Charles-Rene Zeiller, an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

The General Secretary announced the following changes 
and additions to the Library Regulations and an amendment 
of Office Regulation No. 1, passed by Council on the 26th Janu- 
ary, 1916:— 

Libr rary Regulations 4 and 10, the words Be caiatd 
Livsotell’ > to be substituted for ‘* ane Secretar 

The following to be added to the Library eos i— 

*©22. A meeting of the Library Committee, which shall 
include the Sectional Secretaries as ex-officio members, sha 
held at least once a quarter. No books shall be purchased 
except het the approval of the Library Committee obtained 
in meeti 

Office eit 1 to be amended as follows :— 

‘*No leave can be granted without the sanction in writing 
of the General Secretary on the report of the Officer to whom 
the applicant for leave is immediately responsible.’’ 

The various regulations, duly revised, including the above, 
have been approved by the Council in the form submitted to 
the Council meeting held on the 26th January, 1916, and they 
are now in type and will be printed with the new edition of the 
Society’s Rules 

The President called attention to the following exhibi- 
tions :— 
. Some important medicinal plants. By Mr. H. G. 


Rock slides. By Mr. G. de P. Cotter. 

Physical apparatus. By Mr. C. W. Peake. 

Physical apparatus. By Prof. J.C. Bose. 

Spiders. By Mr. W. H. Phelps. 

Gas helmets, etc., from the war. By Dr. C. H. Elmes. 

Some shaciubecip ti from the Bishop’s College Library 
= by the i R. Gee). By Mahamahopadhyaya 

raprasad Shas 



: pany and paca bicceeripks: By Dr. A. Suhra- 

Feb., 1916.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. xxxiii 

9. A metal statuette from Tibet. By Mr. Percy Brown. 

10. Specimens of ancient Indian iron from Konarak, 
Orissa. By Mr. H. G. Graves 

The meeting was then closed. 

The President announced that there would be no meeting 
of the Medical Section during this month. 

Bh SL eae ole 



3 915 


President : 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Leonard cae Ki, 1.2, 
Be. FRO0.P., ¥.B.CS.,. F.A.8.B., MLS. 
Vice-Presidents : 

The Hon’ble Justice Sir Asutosh ee Kt, C8. 
D.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.R.AS., F.AS.B 

Mahamahopiadhyaya Haraprasid Sastri, O.L8.,: M.A. 

H. H. Hayden, Esgq., D.Sc., C.I.E., B.A., B.E., B.A.L, F.G.S., 
N. Annandale, Esq., D.Sc., C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., F.A.S.B. 
Honorary Secretary and Treasurer. 
General Secretary :—I}'. H. Gravely, Esq., M.Sc. 
Treasurer :—-R. D. Mehta, Esq., C.I.E. 
Additional Secretaries. 

Philological Secretary :—A. Al-ma’miin “staal adi Ksq., 
Tftikharul Millat, M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., Bar.-at-law 

(Biology : :-—P. J. Briihl, Esq., D.Se., 
Natural History | _ F.A.S.B. 

ecretaries. 4 Physical Science :-—K. Harrison, Ksq., 
! Ph.D. Succeeded te P. J. Brihl, Ksq., 
D.S8Sc., F.A.S.B 

Anthropological Secretary : :—N. ‘An nandale, Hsq., D.Sc., 
.M.Z.S.. F.L.S., F.A.8.B. Succeeded by J. Coggin 
Brown, Esq., M.Sc., F.C.S 

Joint Philological Hedidney :—Mahamahopadhyaya Satis 
Chandra Vidyabhusana, M.A., Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 
. Medical Secretary :—W. C. Hossack, Esq., MD DPB: 
Honorary Librarian :—S. W. Kemp, Ksq., B.A., BA. S.B. 
Other Members of Council. 

GC. pre aiag ad ae, ena F.G.S., F.A.S.B. 

R. James, Esq., M.A. 
The Hon’ble Justice Sir J. G. Woodroffe, Kt., M.A., B.C.L.- 



R.=Resident, N.R.=Non- Resident. A.= =m AbHont. L.M. = Life Member. 
F.M.= Foreign Member 

An Asterisk is prefixed to the names of the Fellows of the Society. 

mbers who have changed their residence since the list was 
p are : ree uested to give intimation of such a change to the Honorary 
neral Secretary, in order that the necessary ae may be male in the 

Members who are about to leave India and do not intend to return are 
particularly requested to notify to the Hono orary General intr whether 
it is their desire to eta Mombe ers of the Society ; otherwiss, in accord 
ance with Rule of the rules, their names will be rem nee from the list at 
the expiration of three vials from the time of their leaving India 

Date of Election, 

1907 April 3. | N.R. | Abdul Ali, Abul Faiz Muhammad, M.A., Deputy 
Magistrate. Netrokona Tcl ensingh. 
1909 Mar. 3.|N.R.|} Abdul Latif, Syed, De puty Magistrate. 

1894 Sept. 27.) L.M.| Abdul ae Maulavi. 23, European Asylum 

Lane, Caleu 
1912 Aug. 7. | N.R.| Abdulla- -ul-Musawy, Syed, 8.a., Zemindar 
Bohar, Burdwan: Caleuttu. 

1909 July 7.| R. | Abdur Rahim, Maulavi. 51, TZaltolla Lane. 
1895 May 1.| R. | Abdus Salam, Maulavi, .a., Presidency 

1915 April 7.) R. | Abdus Subhan, Nawab “‘Zad a A.K.M., Khan 
Bahadar, 13, Taltola Bazar ‘Street, Calcutta. 
1903 April 1, | N.R.| Abul Aas, Maulavi Sayid, oe and Zemin- 

dar, Lan 

1915 Feb. 3. |N.R.| Ahmad Ali Khan, Ma ptner "Hafiz, Superin- 

tendent, Rampur State Library. Rampur. 

1904 Sept. 28,] N.R.| Ahmad Hasain Khan, Munshi, ‘Jhelum. 

1911 Rael 5.|N.R.| Ahmad Husain, Nawab, Khan Bahadur. Rais 

of Pargawan, "Partabgarh, Dist. Oudh 

1903 Oct. 28.|R. | Allan, Alexander Smith, me 17 * 1s, 

splanade Munsions, Cal 

1913 Nov. 5. |N.R. | Aminullah, Maulvi, B at as azipore. 

1893 Aug. 31) R Avion ae ie ome en Adam Rivers Steele, 
C.M.Z,S., 1,M.S, Presidency 

7 | General Bospstake Calcutta. 


Date of Election. 
1912 July 3. 

1904 Sept. 28. 

1914 April 1. 
1910 April.6. 
1909 May 

1911 May 3. 
1904 July 6. 


1909 May 

1914 Mar. 4. 
1870 Feb. 2. 

1891 Mar. 4./F 

1909 Feb. 3. 
1910 Dee. 

1905 Mar. 1. 
1907 Jan. 2. 


1896 Mar. 
1869 Dec. 1 
1885 Nov. 4 
1898 Mar. 2. 
1908 Nov. 4 

1914 June 3. 
1903 Feb. 4. 
1909 July 7. 
1895 July 3. 

1907 Feb. 6. 
1915 April 7. 

N.R. sya i Egbert Arthur, B.a. Tooklai Hzx- 
per mental Station, Oinonhea P.O., Jorhat, 

A. | *Annandale, Nelson, D.Se., ©.M.Z.S.,  F.A,S.B. 

N.R.| Ansari Amir Ahmad, B.a. Begum Cothee, 

ut, U, 
N.R. | Ascoli, Frank David, 1.6.8. Dacca 
R Ashgar, A.A., Barrister-at-Law. 8, European 
Asylum Lane, Calcutta. 
R. | Atkinson, Albert Charles. La Martiniere 
College, Calcutta. 

; "Da acca. 
Azad, Maulavi Abul-Kalam Mohynddin 
| Ahmad. 13, Macleod Street, Calcutta. 



L.M., Bacot, Mons. I. 31, Quad d’ Orsay, Paris, 

LM Baden Henry, M.A.,_ C.I.E. 
| cee Lodge, 29, Banbury Road, Oxford, 

M. | Baillie, The Hon. Sir Duncan Colvin, K.¢.s.1., 
Lc.s. 9, Pall Mall, London. 
N.R. | Banerji, Charu Deb, B.a., LL.B. Allahabad. 
N.R. | ee Devendra Kumar. Dacca Clolligé. 

Dac cubt 
. | Ban adie, Muralidhar. Sanskrit College Oa 
R. | Banerji, Rakhal Das, m.a. 45/4, Simla Street, 


.|N.R.| Banerji, Satish Chandra, M.a., Lu.p., Advo- 

cate, High Court. Allahabad. 

.|L.M. | Barker, Robert Arnold, m.p., F.¢.s. Thorncroft, 

orndean Road, Emsworth, Hants, England. 
R. | Barman, Damodar Das. 55, Clive Street, Cal- 

N:R, Hivmek: Herbert Charles, m.a., 1.¢ Deputy 
Commissioner, — pare Kohima, gor 
N.R.| Barnes, James Hec ‘Ss 
cipal, Piniad jaca fae Cotas. ett 

Pp a 
N.R.| Basu, B. K., B.a., 1.¢.s,, Asst. Magistrate. 
N.R.} Batra, Bhawani Das, Rai Bahadur, wM.a., 

N.R, | Bazuz, Rangnath Khunraj. Girgaon, Bombay. 
L.M.!| Beatson-Bell, The Hon, Mr, Nicholas Dodd, 


N.R. | Bell, Charles Alfred, 1.0.3. “Gangtok, Sikkim, 

N.R. Belvalkar, Sripad Krishna, .a., ig p., Prof. 
' of Sa: dekyit. Deccan College. Poon 

“SRN ata 

Date ot Election. 

1909 April 7.; R. | Bentley, Charles A., m.8., p.e.u. Dum Dum, 
1876 Noy. 15. F.M.| *Beveridge, Hen A.S.B LC.S. (retired). 
Pitfold, Shottermill, Widtosirs Surrey, Eng- 
1913 April 2. | N.R. cael R. S., Civil Judge, Shahpura, Raj- 
1908 Nov. 4. | N.R. | Bhattacharji, Bisvesvar, Deputy Magistrate, 
Krishnagar. Na 
1910 April 6.) N.R.| Bhattacharji, Ramakanta Madhupur. 
1909 July 7 R. | Bhattacharji, Shib Nath, m.p, 17, Mohan- 
gan Road, Calcutta. 
1914 Nov. 4. |N.R.| Bhattacharji, Vireshwar. Lahore. 
1910 May 4.| A. | Bishop, T. H., M.R.C.8., L.R.C.S., D.P.H. rita 
1893 Feb. 1. |L.M. iin Revd. P..O. Dumka, Sonthal. Pe 
1912 Oct. 30.| A. | Bolton, H. O. Europe (c/o Messrs. Graham & 
Co Déleutia \ 
1912 July 3. | N.R. | Bomford, Capt. eanthg Lawrence, I,M.S., M.B., 
S., M.R.C.S., L.k.c.P. Hurope (c/o Rev. T. 
Bomford, C.M. 8. House, Peshawar). 
1898 Feb. 2.| R. | Bose, Amrita Lal, Dramatist. 9-2, Ram 
| Chandra Maittra’s fe alcutta. 
1908 June 3.) R. | Bose, Hira Lall, Dewan Bahadur, t.m.s. 10, 
Oreek Lane, Oaleutta. 
1895 Mar. 6. | R. | *Bose, Jagadis Chandra, ¢.s.1., M.A., D.Se., 0.LE., 
F.A.S.B. Presidency College, Calcutta 
1914 Nov. 4, | N.R.| Bose, Thakur Birendrana Dac 
1910 July 6.|N.R.| Botham, Arthur William, 1.0.8. Jhillong. 
1911 Nov. 1. |N.R.} Boyle, Lieut. Cecil Alexander, lith King 
dward’s Lancers, y Lines, The 
Kurram Valley Militia. Parachinar, Kurram 
Valley, N. 
1908 Jan. 1.' R. | Brahmachari, Upendra Nath, ma. m.v. 19, 
Grey Street, Caleu 
1913 Aug. 6. |N.R. | Brown, C. J. peri College, Lucknow 
1906 July 4. R. | Brown, Lieut.-Col. Edwin Harold, m.p., 1.a.s. 
( prone 4, Harrington Street, Calcutta, 
1907 July 3.'N.R.| Brown, John Coggin,, F.G.8.,  F.C.S. 
(c/o Geological ~— of In di a). 
1909 Oct. 6. | R. | Brown, Percy, 4.k.c.a. Government School of Art, 
1909 Oct. 6.; R, |*Briihl, Paul Johannes, ph.b., Pcs, F.A.S8.B, 
Madrassa, Calcutta 
1901 Sept. 25. R. | Buchanan, Lie at Cok: Walter James, 1.M.s. 
United Service Club, Calcutta 
1901 June 5. | F.M. *Burkill, Isaac Henry, M.a., + 56k. Botan 
cal Gardens, Singapur. 
1896 Jan. 8. | N.R.| Burn, The Hon. Me, Richard, t.c.s. Chief Sec 
retary to the pave aE United Provin- 
ces. Allahabad. 


Date of Election, 
1913 Jan. 1. 

1913 Nov. 5. 
1900 May 2 
1913 Apl. 2. 
1907 Apl. 3. 
1901 Mar. 6 
1895 July 3. 

1912 Mar. 6. 
1915 Jany. 6 

1910 May 4. 
1905 May 3. 
1890 June 4. 

1909 Mar. 3. 
1905 July 5. 

1906 Jan. 3. | 
1195 Oct. 27. 

1908 Feb. 5. 
1911 Jane 7. 
1909 Mar. 3. 

907 Sept. 25. 
1893 Sept. 28. 







. | NR. 




N.R. | 


1911 Mar. 1. NR. 

1914 April 1. 


| Burrard, Col. 

Sir 8. Gs, K.C:8.1,, 08.1, -F.BS:, 
Sur ihe General of India. 13, Wood Street, 
Burton, Assistant Superintendent, 
Geologic: cal Sur rvey of India. Calcut 

Butcher, Flora, m.p. Lohaghat, Almora Dist. 

LM. 5. Medical Cntlege, Calcutta 
Campbell, William Edgar Marmaduke, L.C.S. 
irzapur, U.P 
‘Carlyle, Sir Robert Warrand, K.¢.8.1,, 
| LCs. Europe (¢ clo India Office 


Thomas David Baron n, of Shiney. G.C.L.E., 
| .M.G., Governor of Bengal. Calcutta 
| Carter, Humphry G., Economic Botanist to 
the Botanical Survey, Indian Museum. 2 
Chowringhee Road, Calcutta 
| Carter, Capt. Robert Markham, LMS. Hurope 
c/o India Office) . 
One eae Dwarkanath, M.a., B.t., Vakil, 
High Calcutta 

*Chakravarti, Ral Monmuhix Bahadur, m.a., 
Bib c cia 8.B , Palmers ica Road, ies 
tally, Calcutta. 

| Chakravarti, Nilmani, M.a. Presidency College, 
| Caleutia 
Chakravarti, Vanamali. Cotton —Colleye, 
| "Chapman, John Alexander, Librarian, Im- 
perial Library. Calcutta. 
| | Chatterjee, Atul Chandra 1.¢.s. Lucknow, U.P 
Chatterjee, Gopal Chandra, m.p. Medical Ool- 
lege, Calcutta, 
Chatterjee, ia Se Kumar, r.r.0.s. 74, 

Chatterjee 295/1, 
Ff sd 
Chatterjee, Promode Prakas. 8, Dizon Lane, 
Chaudhuri, Banawari Lal, 8.a., (Edin.), 
er eeu, Lowe Circular 

Manmatha WN. ath, M.B, 

Chandra, Rai Bahadar, 

mindar, Sherpur Town. Mymensingh Dist. 
Chandar, coe Das. 32, Beadon Row, 


Date of Election. 

1913 June 4. 

1912 Aug. 7. |. 

1907 July 3. 
1909 Nov. 3 | 
1906 Nov. 7. | 
1915 Sep. 1. 

1908 Nov. 4. | 
1907 July 3. | 

1908 Jan. 1 
1876 Mar. 1. | 

1887 Aug. 25, 
1895 July 3. | 


1873 Dec. 3. 

1915 Sep. lL 
1896 Mar. 4. 

1912 April 3. 
1910 Jan. 5. 

1895 Sept. 19), 

1906 Dee. 5. | 

1899 Aug. 30! 

1904 Sept. 28. 

1912 i Li 
- Be 

1910 Mas A. 

1912 July 3. 

.| Crawfurd, James, B.A., 

.| Dames, Mansel Longworth, 


Chaudhari, P., Bar. a: Law. 2, Bright Street, 

.| Chetty Pos: ai a8 ora Muthia, 
Mudelly Street, Georgetown, Madra 
coi et cael am Alexander Kyn ook: B.SC... 

Europe (c/o Geological Bufooy of India), 
*Ohvsitopher 2 Major Samnel Richmond, M.B., 

FAS B,IMS. Ttesearch Laboratory, Kosanke 

Clarke, Geoffrey Roth, 1.c.s., Postmaster 
Ge |, Punjab, Lahore. 

Cleghorn, Maude Lina West, ¥.t.s., F.E.s. 5, 
Ali ane, Calcutta. 

Cook, Capt. Lewis, 1 

MS. uri. 
Cotter, Gerald de Purcell, Assistant Superinten- 
dent, Geological Survey o ndia. Calcutta. 
Crake, Dr. Herbert sae aan Health Officer. 
15, Loudon Street, Oalcut 
1.C.8. (eee Thorn- 
wood, Uddinyton, Lanarkshire, Scotland. 
Criper, William Risdon, F.c.s., F.1.C., A.R.S.M. 
Konnayar, EIR 
Cumming, John Chet: 
(c/o India Office ). 

C.LE., 1.0.8. Hurope 

I.C.S. (retired). 

Ventnor, Wodeland Road, Guildford, Bien 

Das-Gupta, Hem Chandra, m.a., F.G.s., 
Presidency College, Calcutta. 
as-Gupta, Jogen ath, B.A. (Oxon), 

arrister-at-Law. 39, Lower Otrcular Road, 


Das, Kasi Nath, Prof., Ravenshawe College. 
uttac. cutta 
David, David A. 55, Free School Street, Cal- 
andra, B.A., 1.0.8., Secretary, 
Government of Ben ngal, Revenue Depart- 
ment. Calcutia. 
Deare, Lieut.-Col. Benjamin Hobbs, m.r.c.s, 

Demetriadi, Stephen. Europe (c/o Ralli 85: es 

Dentith, or William, 1.0.8. “Ang lon 
Dhavle, Giibars Balaji, 1.c.s. Purul 
Digby, Everard, psc. (Lond.). 1, Garstin’s 

Place, Caleutta. 


Date of Election. 

1907 Oct. 30 
1898 Jan. 5. 
1909 Nov. 3. 
1902 July 2. 
1909 Aug. 4. 
1912 Nov. 6 

6. |N 
1912 April 3. 

1914 Sept. 2. 
1877 Aug. 30. R. 

1906 Nov. 7. 

1910 April 6, 
1910 April 6. 

1911 Nov. 1. 

1915 Jany. 6. 
1904 Aug. = 

. 1908 Sept. 2. N.R. 
1906 Dee. 5. 

1906 Oct. ot. 
1907 Mar. 6. 

1903 Mar. 4, | | 
1893 Jan. 11. 

1912 Mar. 6, 






| RK. 


IN.R | 



| Be 

Dixit, paten Sri Ram, B.a., Dewan of Banswara, 
ay pu 
Dods, William Kane, Agent, Hongkong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation. Calcutta. 
Donovan, Lieut ~— Stone M.D., 1I.M.S 

| Drake-Brockman, Digby Livingstone, 1.c.s. 

ube, Man Tuhsildar, Domariagunj, Basti. 
uff- Sutherland- Dunbar, Capt. Sir George, 
Bart. Europe (c/o India e 

utt, B.C. 172, Manicktola Street, Calcutta. 
utt, Kedar Nath. 1, Sikdarpara Lane, Cal- 

oy Sand 


| Eadie, Capt. John Inglis. yds ue In- 

| fantry (c/o Messrs, Grindlay & 0 bay). 
Ebden, Moe oT. Po 130d Coca pee da 

| Elmes, Drv Cecil H. 1, Middleton Row, Calcutta. 
| Esch, V. J., Architect. Grand Hotel, Calcutta. 

| Fazl-i-Haqq, Q., M.a., Prof. “ Persian Litera- 
| ture. Govt. College, Lahor 
Fermor, Lewis Leigh, 
re, oS ea Geological rose ie india, 
| Fide Ali, Ayed, Arrah, 
| Finck, Herman ,H.G.,M.p., Ahmednagar. 
Finlow, Robert: Steel, Fibre Expert to the 
Govt. of Assam. Dacca 
Firminger, The Ven’ble “Walte r Kelly, M.a., 
B.D., F.R.G,S.. Archdeacon of Calcutta. S¢. 
Tha" 8 Hous, Council House Street, Calcutta, 
Fortescue, apt. Archer Irvine, R.a.M.c 

Fox, Cyril S., Assistant ee onan Geo- 
logical Survey of India, Calcu 
Francis, Lieut. Reginald Frankland, Indian 
Army. Jallaior, Punjab 

Bota Major core Thomas, M.A., M.B., B.Sc., 
F.L.S., 1.2 Bot. Gardens. Calcutta. 
Lyra His pelea Sie Edward Albert, X.c.s.1., 

O18... 1.0:8;, volte Governor of 
Bihar and Orissa, 
Ganguli, Manmohan, B.e., District Engineer. 
79. Oornoollis Street, Calcutta 


Date of Election, 

1909 Mar. 3. 
1909 Oct. 7. 
1908 Feb. 5. 

1908 Jan. 1. 
1905 July 5. 
1912 Aug. 7. 
1907 Oct. 30. 
1912 Mar. 6. 
1905 May 3. 

1889 Jan. 2. 

1907 Mar. 6. 

1869 Feb. 3. 
1912 Sept. 4. 

1902 June 4. 
1913 Dec. 3 

1909 April 7. 

1907 Mar. 6. 
1905 July 5. 

1909 Jan. 6. 
1910 Sept. 7. 
1905 May 3. 
1910 Noy. 2. 
1907 June 5. 
1910 Mar. 2 
1910 Sept. 7. 

Ganguli, Matilal, Rat Bahadur. Currency Office, 

Bangali: Ordhendhu Kumar. 12, Ganguli’s 
Gardner-Bro rown, John Gerald Gardner, 
ee State Education. Holkar C setae. 

; Ghatak ‘Suresh ae Depy. Magistrate 

epy. Collect Dacca. 

Gaal. Amulya Cha ii Vidyabhusana. 66, 
Manicktolla aint Calcutta. 

Ghosh, Atal Behari, m.a., B.t. 59, Sukea 
Street, Calcutta. 

Ghosh, Birendrs Nath, t.m.s., Medical Practi- 
tioner. 109, College Street, Cateut tta. 

Ghosh, Harin ath, .p., Assistant Surgeon. 
15/la, Pitan Ghosh Street. ee 

Ghosh, Hemendra Prasad, Venaodir: and 
Litterateur. Prasad Lodge, Changalbha P.O., 

Ghosh, Jogendra Chandra, m.a., B.L., Plea 
25, Hurrish Chunder Mookerjee Road, 
Bhowanipore, Calcutta. 

| Ghosh, Prafulla Chundra, m.a. Presidency 

| College, Culeutta. 

Ghosh, Pratapa Chandra, B.A. Vindyach 

Ghowk, Tarapada. 14, Paddapuker Nese 

n.A, K. Mymensingh. 
Godson, Capt. Charles jae L.M.S. gr te 
(c/o India Office 
—. = Mohan. 24, Banstolla plea 
a, hoe mall 57, Burtolla Street, Dale 

: 7 Haswbas den, Extra Assistant Com- 

Gourlay William Robert, C.I.E., 1.0.8. Govern- 
ouse, Calcutta 
Gravely, Frederic haa, D.Se., Baeeche! Pe 
erintendent, Indian Museum. Calcut 
Gra: He George, A.R.s.M. 1, 7a 
Hous Street, Calcutta. 

.| Graves-Law, H. D 

(ees. bu. 
| Green, Lient.-Col. Charles Robert Mortimer, 
nh —— uM.s. 6, Harrington Street, 


R. | Phd > Maj or Edward rh ii M.B., I.M.S. 
United eins Club, Caleutt 

Grey, Lt.-Col. Willian: Bodets: Indian Army. 
Europe (c/o India Office). 


Date of Klection, 

1900 Dee. 5. 
1901 April 3. 

1898 June 

1915 Aug. 

1911 Aug. 
1901 Mar. 
1892 Jan. 6. 
1907 Aug, 7, 

1908 June 3. 

1913 May 7. 

1912 May 1. 

1906 Dee. 5. 

1908 April 1, 

1897 Feb. 3. 
1908 June 3. 

1911 April 5. 
1908 April 1. 
1906 Dec. 5. 
1891 July 1. 
1908 July 1 

1898 Feb. 2 
1910 Jan. 5. 




1914 Feb. 4, 

1901 Dec, 4. | 



L.M. | 

-| Habibur Rahman Khan, 

-| Haig, Lieut t.-Col. 

| Hiralal, Rai Bahadur, B.A., M.R.A.S. 

| Hirst, Ca tain Frederick Christian. 

par pape nce The Hon 

: | Hope, Geoffroy 

Grieve, James Wyndham Alleyne, Deputy 
Conserv ator of Forests. Jalpaiguri 

Guha, Abhaya “gic Extra Assistant Com- 
missioner. Nowgor 

Sale Bepin Baise ae ae College, Ohin- 

pe cette Oo Wienke 

8. United Service 


_Habiber Rahman, Depy. Eads Telegraph 

Department. Allahabad 

Maulavi, Raees. 

Bhikanpur, District Aligarh. 

Wolseley, Indian Army. 

.'s Consulate Genl., Meshhed, Persia. 

Henry Haselfost, ¥.C.H., V1.8. 

Hallowes, Kenneth Alexander Knight, B.a., 
A.R.S.M.. F.G.8., Assistant Superintendent 
Geological Sur -vey of India. Calcutt 

Hankin, BK. H., m.a., Ds 

( ne Presidency College, Caleuita). 
*Hay rt, D.8c., C.LE., B.E 
rch P.G8., °F. ‘Dix ector, Gealanial 
| Survey of India: < Caleas tta. 
| Herron, Alexander Macmillan,, Assistant 
Superintendent, Geological Survey of India. 


wara, 0. 


omas ‘pong * K.¢.1.8., D.8 

-G.8., P.R.S., F.A.3.B. Westwood, Alder. 

| ley Edge, Cheshire, Wages d. 

| . Mr. Justice Herbert, 1.c.s. 

rrington ae sige yng Calcutta. 

| > F.A.S.B. 1, Glent- 

_ north Terrace, Weiss Super Mare England. 

-+» B.Sc. Php, 27, Chow- 
ringhee Road, Calcutta. 

| Hornell: The Hon. Mr. W. W., Director, Public 

| Prepon, Bengal. Witieri’ Building, 

Hlossack, William Cardiff, .p., p.p.n, 9, Olyde 

Hastings, Calentta. 


Date of Election, 

1873 Jan. 

1911 June 7. 
1908 June 3. 
1911 Fe 
1915 April. 7. 
1904 Jan. 6. 
1908 Noy. 4. 

1907 Dec. 4. | 

1907 Sept. 25. 
1912 Mar. 6. | 

1908 June 3. 

1911 Sept. 1. 

1911 Nov. 1. 
1915 Oct. 27. 
1891 Feb. 4. 
1911 Jan. 1. 

1910 May 4. 

1882 Mar. l. 
1906 Aug. 1. 

1906 Sept. 19. 

1909 April 7. 
1910 Mar. 2. 
1896 July 1. 

b 1 R 

ic M. | . Hovattoun, George L., F.c.s. Johnstone Castle, 
| fre ewshire, Scotla nd. 

| R. eg M. Hed 7-1, Ramsankey Roy's 

iN. R. | atah inion, C. M. Pusa. 


| Insch, Jas. 101, Clive Street, Calcutta. 
NR, Tshak Khan Maalavi Mahomed d, M. A 
College, Aligarh. 


NR Giese Victor Herbert, w.a. Patna College, 

NLR. dat, Sydney Montague, 1.c. (c/o Messrs. 
| y). 

King King § Co., Bomba 

R. James, Henr osher, ngal ca- 
| tion Service. Peasiial Sages College. 
| Calcutta 

R. Jenkins, Owen Francis, 1.c.s. 1, Council House 

Street, Calcutta. 
A. Jessop Europe ae Young Men’s Ohristian 
Assoc dation, as 
Roi d pee Herbert or A.R.C.S 
t Bupa; Geckigisal. Sans of janes 

Cal cutta 

N.R. | L Juearas, See Raja Ankitam Venkat Ze- 
mindar ‘Shermahomadpurem, Ponceau, 

N.R. : | Katoaladdin Ahmed, Shams-ul-Ulama. 
vt. ee Chittagon 
NERS | Kabiheles R. 


N. 7 uy. B 2 
N.R.| Kaye, George Rusby, Registrar, Govt. of 
India, Dept. of se aoote vg 
R. *Kemp, Stanley A.8.B,, Senior 
Assis Svipeiintendece fadian Museum 
N.R.! i ame. (Daas M.A., B.L., Vakil. Mozuffer- 

R. ee Kennedy, William caver eh M.A., M.D 
D.P-H., ee EP? 10, Harrington St. 
i. SS prmatenes Charlee nese Solicitor we ioe 
| ment. 26, Dalhousie Square, Calcu: 
beer John Now port . ICE eee Eee 
den Reach, Calcu 
R. rpeiadettig Wc Ghartered Bank Buildings, 

A. | Kiichler, George William, ¢.1.5., mua. Europe. 
| (c/o India Office). 


Date > Election. 

1914 April 1. 
1887 May 4 
1889 Mar. 

1914 Aug. 5. 

1911 Feb. 
1914 July 
1909 Jan. 
1902 July 
1889 Nov. 
1907 Dec. 
1907 Mar. 

1911 May 3. 
1906 Oct. 31. 

1910 April 6. 

1905 Ang. 2 

1913 Jan. 8. 

1870 April 7. 
1912 April 3. 
1905 Aug. 2. 
1895 Jan. 11. 

1912 May 1. 
1913 Mar. 

1906 Dee. 5. 




1893 Jan. 11. 


“tadas, oat mee Krishna. Queen’s Colleye. 

Laman, ‘haxkés Rockwell. 9, ee a eet, 

| ridge, Massachusetts, U.S. Am 

| ‘La "Batiste, Thomas Henry Bleged.: BAL, 
¥.G.9., F.A.S8. . Alfriston Hills Road, Cam- 
bridge, England. 

Law, Bimala aise: B.A. 4, Sukea St., Calcutta. 

. Lyman, 

Law, Narendra Nath, M.A., B.L. , Amherst 
St., Calcutt 

Law, Satya Charan, m.a., BL. 24, Sukea St., 

| Calcutta. 

Leake, A. Martin, F.R.¢.8., V.C. Europe (c/o 
Bengal Nagpur ise smn 

Leake, Henry Martin, m.a., F.L.8.  Nawub- 
gunj, Cawnpor 

Lee, William A.,F.r.M.s. 2, New China Bazar 
Street, Calcutta 

Little, James enry, Assistant Master, 
Nawab Bahadur’s Institution. Murshidabad. 

Lloyd, Major Richard Ernest, M.B., 

i. . T acs: awe College, Calcutta. 

_ Lom m.a. 11, Loudon Street, Calcutta. 

hae ‘Capt, ran ne ‘Eckford, Indian Army, 

(Oxon). Nimach 



Lukis, The Hon. Surgeon-General Sir Charles 
Pardey, *.0.81: (082. 0.84 ¥.5.0.8., 1.0.5., 
Piiesinn General, Indian Madicnl Service. 

’ Simla. 
Luxburg, Count Graf. Karl L. Europe. 
B. Smith. 708, Locust Street, Phila- 
delphia, U.S. America 

MacCabe, Surgeon Capt. Frederick. Europe 
(c/o India Office, London 
[cCay, Major David, M. B. » LMS. Medical 

; erie. ree The Hon. Sir Edward Douglas, M.A., 

K.C.L.E., C.S.L, 1.0.8., Secretary, Government 
of India, Education Department. Simla. 
McLean, David (c/o Phoenix Assurance Oo., 

MacMahon, P. S., Canning atti, Lucknow. 
Madho Rao Scindia, His Highness Maharajah 
Colonel Sir, Alijah Bahad dur,  G.0.8.1., 
G.C.¥.0., 4.D.C., LL.D., Maharajah of Gwalior. 
Ji t Bilas , Gwali 
Mahalanobis, Subodh Chandra, 
210, Cornwallis Street, 



Date of Election. 

1911 Mar. I. 
1898 Nov. 2. 
1901 July 6. 
1901 June 5. 
1907 Dec. 4. 

1899 Aug.30. 

1905 Dec. 6. 
1912 Jan. 10. 
1913 June 4. 
1886 Mar. 3. 
1895 July 3. 
1914 May 6. 
1884 Nov. 5. 

1905 Dec. 6. 
1884 Sept 3. 
1912 June 5. 
1911 July 5. 
1897 Jan. 6. 
1906 June 6. 
J9LS. Jan. 6. 
1910 July 6, 
-1908 Mar. 4. 

1901 Au ug. 7. 
1895 July 3. 

1910 Feb. 2. 

R. | Mahatap, The Hon. Sir Bijoy Chand, x.c.s.1., 
 Siaratr pesmi of Burdwan. 6, Alipur 
Road, Cal 
N.R. Maitra, poxvien Kumar, B.A., BL. Rajshahi. 
A. | Malyon, te Frank Bailetine, Europe (c/o 
N.R.} Mann, Harold Hart, D.Sc.,, F.L.S., Prin- 
cipal, my or tg College Poona. 
N.R. |} Manners- see t.-Col. John, Indian 
| rei ns ul. E., eau Nepal. Khat- 
N.R. HMseoenil Lal, Rai tryin Retired Civil Sur- 
geon. Rai Bare 
FM. | Marsden, Edmu ng B.A., F.R.G.S. 12 Hlerdale 

oad, Hampstead, Lon 
N.R. frome a Rai Ja peers ‘Bahadur, Govern- 
ment Pleader. Jessore. 

R. | Mazumdar, Ramesh Chandra, m.a. 16, Ghandra- 
nath Ch attersi Street, Bhowanipur, Calcutta. 

L.M.| Mehta, Roostumjee Dhunjibhoy, c.1.2. 9, 
Rainey Park, Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

A. | Melitus, Paul Gregory, ¢.1£., 1.0.8. Hurope 
India Office). 

N.R.|} Men Ramunni. Prestdency College, 

R. enema Charles Stewar 

8 B.,. Super once: cadieical eat 
of is dia. Dae 

R. | Midhut Mohamed “Hossain Khan. 8, Golam 
Sobhan’s Lane, Calcutta. 

R. | Miles, William Harry. 21 Old Oourt House 
Street, Calcutta. 

N.R.; Misra, Champaram. Barabanki, Oudh. 

N.R.| Misra, Rai Sahib Shyam Behari, B.a., 1.c.s,, 
Revenue Member, Council of Regency. 

N.R.| Misra, Tulsi Ram, m.a., Prof., D. J. High 
sect Kanouj. 

R. | Mitra mar Manmatha Nath. 34, Sham- 
pukur Street, Calcutta. 

R. itra, Prakash Chandra, Engineer and Con- 
tractor, 101/1 Olive Rivest: Calcutta. 

7: ohapatra, Srikrishna. 10/1 St. James's 

quare, Oaloutta. 
R. | Moitry, Manmatho Nath, Landholder. Seram- 
IN. R. Maki, Edmund 3 1.c.s. Allahabad. 
h on. cis John, I.¢.s. 

20, Harrington Mansions, Oaleutt tta. 
R. | Monahar Lal, u.a. Barrachkpore. 


Date of Election, 

1906 Dee. 5. 
1906 Dee. 5. 
1908 Dee. 2. 
1909 Mar. 3. 
1909 Jan. 6. 

1899 Sept. 29. 

1898 May 4. 

1894 Aug. 30. 

1886 May 5. 

1908 Feb, 5. 
1892 Dec. 7. 
1910 Nov. 2. 
1911 Sept. 1. 

1908 Sept. 23. 

1906 Mar. 7. 

1908 Sept. 23. 
1904 Dee. 7. 

1914 Feb. 4, 
1914 Feb. 4. 
1890 Feb. 5. 
1901 Mar. 6. 
1889 Aug. 29. 
1913 July 2. 
1908 Feb. 5. 


N.R. | More, ike amen Carmichael, 5lst Sikhs. 

U.S. Club, Sim 
N.R. | io Cede Tlie. 24th Punjabis. 

R. Moses, Capt. Owen St. John, m.p., 
I.M.s. 29, Theatre Road, Calcutta. 
R.. Mukherjee, it il M.A. 12, Old Post Office 


Street, Calcu 

R. | Mukherjee. Govinda Lall. 12, Old Post Office 
Street, Calcutt 

R. | Mukherjee, jek Nath, 8.a., Solicitor. 3, 
Old Post Office Street, Caleutt 

Ri. ae Sinan Sir Raj endra Nath, ROEE. 6G 

Harrington Street, Calcutta. 
es 3 fa rjee, Sibnarayan. Uttarpara, Bally. 

bearive ah gpa aya, ‘Ihe Hon. Justice Sir Asu- 

t.,C.8.1., M.A., D.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., 
, Judge, High Court. Calcutta. 
R. ee eons a, es Nath, B.A., M.D. 
80, ussa Road , Bhowanipur, Calcutta. 
R. Mukhopad : a a 6, Bechoo 

N.R. Murray, sib, m Alfred, b.a. (Cantab), m.s. 

N.R | Murtaza ea Khan, Nawab, Vakil and 
Zemindar, Katra abu Torabkhan. Luck- 

N.R. Muzaffar Ali Khan Bahadur, Syed, Zemin- 

Rais. Jausath, Dist. Mae 
R. Nahar, Puran Chand. 48, Indian Mirror 
Street, Calcutta. 
N.R., Nande, Lala nll achong Zemindar. Burdwan 
Nathan, Robert, ¢.s.1.,1.c.s. Europe (c/o India 
R. oe Ali, Chaudhury, The Hon. Nawab Syed, 
, Weston Street, Calcutta. 
NR. Neogi, Panchanan. Rajshahi College, Raj- 
‘N.R.| Nesfield, Capt. gy Blomhardt, F.R.¢.s., 
L.R.C.P., I.M. 
N.R.| Nevill, Hen SS I. ©. s. Ht Potion 
L.M.| Nimmo, John Duncan (c/o Messrs. Walter 
Duncan § Co., 137, West George Street, 
: Glasgow ). 
N.R. Norton, E. Los., District Magistrate. 
A. | Nott, Lieut.-Col. Arthur Holbrook, m.p., 1.M.8. 

Europe (clo India Office). 


Date of Election, 

1906 Dee. 5. 

| 8. 

1905 Nov. 1. | N.R. 

1915 April 7. 

1907 July 3. 
1901 Jan. 2. 
1901 Aug. 28. 

1904 Aug. 3. 

1910 April 6. 
1899 Aug. 2. 

1906 Dec. 5. 
1888 June 6. 
1877 Aug, 1. 

1906 April 4. 

1915 Oct. 27./ R. 

1915 May 5. | N.R. 
1889 Nov. §.| L.M. 

1914 Nov. 4, 
1904 June 1. 
1910 Aug. 3. 
1910 Feb. 2. 

Aug. 1. 

1914 Mar. 4 
1880 April 7. 
1895 Aug. 29, 

1913 April 2. 

F.M.! Otani, ‘pole Kozui. c/o Consulate- General of 
Japan, Calcutta. 
A. | Page, William Walter Keigley. Europe 
(co Pugh § Co). 
N.R. | Pande, Ramavatar, B.a., 1.¢.8., District Judge. 
N.R.| Panton, Edward Brooks Henderson, BAS C08: 
Berhampore, Murshidabad. 
N.R. soem Rao Bahadur Dattalraya Balwant. 
N.R. Satnick, “Pestonji Sorabji, 1.c.s. Narsinghpur. 
R. | Peake, the rles William, wa. 7 serva- 
tory, ie eth Calcutta 
N.R.| Peart, Major Charles ‘ubé. 106th Hazara 
Pioneers, Quetta. 
L.M. gyre spent Percival, B.A. Bar.-at-Law. 
N.R. Peake sree -Col. Charles Thomas, M.B., 
I.M.S. (retired). Dinajpur 
R. Serine Leonidar. 4, Clive Ghat Street, 
Phelga, William Heath. Park House, 13 = 
Street, Calcutta [Ca leutta. 
Philby, H. St. , 10.8. (c/o Alliance Bank), 
*Phillott, Lieut.-Colonel Doug. Craven, 
PH.D., F.A.S.B. Indian ne (retired). c/o 
Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament 
treet, London. 
R. bi mcie Acai Boat 12, Mission Row, 
N.R. Pilgrim, rie Elleock,, F.G.8. (c/o Geolo- 
gical Survey of India 
R. | Podamraj Jain, Raniwalla. 9, Joggomohan 
Mullick’s Lane, Calcutta. 
N.R.| Poplai, Sri Ram. Jullundur City. 
N.R.| Price, — Stanley. Victoria Boys’ School, 
N.R.| Raffin, Alain. Mirzapur. 
N.R.| Rai, Bepin Chandra. Giridéh, Chota Nagpur. 
N.R. |} Rai Chaudhuri, Jatindranath, M.a.,p.L., Zemin- 
dar. ratte Jessore, 
R. | Ramaswami, M.8., Curator of the Herbarium. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, Howrah. 

O’Kinealy, Lieut.-Col. Frederick, 
(Eng.), L.R.c.Pp. (Lond.), tas. 
General Hospital, Calcutta 

ie ee Lewis Sydney Steward, B.A 



Date of Election. 

1908 Feb. 5. | F.M. 

1908 July 1.|N.R. 

1905 — 4. | N.R. 

1904 M. 4.1 FM. 
1890 ee &. 

1887 May 4.| R. 

1905 May 3.| R. 

1910 April 6. | A. 

Randle, Herbert Neil, B.a. Ludgate Circus, 
London, W.C. 

Ranganathasvami, S. P. V., Aryavaraguru, 
Arshya Library, Vizagapatam. 

Rankin, James Thomas, 1.c.s. Dar7 geeling. 

epaon, KE. J. 8, Mortimer Road, Cambridge. 
* Ray, Prafulla Chandra,, F.a.s.B., Pro- 
fessor, Presidency tree Caloutta, 

Ray, Prasanna Kum sc. (Lond. and 
ras ‘ts Ballggunge Oscuins Road, Cal- 

ta The Hon Mr. Justice Thomas 
oes m, 1¢.8., Judge, High Court. Cal- 

Sinise A. White, F.r.c.p. Europe (c/o War 

| ce). 
1913 Sept. 3.| A. | Rogalsky,P. A. (c/o Imperial Russian Consul- 

ate General, Calcutta 

1903 Mar. 4. | N.R.| Rogers, Charles Gilbert, F.L.S., F.C.H., Forest 

1900 April 4.| R. 

1901 Dee. 4. FP. M. 

1908 June 3. | N.R. 

1889 June 5. | N.R. 
1903 July 1.) LM. 

1915 Oct. 27.| R. 
1910 Sept. 7, | N.R. 

1914 June 3.| A. 
1915 April 7.) R. 
1906 Feb. 7. | N.R. 
1908 Feb. 5. | F.M. 

1913 Apl. 2|N.R. 

1911 Nov. 1/|N.R. 

1909 Nov. 3. NR 

Department ie Grindlay § Co.). 
ee Lt.-Col. Sir Leonard, kt., o.1 
¥.B.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.8.B., I.M. 8. “Medigal 
Osltage Calcutta. 

— dward Denison, ¢.1.£., 

ish Museum, Dept. of Oriental ap ae 

Roychaedia. Mrityunj oy. Shyampur P.O., 

Roychandhary, Surendra Chandra, Zemin- 
dar. Koondi, Rungpur 
Roy, Maharaja Girjana th. Dina gepor 
Roy, Maharaja J haut doniiatle Raiedac 

mes avira] Jamini Bhisich, M.a., M.B. 371, 
Upper Chitpur —— Calcutta. 
Roy, Kumar Sarat Kumar. Dayarampur, 
Raj shahi. 
Roy, Dr. Satyendra Nath, Europe (c/o War 

Roy, Hon Mr. we Nath, Vakil, High 
Court. Calew 

Russell, Charlee; z ‘as. Patna College, Bankipur. 

Russell, Robert V., 1.c.8. 54, Parliament Street, 
ondon, W. 

Sahay, Rai Sahib Bhagvati, m.a., , Offg. 
foie ~ of Schools, Patna "Division. 

Sahni, + ee M.A., Supdt. of Archeology. 
Jammu, Kashmir 2s os 

Date of Election. 

1910 May 4 
1906 June 6. 

1909 Mar. 
1911 Jan. 

1902 Feb. 
1900 Dec. 

1908 July 1. 

1915 Feb. 
1906 Feb. 

1902 May 7. 

1905 Jan. 

1914 April 1. 
1897 Dec. 1. | 

1911 July 5 

1885 Feb. 

1902 Dee. 3. 
1912 Jan, 10. 

1909 Jan. 6. 
1913 Dee. 3 
1914 Mar. 4, 
1908 Mar. 4. 

1902 Feb. 5 

1899 May 3. | 

1913 Mar. 

5 | N.R. 

‘ “Shastri, 

A Shyam 
.| Silberrad, Charles 

Sandes, Capt. J. D., I.M.S8, 
nidia Office). 

Sanial, Surendra Prasad, m.a. 


Europe (c/o 

, F.C.S. 

: Sarkar, Chandra Kumar. Ratwkantk, Moulmoxn. 

2, Old Post Office Street, Calcutta, 
Sarvadhikari, Dr. Suresh Prasad. 
Amherst St., Calcutta. 
Schulten, Joseph Henry Charles, Ph.p. 
Schwaiger, Imre George, Expert 
Art. ashmir Gate, care 
| Seal, Brojendra Nath, ™.a. 


in Indian 

Presidency Col- 

Sen, Givindra ‘Katha. 
Sen, Jogendra Nath, Vidyaratnua, M.a. 31, 
Prasanna Kumar Tagore’s Street, Calcutta. 
220, Lower Circular Road, 

Yollege Street, Calcutta. 
303, Bow Bazar Street, 

Sen-Gupta. Dr. Nares Chandra. 
Lane, Calcutta. 

sapere esrovb J. 

3, Duff 
19, Lindsay Street, Cal- 

~ Capt. 

Robert Beresford Seymour, 
iM.s. c/o Indian Museum, 
_Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
C.L.E s.p, 26, Pataldanga Street, 

Shastri, Taaean Goswami. 

Hindu College, 

Shirazi, Aga Muhamad Kazim. 23, Lower 
Chitpur Road, Calcutta. 
Shirreff, Alexander Grierson, B.A.,  L.C.S. 

r.M.s. Hurope (c/o India Office). 
Shrosbree, A. de Bois. 9/1, Middleton Row, 

Shujaat Ali, Nasurul Mamalik Mirza, Khan 
Bahadur, Acting Consul-General for Persia. 
10, Hungerford Street, Calcutta. 

Lal, Lala, M.A., LL.B., 
Naimadri, A 

Frise B.A., B.Se., 

Deputy Col- 

Simonsen, J. I., Presidency College, 


Date itm Election. 

1909 ‘Apr ‘il 7. 
1894 July 4. 

1895 Aug. 29. 

1912 May 1. 
1893 Mar. 1. 
1892 Mar. 2. 
1899 Aug. 29. 

1909 April 7. 
1889 Nov. 6. 
1912 Mar. 6. 

1915 July 2 
1894 Feb. 7. 

1912 Sept. 5 
1897 Jan. 6. 

1898 Aug. 3. 
1913 July 2 

1911 Mar. 1. 
1907 Mar. 6. 
1912 Jan. 10. 
901 Dec. 4. 
1913 July 2. 
1912 May 1. 
1912 Oct 30. 

1904 Sept. 28. 
1908 Dec. 2, 

1904 June 1. 

1900 Aug. 29. 
1907 Dee. 4 




N.R. | 







Simpson, George Clarke,, Simla. 
Singh, Raja Kushal Pal, m.a. Narki. 
Singh, Lachmi Narayan, M.A., B.L., Pleader, 

H ta. 
Singh Ray, Lalit Mohan, 

Oreck Row, Calcutta 
(Singh, Maharaja Kumara Sirdar Bharat, 1.0.8. 

Rai Bahadur. 4, 

etired). Shankergar, Allahabad. 

| Singh, Raja Ooday Pratab, ¢.s.1, Raja of 

| Bhinga. Bhing 

ae H.H. The Maharaja Sir Prabhu 
arain, Bahadur, G.0.1.E., Maharaja of 
Benares. Ram Fort, Benares. 

: ga 

‘Singh, Raja Prithwipal, Talnkdar of Suraj- 
pur. District Barabanki, Oudh. 

| Singh, H.H. The Hon: Maharaja Sir Ramesh- 

| wara, Bahadur, «.c.1.n. Durbhanga. 

| Singh, ‘Maharaja Ranjit, of Raniccy. 

_Chowringhee Road, Calcutta 



he raja en Nath, 
: ' Chhatturpur, Bundelkhund. [bad. 
i, Bahadur Sing, Azim echo Murshida- 
rita Lal, F.c.s., L.M.S , Sankari- 

Sita Ram, B.a., Depy. sac peatohae Allahabad. 
Sivaprasad, 8.a., Offg. Junior Secretary to the 
Board of Reven Allahabad. 

oh Major O, A. ” 27th Punjabis. Hazari- 

Sofiulla Saifududdin Ahmed, Maulavi, Supdt. 
of Excise. ee ogong 

Southwell, B.0.8., ¥.Z 
Director of Rshectos 

*Spooner, Bev Brainerd. Ban 

Waiter "iat 

Philip Lechmen, District Sur-. 
G.I. P Railway. Igatpuri, Bombay. 
Stapleton, Henry Ernest, B.a.,, Dean 
Steen, he bo eae Barkley, M.B., I.M,S. Hurope 
( o/o In 

Stephen, ‘The fen Mr. Justice Harry Lush- 

. Lurope (c/o India Office). 
Fas a Lieut.-Col. John, 1.m.s. 
Stevens, Lieut.-Col. C. R., im.s. 

a Office). 

ones aa 


Date of Election. 

1907 arias a: 
1906 Dee. 5. 

1911 Feb. 1. 

1915 April. 7. 

1914 Jan. 7. 
1907 Aug. 7 

1907 June 5. 

1914 Mar. 4. 
1907 June 5. 

1909 Jan. 6. 
1914 April 1. 
1898 April 6. 
1906 Mar. 7. 
1904 July 6. 
1910 Aug. 3 

1893 Aug. 31. 
1906 Dec. 5. 
1878 June 5. 

1914 Aug. : 
1904 1 May 4 

1911 Mar. 1. 

~ 1909 Aug. 4, 
1908 Nov. 4, 

1898 Nov. 2. 
1911 July 5. 
1904 June 1. 

| N.R. 
F.M. | 


N.R. | 




FM. | 



| N.R 


.| Thanawala, Framjee Jamasjee. 

| Stewart, Capt. Francis Hugh, t.m.s. Bomba 

Stok kes, Captain Claude Bayfield, Military At. 

taché. eheran, Persia, 

| Stonebridge, Arthur W. Europe (c/o Messrs. 
Burn § Co. 

‘Storey, C. S.: Prof. of Arabic, M. A. O. 
College. igarh 

Strauss, Dr. O. Ahmednagar. 

|Subramania Iyer, — Extra Asst. 


| Suhrawardy, Abdullah Al- Ma’ min, Iftikharal 
Millat, M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., lagtats -at-Law. 3, 
Wellesley Ist Lane, Caleut 

- Sutherland, Lt.-Col. William Dunbar, 1,.M.s. 
U.S. Club, Calcutta 

Swinhoe, Rodway Charles John, Solicitor. 
Mandalay, Upper Burn 

Tagore, Kshitindranath, .a. 6/1 Dwarkanath 
Tagore Lane, Calcutta. 

praaiires Prafulla Nath. 1, Darpanarain 

Tagore, The Hon. Maharaja Sir Prodyat, Coo- 
mar, Bahadur, kt. Pathuriaghatta, Calcutta. 
paeaore, Rie Shyama Ku ndar. 
_ 65, Pathuriaghutia Street, Calcutta. 
Talbot, Walter Stanley, 1.c.s. 9, Pall Mall, 

Tancock, Capt. "Alexander Charles. 
i Moshi: N.W.F.P. 
man, Assi 

3lst Pun- 

stant oo 

85, Bazar 
Gate St., Fort, Bom 

Thomas, F. W., M. 
Office. London. 

Thompson, John Perronet, M.A., 1.¢.s. 

Thornely, Major, Michael Harris, I.M,S. 

Thornton, Edward, F.R.1.B.A. 

A Ph. p., Librarian, India 


6, Clive Street, 


Thurston, Capt. Edward Owen, 1.M.s., B.S., 
F.R.C.S. Hurope ( ia India Office) 
*Tipper, George Howlett, m.a., r.c.s, Europe 

(c/o Geological Survey of India) 


A. “Tomkins, BHecG.. 

Date of Election. 

1912 Nov. 6. 

1907 Feb. 6.| F.M. 
1861 June 5. | L.M. 
1894 Sep. 27.) R. 

1900 Aug. 29.| N.R. 
1890 Feb. 5. | N.R. 
1902 June 4.| R. 

1901 Mar. 6. |F.M. 
1894 Sept. 27.| L.M. 
1902 Oct. 29.) R. 

1909 Jan. 6.| N.R 
1907 July 3 R. 

1901 June 5.|N.R 
1911 Feb. ko} A, 

1905 Dee 6./|N.R.. 
1910 Sept. 7.| R. 
1909 Dec. 1. | N.R. | 
1913 April2.| R. 
1915 Jany. 6. | N.R 
1906 Sept. 19. N.R. | 
1909 April 7., A. 
1915 May. 5. |N.R. 

; | Whitehouse, ~— H., Prof. 
.| Whitehead, Richard Bertram, 1.¢.s. 

C.LE., F.R.AS. Hurope (c/o 

| India Office. 

*Travers, Morris William,, F.R,S., 
3, Warwick Gardens, Lisnidous ; 

“Trent James Dyer, M.A., 1.C.S. (retired). 
Dedham, Essex, England. 


ae Nagendra eee 20, Visvakos Lane, 
| Bagbazaar, Caleu 

“Vanghan, Lieut. Co canek Charles resent. 

I.M.s. Bhaga 

Le Vania, hata MA. D.Litt C4,5., FASB: 

| *Vidyabhusana, oe aya Satis 

_ Chandra, m.a., pbh.p. F.A.8.B. 26/1, Kanay 

| Lal Dhur’s Lane, Calcutta 

| | *Vogel, Jean Philippe, Litt.D , The 
University, Leiden, Holland. 

| Vost, Lieut.-Col. William, 1.m.s., Civil Sur- 
geon. Secunderabad, 

_*Vredenburg, Ernest, B.L., B.Sc., A.R.S.M., A.R.C.S 

| GB: FA By, Ohowringhee Road, "Cal. 

*Walker, rs Thomas, C.S.I.,, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.A.S.B., Director-General of Ovserva- 
tories. Simi, la. 

| Walker, Harold, st. M., 
Assistant Superintendent Eaticioal: Survey 
of India. alcutta. 

. Walsh, The Hon. Mr. Ernest Herbert Cooper, 

C.8.1., 1.C.8., Commissioner, Chota Nagpur 
Divn. Ranchi. 
Waren Dr. Harry George, F.R.1.P.H. 

rry Europe 
(c/o Hast Indian ping Jamalpur). 

_ Watson, Edwin Roy, M.a., Dacca 
| Watts, H. P., B.a. i £1. Loudon Street, 
| Calcutta. 
. Webster, J. E., 1.0.8. Sylhet, Ass 

| White, Baraard ‘Alfred. Chartered. Bunk Build- 
ings, Cale 

of Biology, 

| Agra College, Agr 


Umbala, Punjab 

| Wilkinson, Major Edmund, I.M.S.,L,R.C.S., D. Litt. 

Rush rook, , B.Litt., Prof. 
| of Modern Indian History, Allahabad Uni- 
versity. Allahabad. 

Date of EKlection. 

1914 May 6. 
1913 Dee. 3. 

1909 April 7. 
1912 Mar. 6. 

1906 Mar. 7. 
1908 April 1. 

1894 Aug. 30. 

911 Auge. 2 

a! o. 2, 
1906 June 6. 
1910 April 6. 

A. | Wilson, oe a Horace Hayman. 
70 a . 

R. | Wilson, Major Roger Parker, FR 
LM.s. Qampbell Agere Seildan “Galoutta’ 
.| Woodhouse, E. J., 

R. gerbe, The Bini See. Sir John George, 
4, Oa amac Street, Calcutta. 

= Waolna Alfred Cooper, m.A., Principal, Ori- 

Europe (c/o 

ental College. Lahore. 

R. | Wordsworth, William Christopher, Asst. 
Director of Public segue, Bengal. 
Writers’ Buildings, Calcut 

N.R.|} Wright, Henry Nelson, i 1.0.8. District 
Judge, Bareilly. 

N.R.| Young, Gerald Mackworth, B.A., 1.0.8. Simla. 

N.R. Young, Mansel Charles Gambier. Dhanbaid. 
N.R. | Young, Capt. Thomas Ghaviba McCombie, ™.8., 
M.S, Shillong, Assam 


Date of Election, | 

1884 Jan. 15. 

Dr. Ernst ea Professor in the University of 

Jena. Prussi 
1884 Jan. 15. — Professor i. H. Sayce, — of Assyrio- 
‘y, Queen’s College. ” Oakes ngland. 
Monee seca Senart. 18, eae Frangois Ter, 

1884 Jan. 15. | 

arts, France 


Vate of Election, 

1879 June 4. 
1894 Mar. 7. 
1895 June 5. 
1895 June 5. 
1896 Feb. 5. 

Dr. Jules Jansse Observataire d’ Astronomie 
Physique de Porte: Prance. 
Professor Theodor Noeldeke. O/o Mr. Karl T. 

Triibner, harms © Germany. 
Lord Rayleigh, M.A., (ie. Tai Ph.D., F.R.A.8., 
F.R.s. Ferling Pisce Witham, aly England. 
Chisies or Preah Esq., M.A., C.1.8. C/o India 
Professor ‘Charles Rockwell Lanman. 9, Farr 
Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S. America. 

Date of Election. 

1899 Feb. 
1899 Dec. 

1899 Dec. 

1901 Mar. 

1902 Nov. 

1904 Mar. 
1904 Mar. 

1904 Mar. 
1904 Mar. 
1904 Mar. 

1904 July 

1906 Mar. 

1908 July 
1908 July 

1911 Sept. 

1911 Sept. 
1911 Sept. 





1911 Sept. 6. 

1911 Sept. 


1915 Aug. 4. 

1915 Aug. 


Dr. Augustus Frederick Rudolf Hoernle, Ph.D., ¢.1-8. 
8, Northmoor Road, Oxford thee. d. 

Professor Edwin Ray Lakeater ff Ac, HbDAS eRe 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.), ‘Or omwell Road, 
London, 8.W. 

Pro taaot ‘Edward Burnett Tylor, D.c.L., LL.D., 
Keeper, University Museum. Oxford, go 

Professor John Wesley Judd, ¢.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Late Prof. of the Royal College of Science. 
30, Cumberlund Road, Kew, En 

Monsieur René Zeiller. Ingénieur en chef des Mines. 
Ecole superiewr des Mines, Paris. 

Professor Hendrick Kern. Utrecht, Holland. 

Professor Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, K.c.1.8. 

Professor Ignaz Geldaiher, Ph.D.,  D.Litt., LL.D. 

Sir Charles Lyall, m.a., K.C.8.1., C.1E., LL.D. 82, 


Sir William Ramsay, pPh.v. (Tib.), LL.D. sep. 
(Dubl.), F.c.s., F.1.c. University College, ‘Gower 

S : 
Sir George Abraham Grierson, K.C.1.8., Ph.D., D Litt., 
C.LE., 1.¢.8, (retired). Bekjocbon, Eberle: 

Surrey, England. 
The Right Hon’ble Baron Curzon of Kedleston, 
M.A., D.C.L.. F.R.S. 1, Carlton House Terrace, Lon- 

Lieut.-Col. pare ade: sham Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., 
£.8., ¥.R.G.8. a Godalming, Surrey, England. 
a = ‘Gitesbong "The University, Gottingen, Ger- 

Eieat. “Gol. Alfred William Alcock, ¢.1.8., M.B., LL.D., 
C.M.Z.8., F.RS., 1M.s. (r vleeees Heathlands, Erith 
d, Belvedere, Kent, ee eg 
iin agers George Brow e, oe .,) MB, MES. 
R.C.P., M.R.A.S. Pembroke Olas Oarsbred e. 
Dr. “k: Bale, Prof. of Systematic Botany, Univer- 

Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., 21, 
Eccleston Square, London, S.W. 

Serge we. aya Kam: ikhyanath Farkevagie. 

11-4, Shambazar Street, Calcutta 

Pas Paul Bas sory CEA, Dd. O.b. 19, Linton 
Ro 5 

Monsieur ae ‘ deston Darboux. 3 Rue Nazarine, 
, France. 

1915 Aug. 4. Sir Patrick Manson mM, G.C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., F.R.CP. 2) 

ueen Anne Street, Cavendish Square, ‘London, W. 


Date of Election. 

1915 Aug. 


1915 Auge, 4, 

sy! — John Thomson, Kt. 0.M., M.A., SC.D,, D.SC., 

Ph.p. Trinity College, Cambridge, England. 

Six “William Turner, K.C.B., M.B., D,C.L., LL.D., SC.D., 
R.C.8. 6, Lion Terrace, Edinburgh, Scotland. 


Date of Election. 

1910 Feb. 

1910 Feb. 
1910 Feb. 

1910 Feb. 

1910 Feb. 
1910 Feb. 

1910 Feb. 

1915 Feb. 

1915 Feb. 

bo bo bo bo OBO Pd bo 8 

MN SSN Peep po bo 

99 99 99 99 OT 





N. Annandale, Esq.,, C.M.Z.S., F.L.S 
ae sere 2 ustice Sir Agatiah Mukhopadhyay 
, ces. oes aan .R.8. E 

ue Burkill, ra = MA 

Mahamahopadhyaya Heaps ad Shastri, ¢.1.E., M.A. 

Sir Thomas Holland, k.c.1.8., D.Se., A.R.C.S., F.G.S., F-R.S. 

Dr. D. Hooper, F.¢.s., F.1.S. 

sls ae Bs LaTouche, Esq., 8 

i Bahadur Monmohan Ch eat rti, M.A., B.L. 

Lieut.-Colonel D. C. Phillott, sino Indian ‘Army 

Dr, Prafulla Chandra Ray, p 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Aba Kt., C.I.E., 

F.R,C.P., F.R.C.8,, 1.M.S. 
EK. D. 8, Kisq., C.1. 
Mahamahopadhyays "Batis raises Vidyabhusana, 
M.A., Ph.D., M.R.A 

M. W. Travers, i D.Sc., F.R.S. 

A. Venis, Esq., M.A., p.titt., C18. 

LS ae be Walker, Hsq., 0.8.1., D.8¢., M.A., F.R 
r KE, A. Gait, K.C.S.1., C.8.1., 

M.D., B.S., 

Br ies 

Capt. S. R. Christophers, 1.m 
Charles Stewart pn a tl Bik, 0.5. 
Major A age, I.M 
E. Vredenburg, Esq., B-I., B.Sc., A-R,8.M., A.R.C.S.. F.G.8. 
J. Ph. Vogel, Esq., ee fh, itt.D. 
S. W. Kemp, Esq., B 
Major E. D. We. Gicig bi. M.B., I.M,S 
G. H. Tipper, Esq., M.A., F.G.s. 
. B, Spooner, Esq., Ph.p. 
H. H. Haines, Esq., F.C.H., F.L.s, 



Date of Election. 

1875 Dec. 1.| Revd. J. D. Bate. 15, St. John’s Church Road, 

Folkestone, Kent, Englan nd. 

1882 June 7.| Herbert A. Giles, Esq., Lu.p., Professor of Chinese 
in the pci of Cambridge. Cambridge, 
Dr. A. Fiéhrer. Eur rope. 

Sarat ee Das, Rai Bahadur, ¢.1.n. 32, Creek 
Row, Calcutta. 

Revd. E. Francotte, s.s. 30, Park Street, Calcutta. 

he me H. Francke. Niesky Ober-Lausitz, Ger- 

1885 Dee. : 
1886 Dec. 

1899 Nov 
1902 Jane 


1909 Mar. 3.| Rai Balkrishna Atmaram Gupte, Bahadur. Bel- 
vedere, Calcutta. 

1910 Sept. 7. | Shamsul Ulama Maulvi Ahmad Abdul Aziz. 
pres Bag, City-Hyderabad, Deccan. 

1910 Sept. L. K. Anantha Krishna Iyer, Esq. Trichur. 

1910 Dee. Hosten: s.J. 30, Park Street, Calcutta 

1908 July 1. Babu SDinueh Chandra Sen, B.A. 19, Visvakos Lane, 

ie . 
1913 Feb. Ekendranath Ghosh, Esq., LM.s. Medical College, 
1914 Apl. 1. | Bada Kaji Marichiman Singha. Bir Library, Nepal. 
1915 Mar. 3. | E. Brunetti, a 27, Chowringhee Road, Calcutta. 
1915 Dec. 1, | Pandit Jainacharya ija., arma Snrisvaraji, 
Yasovijaya Grauthamal Office, Benares City 


7 ak 40.-—After the lapse of three years from the date of a 
member leaving India, if no intimation of his wishes shall in the 
interval have been received by oi Society, his name shall be re- 
moved from the List of Member 

owing members will *s removed from the next Mem- 
ber List of the Society under the operation of the above Rule:— 
George William Kuchler, ee., O.1L.E. 
A, White Robertson, Esq., L.R.c.P 
Major Edmund Wilkinson, L.M. s. 

By RetrremMent. 

Babu Surendra Chandra Banerjee. 
Norman Bonham-Carter, Esq., 1.c.s. 


Adrian Caddy, Esq., F.R.¢.s., 
Hon. Mr, Justice Asutosh Gtendhiuad: 
Alex. W. Davenport, Esq. 
Major William Donan, 1 

Japt. Henry Bertram Foster, M.S, 
Joseph Ernest Friend- Pereira, Esq. 
Kashi Prasad ny hadi Esq. 
Babu Saharam Kuma 
Hon. Sir J. 8. Mae: K.C.S 
Babu Phani Bhusan iskeree, B.Se, 
Dr. Indu Madhab Mallick, m.p 
Babu Pramathanath Mallik. 
Lt.-Col. Ernest Alan Robert Newman, t.,s. 
Lt.-Col Fairlie Russell Ozzard, t.m.s. 
Babu Radhakrishna 
Hon. Mr. Herbert Posderiuk Samman, I.¢,s 
John Hope Simpson, Esq., I.c.s 
Charles Somers Taylor, Esq., 
Rev. J. Wat 
Garfield Hodder Williams, Esq., m.x. 
Major Frank Needham Windsor, I.M.S 
William Henry Arden Wood, Esq. 
Pandit Monohar Lal Zutshi. 

By Deartua. 

oe Members. 
13 Ss. B Bian, hs 

Lieut.-Col. Francis Jone ess 

Edgar de Montfort Humphries, a , 1.0.8. 
Captain James Ranking, 1.4. 

Alceste Carlo Righo de Righi, Esq. 

St, John Stephen, Esq. 

Unper Rute 40. 

Capt. Frank Ftedise eso at 1.M.S. 
Walter Noel Edw sq. 
ieee Panchanan Gho os 

Wosras Leslie Hallward, Esq 
Major Lionel Lees Hepper, hoy Artillery, 
Samarendra Manlik, Esq. 
James Mollison, Esq. 
Lieut. Henry Cuthbert Pulley, 12th Pioneers. 
Lieut. Emile Charles —— , 1A 
t. H. Emslie Smith, 
eit Toth, Esq. 


Godfrey Francis Thorpe, Esq. 
David Robb Wallace, Esq. 

Lieut. Arthur Denban eM 
Capt. J. R. White 

Rev. Edward ae! Woodley. 


1893 Chandra Kanta Basu. 
1895 Yati Bhusana Bhaduri, m.a. 

1904 { Sarasi Lal Sarkar, m.a. 
Surendra Nath Maitra, m.a. 

1907 Akshoyakumar Mazumder. 

1911 Jitendra Nath Rakshit. 

: Jatindra Mohan Datta. 

ace Lal Datta. 

19134 Saradakanta Ganguly, 
Nagendra Chandra Nag. 
Nilratan Dhar. 

1901 KE. Ernest Green, Esq. 
1903 Major Ronald Ross, F.8.C.S., ¢.B., C.1.E., F.R.S., 1.M.S. 

1905 Lieut.-Colonel D. D. Cunningham, F.r.s., 0.1.z., 

I.M.s. (retired). 
1907 Lieut.-Colonel Alfred William Alcock, M.B., LL.D., 

C.LE., F.R.S. 
1909 Lieut.-Colonel David heed M.A. M.B., LL.D., 
F.R.S., I.M.S. (retire 
1911 Dr. Karl Diener 
1913 ee sib ee Glen aaa fase D., i 1.8., L.M.8 
1915 S. Gamble, Esq., ¢.1.£., 



THE YEAR 1915. 


19165. Asiatic Society 



Rs. As. P. Rs. Ags. P. 


Royal Society’s Scientific Catalogue 

786 1 
1,93,987 4 8 

Salaries... 6,929 lL 38 
Do. (Officer in charge for Researches it in 
History, a pecley and Folk- 
lore in Bengal) Betis Oo, G000 70 2.0 
Commissi 4 5 
Pension... oe ue eo 1 0 
Grain Allowance _ oat Ms: 128959 
——_——_ 11,374 3 5 
Stationery... see ae te 162 10 O 
xes ee fee 1495 0 O 
Postage 594 6 9 
Freig 21 4 6 
Auditing ... 150 0 O 
Light and Fans 156 411 
urance 343 12 O 
Petty Repairs ae * ne TU © 
Miscellaneous es oe a 318 9-5 
3,248 15 7 
Books Me A: oe 1,931 11 10 
Binding ... ue “ne 939 138 6 
—_—_—-—-_ 2,871 9 4 
Journal and Proceedings and oie oS Deeks coe 
oO. do. (An thropetogs Dues 1,940 0 9 
To printing charges of Ciienlaeh, et ae 381 2 0 
— 7 Or 8 Sey Gan 
‘Government Allowances a BG ae 9,600 0 0 
Furniture ore ese 286 0 O 
epairs a 1a 224 12 0 
Anthropological Instrumen ts vas 86 4 0 
Loan (Dr. Tessitori’s travelling expenses for 1914 ) a 698 13 0 
To Pe rsonal Account (write-off and miscellaneous) ie 465 7 6 


Totat Rs. Le 2,381,342 7 6 

No. 1: 
of Bengal. 

Caleutta, 31st December, 1915. 


Rs. As. P, Rs. As. P, 
- By Balance from last Report 1,96,680 4 8 
By CasH Receipts. 
Interest on Investments 7,360 15 5 
ent of 250 0 O 
Publications sold for cash 104 0 O 
Allowance from Government of Bengal = the 
publication of on 
An Ca pological ar ae 
subjects 2,000 0 0 
Do. do, Ohiet Comtnissiones of Assam 1,000 0 0 
Do. do, Government engal for 
Res baralinas: in His tory, Reli- 
' gion, Ethnolo By and Folk- 
lore in Benga seer id, 200 O26 
Printing and oe - ies see 2,113 8 9 
Miscellaneou es pss Iie 5 a | 
— 20,157 13 3. 
ee to nie scent le Scientific 
Catal 1,080 0 0: 
By Persona Account. 
Members’ subscription -. 10,446 0 0 
Admission fees 36.0.0 
Subscription to Journal and Proceedings a and 
Memoir. 1,848 0 0 
Sales on credit 433 5 0O 
Miscellaneous 128 
———-——__- 13.474 6 0 
Torat Rs. ie 2,31,342 7 6: 
KE. & O. E. 
R. D. Meuta, 

Hon. Treasurer. 

hee Orient coasts recut Fund, Mo. din 


Res: AsoP: has Aish 
Salar 1,987 3 2 
Grain atwaune 28.59 
Printing 5 .. 9,458 5 0 
Cc eR or ies Aes 55 3 4 
Postage Ses a pe na Ay gies eas 
Cc ontingencies eae ae ae CM Gs hacen 2 
Editing... 1,521 8 O 
In nce ps ae 0 ae 
Jtatione yA ef 
Light and Fan a “e 30 6 8 
uae chases for MS. pe iis 44 0 0 
Se 218 Gg 

nremmtimmcasn) ESBS 6 8 

To Personal Account (write-off and miscellaneous) wick 162 4 6 

Balance ea vv 2,300 3 4 

Toray Rs. ie 15,794 13 6 


1916. Oriental Publication Fund, No.2, 1 in 

Rs. As. P 
Printing charges ae < in Ae 995 10 
Balance os ta 5,109 3 0 

Torta Rs. pal 6,104 18 0 

IOs: =. 
cet. with the Asvatie Soc. of Bengal. 1915. 


Re. AaP. Rs, As.’ P: 
By Balance from last Report. es aie ae 3,085 9 38 


Government Allowance a er. 9.000 0 0 
Publications sold for cash P 485 15 9 
Advances recovered ne 402 0 9 
— 9,888 0 6 
By Personat Account, 
Sales on credit ee fp pts ae 2871) 3:9 
Tora Rs, eos 15,794 13 6 
K. & O. E. 
R. D. Meuta, 
Calcutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon. Treasurer. 

No. 38. 
meet eee the aidan Soe. ar Bengal. 1915. 

Rs. As. P. 
By Balance from last Report —... es oe 3.104 18 0 

Government Allowance vee te oo 3,000 0 0 
Torat Rs. ee 6,104 13 0 
E. & O. E 
R. D. Meata 

Caleutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon, Treasurer. 


1915. Oriental Publication Fund, No. 3, in 

Rs. As. P 
Printing charges ore ce ae: fhe! $10; 11-70 
Balance os oe ee 1,444 8 6 
‘TOTAL Rs. ai aa 1855 3.6 

1915. Sanskrit Manuscript Fund in Acct. 


Rs. As, P. He: As. 
Salaries... Po 1,598 13 6 
Contingencies is We re LL 23 
Grain allowance is ee ee 138 6 9 
Stationery .. . oe 
Purchase of Manuscripts 100 0 0 
Insurance . ea ane 125 0 0 
Light and Fans bee as oe 30 511 
; oes ue Si0. 00 

‘ 2,097 3 5 

Balance le uh 5,708 3 7 

Tora Rs. “a 780670 

No. 4, 
Acct. with the Asiatic Soc.of Bengal. 1915. 


Rea. Aa. P; 
By Balance from last Report ee ae mer. Loos S16 
Tota Rs. oe eve 7,855. 36 
E. & O. H, 
R. D. Meata, 
Oaleutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon, Treasurer. 

No. 8. 
with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1915, 

Rs. Ase. P. Rs. As. P. 
By Balance from last Report > = es 4,570 3 0 


Government Allowance ee ese 3,200 0 0 

Ps ake sold for cash s 40 

Advances recovered ... ‘a 24 0 
3,210 4:0 

By PersonaL AccoUnNT. 
Sales on credit et see eee ove ot am sa 
Tota Rs. peut TOG 60 
BE. & O. KE. 
R, D, Meuta, 

Calcutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon, Treasurer. 

1915. Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund in 

BS. AR, Px Ray Agsce: 
Travelling charges... ig ti 327 
Salaries... ee a 3,169 11 10 
ontingencies 168-9 
Stationery .. 8 
nsurance +h pee Be 8 
Binding... 61 12 0 
Grain allowance i 1 0 O 
Postage... aes ras koe OoxsesG 
Printing... ua cis eae 2622-0 
— —_——- 3,650 10 1 
Balance ae ee 5,298 8 6 
Totat Rs. ae 8,949 2 T 

1916. Bardie Chronicle MSS. Fund in 

Re, Asi P: Rs. As. P 
Salary she 6,500 0 0 
Travelling ... 698 13 0 
7.198 13 0 
Balance ee ‘ies 1,666 10 9 

Toran Rs ie 8,865 7 9 


NO: 6G: 

Acct. with the Asiatic Soc.of Bengal. 1915. 


Me; AS. 

By Balance from last Report sa = si 3,949 2 7 

Government Allowance 5,000 0 0 

Tora Rs, ae 8,949 27 

E. & O. EK. 

i R. D. Menta, 
Calcutta, 31st December, 1915. 

No, 7: 

Hon, Treasurer. 

Acct. with the Asiatie Soe. of Bengal. 1915. 

Rs, As. P. Ra, As: PP. 
By Balance from last Report... ne se 2,166 10 9 
By Cash RECEIPTs. 
* scart Allow He aa 6,000 0 0 
n (from Ablatig Aosiety) ed ey 698 13 0 a 
_ 6,698 13 0 
Tora Rs. um) 8,865 7 9 
E. & O. E. 
R. D. Menta, 

Calcutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon, Treasurer. 

1915. Anthropological Funds tn Account 


Raz AB:cF. Kaas 

Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs a 1,940 0 
aes a ey es BES Boe 
Balance ne 886 7 3 
Totat Rs. He 3,000 0 O 

1915. Bureau of Information in Account 


RaivAs, 'P. Rs. As:P: 

Salary ie ae ve 
Balance eae eee 3,000 0 0 
Torat Rs. 6,600 0 0 

1915. Barclay Memorial Fund in Account 

Rs. As. P. Rs, As, P: 
To Balance ... i 637°. 98:6 
ToraL Rs. Ey 537° 9.6 


No. 8. 
with the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1915. 


By CasH Receipts. 
Rs. As. P. Rs. As. FP. 
Bengal Government allowance... a 2,000 

if uv ee oe 4 0n—0) 0 3.000. 0.0 

ToTat Rs. eke 3,000 0 0 
E. & U. E. 
R. D. Meuta, Hon. Treasurer 

No. 9. 
eee ihe sitibeiakad Societs ina of Bengal. 1915. 


Rs. As, P. Re. As. P. 

Government allowance 6.600 0 0 

Totat Rs, sue 6,600 0 O 

E. & O. EK. 
R. D. Menta, Hon. Treasurer. 

No. 10. 
with the ‘Asiatic Soetety of Bengal. 1915. 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P, 
By Balance as nage Alliance Bank of Simla, 
Ltd., Calcutta, Pass Book dated the 31st 
December 1918. as detailed below— 
‘‘) GP, poe taamiees ne je Rs.600 0 O 
Interest 37 

9 6 
637 9 -6 
Totat Rs. tis 587 9 6 

E. & O. EK. 

R. D. Menta, Hon. Treasurer. 


To Balance from last Report 



Advances for reac of manuscripts, etc. ... 384. 6 3 
To Ae Si Se, OO 
tal Publication Fand, No. 1 2871-3 <9 
psine MSS. Fund 25 2070 
16.755 .0° 0 
Toran Rs. 22,887 6 3 
1915. Invest 
- Face Value. Cost. 
Ba. . As: P. Rs. As. P. 
» To Balance from last Report 2,48,700 0 O 245,563 8 10 
», Purchase a 10,100 0 0 10,100 0 0 
» 34 °/, G.P. Notes 5 (8) 
Tora Rs. . 2,59,300 0 O 2,566,163 8 10 
Funps ——- Total Cost 
Face Value, Cost | Value, | Cost. 4 
Pte hone — | : | — | 
Rs. whe. Ree iacté, Be ale.) Re Iie Re «| Pe 
Asiati iet 1,66,200 a} 6 1,64,885) 9 g 44,200 0 0 42,395/18) 2 2,07,281 ito 
Fund 46,982 | ae reo es oe weleee|  46,982/12 
Trust Fund é 1400 6} 1,899 «) 0) Pei Be ane Pa 
Barclay Memorial Fund) 500| 0} 0 500, 4] 0 ae eS --|--| 500} 0 © 
Torat Rs, 3 2,16,100) 0 0) 218,767 11] 8 44,200) 0 0} 42,395 8 a 2,536,163) 8/10 


NGs 11. 
Accownt. L9TS: 

Ra, As, P, Rs. As. P 

By Ca sh Receipt é Bod 16,055 7 0O 
, Asiatic Soc ees 4° 6 
ONG we 162° 4 6 

re oo riental Publication | Fund, No. 1 

Due to the Due by the 
By Balance. Society, Society. 
Rs. | Ase} P. Rs, |As.| P. 
Me mabe v8 - | 5,4041 9] 0; 59] 31] 8 
Emp! 30} 0} 0 00; 0] 96 
Orient Publication 
Fund, No. 482 0 0 co er 
Sanskrit Mes. 
300 | 0} 0 Ee ik 
Miscellaneous - 238} 9/1 6 31} 12} 0 
[eae 2/6] 199115] 3 
eS me | 6,204 3 3 
Tota Rs, bE 22,887 3 
HE. & O, E, 
R. D, Menta, 
Caleutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon. Treasurer. 
No: 12. 
ment. 1916. 
Face Value, Cost, 
: Rs. As, P. Rs. As. P. 
By Balance adh oo - 2,59,300 O O 2,56,163 8 10 
ToraL Rs... .,, 2,59,300 OC O 2,56,163 8 10 

E. & O. E. 
R. D. Menra, 

Calentta, 31st December, 1915. Hon. Treasurer. 


1915. | Trust 

Rs: Aa; P. Rs. As, P 
To Pension oe eas oes 52 0 0 
», Commission for realising interest <a 04 0 
—- 5 0 
Balance ‘seb can 1,469 15 10 
Totat Rs. ye 1622: 8°10 

1915. Building 

Rs. As. P 
To Commission for realising interest ve Ss 6° 0 
Balance ane a 46,982 12 0 

Tora Rs. rie 46,986 2 0 
a reer 


Fund. 1918. 


Re. AacP: 
By Balance from last Report... ee 3% 1,473 3 10 
Interest ... se sa at a 9 0 
Tortat Rs. Ae 1,522 3.10 
E. & O. E. 
R. D. Meata, 
Caleutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon. Treasurer. 
m0: 14, 
Fund. £9.16. 
Rs As. P. 
By Balance from last Report —... me pie 45,586 2 0 
By Cash RE&cErPTs. 
Interest .,, ae ve 1,400, 0 0 
Toran Rs. wy 46,986 2 0 
E. & O. é 
R. D. Menta, 

Caleutta, 31st December, 1915. Hon. Treasurer. 


19105. Cash 
Ra. Ase. 
To Balance from last Report nae es ve OOS: 5.3 
Rs As. P 
To ae Society <i; (Bh woos 20S 
» Ori i Publication "eiigae No. : 9.888 0 6 
3,000 0 0 
» San skrit Manuscripts had A a 3,210 4 0O 
» Arabic and Persian Fund ae 5,000 O 0 
.. Bardic Chevette “MSS. Fond . aes 6698 13 0 
,. Personal Account ... ee ee 16,008. Fe 20 
» Trust Fan as ei 49 0 0 
a Barclas il hen “e Ai ee : O20 
“e orial Fund i 537 9 6 
- Heeteatieninvet Fund see o 3,000 0 0 
, Burean of Information ae ; 0 
76,676 15 3 
Torat Rs, ip 7,352 4 4 
1910. Balance 
Bs: (As. Po - Re, AG. 
Asiatic Society + de Ger 4: 8 
Orien sa Publication Fund, No. 1. ak 2.300 3 4 
Soot ee 
De, do. No. . nS 1,544 8 6 
Sanskrit MSS. Fund cig sat 5,708 3 7 
Arabic and Persian MSS. Fund ... ie 5,298 8 6 
Bardic Chron e MSS. Fund seb tas 1,666 10 9 
Trust Fun pep hy 15 10 
aildin ma d i 45H 46,982 12 0 
Anthropological Fand ey y aie 
Bareau of Information he ues 3,000 0 0 
lay Memorial Fund vb ra 537 9 6 
RMR ERT 2,68,491 6 11 
Tota Rs. = Donato: 6 11 
e examined the above Balance 8! riba appended detailed —— igor the books 
Ms soormine to us, and accordance hi ith, 
the position of resented oe, and ceray hat cise amaeed sade gta eu 
21st March, 16. piesa fMhar ne Hedi ONY 


Account. LTD. 
hs. As. P. Rs, As. P. 
By oe Society -- 986,889 11 4 
>», Oriental Publication Fand, No. a icy Sates. 6. 8 
” hg do. No. oe, 995 10 0O 
” do. No. : ees 310 11 O 
s Sansii Oe ae, ola . aes 2,097 3 5 
» Arabic Fund es ah 3,650 10 1 
7 sd Chronicte MSS. Fund ase 7108 18 <6 
» Perso S ae 384 6 3 
ey Sewers PRS | VG" 1 Ug fA 8 
» Trust Fund 52 4 0 
» Building Fu 3 6 0 
i bege es 1 Fo nd * ee 2113 8 9 
, Bureau of Inileewation ede os 3,600 0 0 
_— 81,228 9 6 
Balance ee Nee 6,123 10 10 
Tota Rs, ave 87,352 4 4 
E. & O. E. 

Calcutta, 31st December, 1915. R. D. Menta, Hon. Treasurer. 

No. 16. 

Sheet. 1915. 
Res As F: ne. Ae P 
Personal Account ‘a Be ret 6,20 s 
* Investment ws te oS Be IGS. 810 
Cash Account =o esd af) 6,123 10 10 
————— ——— 2,65.491 611 

e Government Pro Notes in the Bank 
of “Benga Safe Custody and the Cashier’s 
Security Deposit, Rs. 500. 

Toran Rs. si 2,68,491 6 11 
E. & O. EB. 

Calcutta, 31st December, 1915, R, D. Meurta, Hon. Treasurer. 


Liabiligy up to lst December, dale. 

Asiatic Society 

Oriental Publication Fund, “No. 1 (For Eien and editing) | 
"De. do. 


Sanskrit MSS. Fund 


No. 2 (For 

No. 3 (For ates 

Tora Rs. 

9.131 11 

oooce . 


The Third Indian Science Congress, Lucknow, 
January, 1916. 

The Third Indian Science Congress was held in Lucknow 
on January 13th, 14th and 15th, 1916, under the presidency of 
Colonel Sir Sidney Burrard, K.C.S.I., R.E., F.B.S. The meet- 

His Honour Sir James Meston, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
United Provinces, was present at the opening Meeting and wel- 
comed the visitors in the following speech :— 

‘Sir Sidney Burrard, Ladies and Gentlemen,—It is my 
pleasant duty to welcome the Science Congress to Lucknow, to 

I should not on such an occasion presume to address you on any 
subject in which the Congress is interested, even if I had the 

aorist was of greater value than the marvels of 
nature, it is not given to do more than penetrate the outer 
Courts of the tabernacle; to do more than to gaze with the 
admiration and envy of i 
Within t 


y ass 
who fails “tb recognize the supreme importance of adequate 
Scientific advice and assistance in the problems which face him 
day by day. We sometimes may ask impossibilities of science. 
Many of you perhaps remember how a bumptious cross- 
examiner once tackled Lord Kelvin upon a subject in which he 
was the greatest master in the world, and perhaps you will 

lxxx Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

gentlemen, we do want your advice in every problem that 
comes before us. We want it most insistently on all the great 
questions of industrial advance, which are of high importance 
to India at this particular juncture of her history. We want 
your advice and help in questions of public health, in dealing 
with disease and in ameliorating the physical hen of the 
people. We want your psychology in what is p ssibly the most 
important and greatest of all our problem roy “the problem of 
education, and we want your help very particularly in the task 
of increasing the agricultural productivity of our lan In 
every one of these problems we pit Soy thank science for the 
timely help that it has already gi 
It would probably be inouienial'ts to them if I attempted 
to axptes the indebtedness of this province to some of my own 
colleagues, such as Major Sprawson in his investigations in 
tubercular disease, or Mr. Leake in his enquiries into the cotton 

outside our borders, the great Research Instit 
worthily represented here to-day, which has laid its indelible 
mark of beneficence upon the welfare of our rural millions 
And now, ladies and gentlemen, I will not stand for another 
moment between you and the joys of the presidential address. 

meeting place this year, and our hope that when your work is 
over, you wi will carry away some pleasant recollections of our 
fair city.’’ 



By seen’ Sir Sipney G. Borrarp, K.C.8.1., R.E.., 
F.R.S., President of the Congress. 

Plates A and B. 

When I learnt that’ the Committee of the Indian Science 
Congress had honoured me by electing me the President for 
the year and by asking me he ive an address to this meeting, 
I decided to invite the attention of the Congress to the un- 
solved problems igang the formation of mountains. 
scientific world is now divided into numerous branches of 
specialists fllowing their own roads, but the study of moun- 
tains belongs to no specialist branch; it is not a road, but a 
junction of in roads, and geologists and astronomers, 
phy and sabiion clea ce. geographers and geodesists all 
eet at that junction for discussion. I have approached the 
acon from the roads of geography and geodesy, and I 


1916. | The Third Indian Science Congress. Ixxxi 

ing of the problems under consideration is, what is the rela- 
tionship of these plains to those mountains. 

This is an outline map of the United Provinces; you will 
see that these Provinces have three geographical divisions; 
there is the Himalayan area to the north, there are the level 
plains in the centre, and there is the ancient table-land on the 

These great plains in the centre have been formed of loose 
sediment brought down by the Ganges, Gogra and other rivers: 
a borehole was sunk at Lucknow 1,500 feet deep, but no rock 
bottom was reached. 

is is a section across the United Provinces. If you 

are totally different; here the rocks have undergone continued 
compression, elevation, and disturbance throughout the ter- 
tiary period, and our earthquakes prove that these movements 
of the Earth’s crust in the north of the United Provinces have 
hot yet ceased. = 
i I ask you to consider how does this ancient table-land join 
on to these younger mountains that are always suffering from 
movements in the crust? If we could dig out from the Gan- 
getic trough all the silt deposited by the Himalayan rivers, 
what kind of rocky junction should we find under Lucknow ? 


hundred years ago the accepted idea was that mountain 
_ Tanges were due to the upward pressure of liquid lava and that 
their elevation had been caused by volcanic forces. But when 
seologists began to study the structure of rocks, they found 
hat mountains had suffered from great horizontal compres- 
Sion which was evident from the folding of strata. This dis- 
covery led to the idea that mountains had been elevated not by 
Vertical forces, but by horizontal forces which squeezed the 
rock upward. The wrinkling of the Earth’s crust into moun- 
tains by horizontal forces was explained by the cooling of the 

Ixxxli Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Earth: this is the well-known Contraction reer illustrated in 
this diagram ; the Earth’s interior is held to cool and to co 
tract, and the outer crust is supposed to fet too large for the 
shrinking core and to wrinkle. 

About 1860 the observations of the cao in these 
Provinces brought to light a most important and t otally un- 
expected fact, namely that the Himalaya were not exercising 
an attraction at all commensurate with their 

This instrument is a plumb-line. It is a simple weight 

the Earth’s mass will be pulling the weight vertically, and the 
mass of the Himalaya will pull it horizontally. You may 
think that the mass of the Himalaya is very small compared 
with that of the Earth ; that is true, but we can measure by 

question was, Will the Himalaya deflect the — suffi- 
ciently to affect the observations of the Survey ? 

The plumb-line was observ Hes KaMaive: a village near 
Muzaffarnagar in the United Provinces, 60 miles from the foot 
of the mountains: the observers found that the Himalaya were 
exercising no appreciable attraction. Archdeacon Pratt, the 
mathematician, then calculated from the known dimencions of 
the Himalaya mass the attraction that the Himalaya should 
exercise. Geographical exploration has taught us more about 
the dimensions of the Himalaya and Tibet than Pratt knew, 
and Major Crosthwait has now revised his actual figures. By 
the theory of ee the vara ought to be deflected 
at Kaliana 58 s towards the hills ; it is not deflected at 

all. It hangs als: This discovery was the first contri- 
bution made by geodesy to the study of mountains. The dis- 
covery was this, that the Himalaya behaved as if they had no 
mass, asif they were an empty eggshell; they seemed to be 
made of rock, and yet they exercised no more attraction than 
air. From the Kaliana observations Pratt deduced his famous 
theory of mountain compensation : he explained the Kaliana 

and oceans. The visible mounta s, he said, are compen- 
sated by deficiencies of rock biadaesreatis them. This is the 
theory of Mountain Compensation. 

The c scleagusaniabie of the Himalaya is not believed now tobe 
exactly complete and perfect: they seem to be compensated to 
the extent of about 80 per cent; their total resultant mass is 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. Ixxxiii 

interior shrinks and if the outer crust is squeezed up into 
wrinkles like this, the mountains must possess much additional 
mass: the theory of compensation forbids such additional 

The contraction theory was gradually becoming discredited 
under the attacks of Fisher, Dutton and others, and it 
seemed some years ago to be moribund, when it was given a 
fresh lease of life by the publication and translation into 

the courtesy of its criticisms have won for Suess’s work uni- 
versal admiration. 

the issue, as some writers do, by the indefinite adoption of con- 
n mind he is 
quite clear to his readers. He states that he does not believe 
in the compensation of mountains by underlying deficiencies of 
mass. Now the compensation theory has been 
true in India, Europe and America: nowhere do mountains 
attract the plumb-line as the law of gravitation would lead us 
to expect. So you see that the geodesists are sharply opposed 
to the school of Suess. Now what is Suess’s reason for reject- 
ing the theory of mountain compensation? It is this: he 
states quite clearly, ‘‘ mountain compensation is inconsistent 
with all geological observations.”” Whilst I admit that moun- 
tain compensation is inconsistent with certain geological 

Ixxxiv _ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XI, 

the sn I eh not believe that it is inconsistent with geological 

If the Eisilnys had the uncompensated mass which they 
appear to have, and which the school of geologists who follow 
Suess ascribes to them, they would attract the waters of the 
Indian Ocean over India; the plains of Northern India would 
be a great sea; this sea would be 300 feet deep above Allaha- 


But if the theory of “Kegan ag has inal ne at the 
hands of its opponents, it has suffered also from its friends. 
Pratt’s theory of compensation hae, been cee into a 

i eb 

tive deficiency of density; Sir George ‘Aity, ye Astronomer 
Royal, suggested that mountains were compensated because 
they were floating upon a heavy subterranean magma. Pratt 
never went as far as this; he merely said, ‘‘ the mountains are 
compensated.’’ Airy went further; he said, ‘the mountains 
Distinguished geologists, Fisher, Dutton, Old- 
ham, have developed the idea of flotation 

The th ieory of flotation lays down that the mouutains are 
supported in their present positions by hydrostatic pressure, 
just as an iceberg floats upon water. ave no time to dis- 
cuss this theory at length, but I should like to point out to 
you that if an iceberg * floats s upon water, its weight must be 
compensated by underlying deficiencies of density: the theory 
of flotation does not state this with regard to mountains; it 

i ensat 

argument against flotation. This im a gare of compensa- 

tion differentiates rock from water: denotes rigidity. 
What I have been ere the theory of tation is frequently 
called Isostasy. ave however purposely 

avoided using the sed Isostasy, as its exact meaning is open 
to question. Isostasy is a condition of t eee equili- 

1916. | The Third Indian Science Congress. Ixxxv 

Grea is a condition of compensation in a solid crust; it 
does not necessarily imply hydrostatic support, as flotation 
. Ith 


very important work has been that of Mr. Hayford 
who ae recently discussed the eee of the plumb-line at a 
large number of stations in Americ He has confirmed Pratt. 
Hayford has investigated the depth to which the deficiency of 
density underlying mountains goes down, and he has found 
that that depth is between 60 and 90 miles. That is to say, he 
has shown that the depth of subterranean compensation is very 
great compared with the height of mountains. The disc =e 
that mountains originate from the great depth of 60 to 90 m 
is the second important contribution of geodesy a rg are ; 
the first was compensation, the sin is great 

Most books are written on the mption oa mountains 

are surface wrinkles and that their sebtaes can be determined 

tpura range runs east and west south of the Nar- 

eastward continuation of the Satpura range. A high authority 
has stated that the Hazaribagh nis Chota Nagpore neon 
can have no real connection wit e Satpura range, becaus 
they are formed of different mee But if we regard this 
ine as rising tie a depth of 75 miles, its elevation will be 

a deep-seated cause that has nothing to do 
with the te rocks. One deep-seated cause has lifted u 
this range from the Narbada to amends irrespective of the 
kind of rocks lying on the surface 


e now discussed the two principal theories of Hima- 
layan elevation, the Contraction theory and the Flotation 
theory. Let us consider for one moment how this deep oes 
tic trough is explained by these two theories. For a 
number of years the Contraction theory ignored this trough 
it was, I think, Professor Suess who first recognised that the 
trough had to be fitted into the Contraction theory. His ex- 
planation of it was this: as the Earth’s interior contracts, the 
surface of Asia is wrinkled, the wrinkles get pushed south- 

I "The id idea of flotation has is oe bee the guention of ecraaseerna 
Support has been m precedence of the ) ques ion of mountain-elevation. 
ot wpe ee t d be subsidiary to questions 

of “comic ig and origin. If mountains are due to the vertical expansion 
of rock, a theory of flotation is S superfluous. 

Ixxxvi Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

wards against the Indian table-land, and the rock surface of 
Northern India gets compressed into a downward bend 
tween the mountains and the table-land. This explanation is 

The explanation of the Gangetic trough that is supplied 
by the Flotation theory is this: the Earth’s crust is likened to 
a floating raft: the more weight you place upon a raft, the 

massive rocks of Kaimur and Mirzapur supported easily by the 
crust, it is difficult to believe that it cannot support a thin 
layer of silt without yielding. 

You will see from this chart, that the Ganges and Indus 
have filled up their trough with silt, but that the Tigris and 
Euphrates are behindhand; the Persian Gulf is an unfilled 
trough which will be filled in time 

28,000 feet. How then can it be argued that the Ganges 
trough has been created by the weight of its own silt, when we 
see that the Euphrates trough and the Japanese trough are un- 
filled. These troughs exist before the silt comes to them. 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. IXXXVii 

the Himalaya were simply compensated, this plumb-line 
should be hanging at Lucknow exactly vertical; if the moun- 
tains were not compensated, it should be deflected here about 
59” towards the north. But it is deflected 9” towards the 
south. The observers were astonished to find that at places in 

The new lesson to be learnt from the piumb-line is this: a 
hidden subterranean channel of deficient density must be skirt- 
‘ing the mountains-of India. Here in North India is a wide 
zone of deficient density, of crustal attenuation ; it is the pre- 
sence of this zone of deficiency that accounts for the southerly 
deflection of the plumb-line. What is the meaning of this 
zone ? ow has it come into existence ? 

If you look at this section (Plate B) the Earth’s crust in 
these outer Himalaya has been compressed laterally : of this 
there is no doubt. The area between the snowy range and the 
foothills is a zone of crustal compression. And I suggest 

ment of the compression. I have pointed out that the Himalaya 
mountains are largely, but not completely compensated by their 
underlying deficiencies of density : their compensation is how- 
ever rendered complete by the presence of the Ganges trough ; 
if the Himalayan compression and the Gangetic tension are con- 
sidered together, it will be found that there is no extra mass. 
thus teaches that the Gangetic trough and the 
Himalaya Mountains are parts of one whole. The Contraction 
theory and the Flotation theory both treat the Gangetic 

and the decisive event; the Himalaya Mountains may have 
been a secondary effect, a sequel to the opening of the 
Hyporuesis oF 4 Rirv. 

I showed you on the evidence of the plumb-line that the 
Gangetic trough was a zone of crustal attenuation, a zone in 

Ixxxviii Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

which the Earth’s crust was deficient in density. I then took 

tion: I ay that the Ganges plains cover a great rift in the 
Earth’s crust. 
The eit is a cooling globe; an increase of temperature 
occurs as we descend into mines; and this temperature gradi- 
ent is a proof that the Earth is losing heat by conduction 
outwards. The discovery of radium has not affected the argu- 

The smaller bodies of the ee abe hanes the Moon and 
other satellites seem to be cold; the Earth has a cold ees 
and a hot interior; the larger pr s are believed still to 
Maiits heated surfaces, whilst the Sun is still a globe of fire. 
The inferences are warranted that all the bodies of the solar 
system were hot at one time, and that the smaller have lost 
their heat. So I say that the Earth is a-cooling body. The 
rock composing the crust and sub-crust is however a bad 
conductor, and the interior of the Earth will not shrink ey 
from its crust, as has been assumed in the Contraction theory 
The inner core of the Earth is in fact not losing heat appre- 
ciably. The outer shell was the first to lose its heat, then the 

or co As the oute 

einer cooling, they become eae small for the core, and they 

ack. Supposing we had here a great globe of rock, red-hot 
chitighont ; how would it cool? Can you imagine it cooling in 
such a way that the core became too smal] for the outer shell, 
and the outer shell meni wrinkled? No; the outer shell 
would = first, and would crack. 

outer shell of the Barth was the first to crack millions 

of oeark ago: now a lower shell, the sub-crustal shell, is crack- 
ing. When a oreik occurs in the sub-crust, parts of the upper 
crust in. 

You will see that this Indus-Ganges trough has the appear- 
ance of acrack. And there are reasons for believing that these 

alaya have been split off from this ancient table-land and 
have been moved northwards and crumpled up into mountains. 
This Assam plateau is stated by geologists to resemble in its 
structure and rocks me Indian table-land; Assam has been 
split off and moved a 

Here are the srt coal-fields, and just opposite on the 
other side of the trough are the Sikkim coal-fields; and the 
coal in the two places is similar. The rocks of the outer 

alaya have been very much crushed, but they still bear a 
resemblance to the rocks of the Vindhyan table-land. 

Here are the Arravalli mountains which end now at the 

1916.} The Third Indian Science Congress. Ixxxix 

Delhi ridge; Mr. Middlemiss has found signs of a transvers 
strike in the Himalaya on a continuation of the Areavalli 

Similarity also exists between the rocks in Cutch and 
those on the other side of the Indus in the hills of Sind. 


Geologists have discovered that the ancient table-land of 
the Vindhyas and Deccan is a remnant of a much greater 
table-land that | in very early ages included Africa and Arabia. 
Africa and Arabia and the Deccan table-land are in fact frag- 
ments of one extensive and ancient continent. Hitherto I 

northern edge of the Indian table-land. Let us now consider 
whether this trough is Se phe aes to the east or to the west. 

On the east we find one of the great ee deeps off the 
coast of Java and Shaintis. Tt is 24,000 feet deep. In 1883 
the Krakatoa eruption took place in the Sunda Straits. Great 
depths have also been discovered off the Nicobar Islands and 
earthquakes have occurred on the Chittagong coast. In con- 
tinuation of the Gangetic trough we thus find in a Bay of 

engal a line of seismic activity, and of submarine deeps. 

To the west of Karachi we see the Persian Gulf, and the 
plains of the Tigris-Euphrates. The plains of the Tigris- 
Euphrates are very similar to those of the Ganges: they consist 
of mud, sand and sediment lying in a long trough between the 
ancient. table-land of Arabia and the mountains of Persia. 

Further west we find the Euphrates trough is continued 
by the Mediterranean Sea, and the Mediterranean is ed 
on the north by the Taurus mountains, by the Balkans, 
Carpathians, Appenines and Alps. 

Throughout the whole distance from Calcutta to Sicily we 
see that the old table-land India-Arabia-Africa is bounded on 
the north by a long trough, and wee this trough is in its turn 
bounded by the younger mountain ranges from the Himalaya 
to the Alps. Geologists have ge ee. that all these moun- 
tain ranges were elevated in the same era; they are all of the 
Same age. 

I submit for Fone consideration that the Ganges-Indus- 
Euphrates-Mediterran on ee is an indication at the Earth’s 
Surface of a rift in the pain 

When we get as far west as Sicily, we reach a eam of 

active volcanoes, Etna and Stromboli. Italian Geo 
ee Ee Sicily has been separated from Aivica by nea 
su widen 

The whole zone from Java to Sicily has been visited by 

earthquakes throughout the historic cane And the recent 

xc Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

earthquakes in Shillong, Dharmsala and Messina saere that 
seismic activity is continuing in our time. This is in fact one 
of the zones of the Earth, along which paickuuales occur most 

In the last 300 years 64 destructive earthquakes are 
known to have occurred in India!: there van ave been 
others of which there is now no record. Of the 64 violent 
Indian Earthquakes 58 have occurred aiong the Tile Gone 
zone. These may be grouped as follow 

Assam- Bengal. . Bs Meta 
Outer Himalayas te ys 
Northern Punjab and Kashmir a Si ¥ | 
Southern pari of aepeetie plain .. St ae 
Cutch and Sin a a 

Total a BS 

we consider the whole zone from Bengal to Sicily, we 
find from Milne’s catalogue that the numbers of 9 peed 
earthquakes since 1615 can be grouped as follows: 

India a a OS 
Mesopotamia and Syria “ ag 
Eastern Moditerensiead n a eae BA 
taly . 482 
In the last 300 years a destructive ones “a occurred 
in Northern India on an average once in every 5 or 6 vears 

From Log Nor to tHe BLAcK Spa. 

us now glance to the north of the long mountain zone 

that extends from China to France. You will see north of 

Tibet there is the large inland basin of Lob Nor; then here are 

the ee plains of the Oxus; then co me the Caspian and 

mountains we see a long soa one trough: north of the line 
of mountains we find not a continuous trough, but a series of 

ran parallel to ‘the Himalayan-Alpine trends. Here you see 
the Pamirs. The high Pamir plateau consists of parallel ranges 
running east and west. sk eastern and western continua- 
tions of the Pamir ranges seem to have foundered into the 
abyss, those on the east sacs | ellen into Lob Nor, those on 
the west into the Oxus depression. 

! Milne’s Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. 

1916., The Third Indian Science Congress. xci 
Here again you will see that one of the chains of the 

Caucasus has foundered into the Caspian, and the western 

falling into the rifts ? 

THE Bompay Coast. 

I 8 
From the Tapti to Cape Comorin runs the range of mountains 

known as the Western Ghats. Ig range is parallel to the 
coast of India and about 40 miles inland; it rises sudde 
wi steep scarp. The strata are almost as horizontal as 

e have been puzzled for years by the plumb-line at Bombay ; 
we used to think that the rock under the ocean must be 30 
dense and heavy, that it was able to pull the plumb-lines 
; : . 

towards the sea. Major Cowie however, observed in th 
throughout the Bombay coast but not round Kathiawar. It is 

In Northern India the plumb-line will persist in hanging 
away from the visible mountains and at Bombay it takes the 
Same course, and when I consider its constant seaward deflec- 
tion I can only suggest to you, that there must be, between 
Bombay and the Western Ghats, a zone of subterranean defi- 
ciency, a zone of fracture and subsidence like that of the 
Gangetic plains. 

The secret is hidden below the Earth’s crust: you will see 
that the Ghats have been forced (possibly by underground 
fracture) into a decided curve just above Bombay harbour; it 
is significant that at this curve the Deccan Trap rises to its 
highest point, Kalsubai. 


xcil Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

d. The crac 
has been filled by enecs of fallen rock and by alluvial deposits 

brought down by ri 
Geologists aay Biaeat that this ie consists, from 
sii d 20° to 16°, of the lavas of the Deccan, comparatively 

recent rocks, whilst from latitude 16° to 8° the range consists 
of ancient arene rocks. The rocks of the northern part 
of the range are of a different age and structure and origin 

Nevertheless geodesists contend that this is one and the 
same range: the rocks composing it have had nothing to do 
with its elevation. The Western Ghats have been elevated 
after the Deccan lavas had become solidified ag surface rocks. 
Their ileal has taken place in the Tertiary age. 
will turn to the eee Ghats (Plate A); at Madras 
and ‘se Wikioapetign we fi jal e plumb-line hanging towards 
the sea. Here we have the same phenomenon as we witnessed 
at Lucknow and at Bombay, “the plumb-line turns away from 
the mountains. I will not repeat myself, but I suggest again 
that this coastal zone, like the western, covers asub-crustal crack. 
I told you just now that in the last 300 years there had 

destructive earthquakes are recorded as having occurred = 
Hyderabad, or at Bangalore, or at Nagpore. 

The ancient table-land of India is in the shape of a 
triangle, but its two wings, Assam and Cutch, have been 
severed from the main body: this ney. have been due to the 
coast-line cracks. 

Assam-Bengal has had 20 deatruciive earthquakes in the 
last 300 years, and though only 6 have been recorded in Cutch 
and Sind, yet this western fragment of the table-land is of 
seismic region. In 1819 Bhuj was destroyed and every town 
in Cutch was injured ; numerous fissures were seen throughout 

been as level as the sea. On account of its sudden appearance 
across the old bed of the Indus it a named by the in- 
habitants the Allah Bund, and by this name it is now known 
in geography. It was due to the inbeidonse of a large area 
to the rag 
of the destructive earthquakes of Sind have not 
been seasad in history, but the ruins of strong buildings with 
uman bones buried. below them are evidence of sudden de- 
struction by earthquake. 

“1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. X¢iii 


I have been describing zones of deficiency and have sug- 
gested that they are cracks in the sub-crust. I have now the 

considerable depth, it may in its lower portion have become 
filled by solid rock that has fallen in from the sides, or by vol- 
canic eruptions. Even if the Ganges sediment continues down 
to a depth of some miles, it may itself become consolidated by 
pressure and heat. 

I define the depth of the rift as follows : it is that depth 
at which the rocks under the Ganges plains are similar to 

es under Gorakhpur are different from and lighter than the 
tocks of the same depth under the Vindhyan plateau, the solid 
floor is not the bottom of the rift. When a crack occurs, 

isolated volcanic peaks. There exists also an old volcanic 
region in the Syrian desert between Baghdad and Damascus. 

appeal firstly to geodesy, and t sei ty) Now 
geodesy tells us that the compensation of the Himalaya (i.e., 
the root of the Himalaya) extends dow t great 

depth : Mr. Hayford estimates 75 miles. We do not contend, 
and Mr. Hayford does not contend, that this value of depth 
d 0 

if the depth of Himalayan compensation extends down to 60 
miles, then I think that the Gangetic rift may extend down to 
that depth also. 

ow let us turn to seismology : seismologists are able to 
form rough estimates of the dept s he 
C ; 

Place which suffers most. If for example a fracture in the 
sub-crust occurred at 60 miles depth under Gorakhpur, the 

xciv Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {[N.S., XII, 

hills to the north might be oy ee and this elevation, arenes 
a secondary effect, might do more damage 


not very different roa the secant value 
It is an interesting question to consider whether a fissure 

tinuous wall of rock 4 miles in height, on the flank of Nanga 
Parbat. Mount Everest stands erect 54 miles above sea-level ; 
its summit stands firm and rigid 11 miles above the depths of 
the Bay of Bengal. We have therefore Manic that the mate- 
rials of the crust are strong enough to admit of the continued 
existence of great differences in altitude. 
But Mount ~iNioein is standing in air, whereas a age Hi 

the sub-crust becomes filled with rocks falling in and w 
fluid rock magma nae below; and the walls of the Bion 
thus get a support that Mount Everest does not possess. 
seems to me quite possible that a crack such as I have described 

may have extended down to a depth of 60 miles by successive 
fractures at increasing depths, the opening being filled by fall- 
ing material. 

INTERNAL Causes OF Mountain ELrvarTIon. 

I have shown you how zones of subsidence in the crust are 
bordered by mountains, and I have now to discuss the rela- 

force which elevated the Ghats was the expansion of the under- 
lying rock due ~ physical or chemical change. 

Mr. Hayden informs me that the specific gravity of the 
ris oe ee pracpeben varies from 2° 67 to 3-03, that 

then an expansion o pace per cent would be more than suffi- 
cient to account for the elevation of the Ghats. Mr. Hayden 
finds variations of 14 and of 24 per cent in the densities of 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. xcv 

effects of the increase of temperature. So that at a depth of 
even 60 miles rocks may still be solid and rigid, as geodesy 

We to imagine how deep-seated rocks, that have 
been buried for millions of years under high temperatures and 
enormous pressures, how they would behave, if a crack pene- 
trating downwards from the Earth’s surface reached and dis- 
turbed them. I suggest for your consideration that two cracks, 

The main ranges of the Himalaya are composed of granite ; 
this granite has protruded upwards from below. I sugges 
that the protrusion of granite is due to expansion of rocks in 
the sub-crust. The great Himalayan range is 5. miles high ; 

per cent would be sufficient to account for the elevation of the 
Himalaya. ! 

Many of the faults which intersect the Himalaya may, I 
think, be ascribed to the shearing, which must have ensued 
when certain areas of the crust were forced vertically upwards 
by the metamorphism of sub-crustal rock. Many distortions of 

' If underlying deficiency of mass is greater than the excess of mass 

mountains, But it would not account for tension or subsidence in the 
fore-deep. Pendulum observations in the outer Himalaya and at Ootaca- 
mund indicate not over-compensation but imperfect compensation 

xevi Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

surface strata may be ascribed to local variations in the verti- 
cal expansion of deep-seated roc ks. 

ExtTERNAL Causes oF Mountain ELEVATION. 

The Western Ghats are as mountains very small compared 
to the great ranges that stretch from China to France; the 
former are an example of vertical elevation without any obvious 
horizontal compression of the s urface; the latter exhibit neo 

ing the latter, in the Himalaya the subterranean rock has 
expanded to such an extent that it has burst through the sur- 
face rocks in the form of granite, and in its protrusions it has 

from cooling. But the Indus-Ganges trough is so large, and 
the mountains to the north of it constitute so unique a protu- 
berance that the idea arises that some external force must have 
pulled the Himalaya northwards from India, and must have 
torn into a great rent the ap eine line of tension that had 
opened under the oie plains 

The Earth es a figure of equilibrium. Ifthe Earth 
was at rest, its figure een be that of a perfect sphere : as it 
is apres the velo of peer ee caused much extra 
rock to be heaped up round the equator: the diameter at the 
equator is 27 miles laure than the x diameter. 

Sir G. Darwin thought that the age velocity of rota- 
tion was constantly being decreased b oon’s attraction 
upon our oceans ; he thought that the pai were tending to stop 
our rotation, just as the Earth’s attraction has nega d stopped 
the Moon’s rotation. If our rotation velocity is decreased, 
the figure of the Earth changes and becomes nearer and nearer 
to a sphere: water can flow from the equator to the poles at 
once, and the oceans can immediately assume the new form 

straining of this towards the poles might cause cracks in the 
Earth’s surface. I do not presume to say that this is the 
cause of the rent in the Earth’s crust hidden below the Ganges 
plains. All I wish to point out is that these mountains 
appear, as if they had been pulled northwards out of the 
Ganges-Euphrates-Mediterranean rent, and I show you some 
reasons for believing that the Earth’s figure may have under- 
gone deformations. The astronomical cause of these deforma- 
tions is hidden in the past history of the Earth. In the Per- 
mian era an ice age occurred in equatorial regions ; if the Earth’s 

~ 1916.) The Third Indian Science Congress. xevii 

rotation velocity were to decrease considerably now, Southern 
India and equatorial Africa would stand out as rock protuber- 
ances high above the ocean, and would exhibit nee and 

Every year the Earth is bombarded by swarms of small 
meteors ; is it not possible that at certain times in the distant 
past the “Earth received larger meteoric masses than in the his- 

equilibrium by displacing its centre of gravity. Its figure 
would then be forced to — readjustments. If the ssi 
meets a swarm of meteors in space, and if some of them 
proach within its steeasion: it seems possible that almost af 
the captured meteors may fall upon that hemisphere of the 
Earth which first meets the swarm, whilst the other hemisphere 
may receive very few. This would interfere with the Earth’s 
Whilst something may occur in one age to cause move- 
ments of rock towards the pole, another cause may arise at a 
later date that will tend i oppose those movements. Not 
very long ago a great ice age occurred, Sain all Northern 
Europe and America were buried under ice: an immense 
volume of sea-water must then have been binrnteres from the 
equatorial oceans to the north pole: this may have disturbed 
the Earth’s equilibrium and have displaced its centre of 

In the same ice age the Himalaya and Tibet became 
capped with greater masses of snow and ice than they now 
carry. The glaciers that now end at 12,000 or 13,000 feet de- 
scended in the ice age to 5,000 feet. This increase in the 
weight of the Himalaya was an additional deformation of the 
a hcl of equlibrium. 

est to you that the great mountains from China to 
ince: salt been due, firstly, to a line of fracture from Bengal 
to Sicily, and, secondly, to adjustments of the Earth’s figure. 

The Andes trend north and south; they are of the same 

brium, it seems possible that secondary cracks might occur and 
that the Andes may be the result of one of them. The Andes 
are shown to scale on this chart: you will see that in length 

Persia, and again in the cera. The Persian ranges all 
have a trend from south-east to north-west except that the 
Caspian subsidence seems to have pushed rudely in from the 

xeviii Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (N.S., XU, 

north and forced the northern range into a sinuous curve. 

is significant that at the point of the Caspian push stands the 
peak of Demavend, the highest point in all Persia. Elevation 
is the companion of subsidence.! Similarly the Lob Nor sub- 

sidence stand the highest peaks of the whole Pamir region. 
Just as the Deccan table-land was squeezed between the west- 
ern and eastern coastal cracks, so has the Tibet table-land 
been squeezed between the cracks of Lob Nor and the Ganges. 

The conclusions which I have ventured to submit to this 
meeting may be summarised as follows :— 

(1) The fundamental cause of both elevation and sub- 
sidence is the occurrence of a crack in the sub-crust. 

(2) auaaaignate are compensated by iidacl vite deficiencies 
oi matte 

(3) MGuskaite soe risen out of the crust from a great 
depth, possibly 60 m 

(4) Mountains owe ghee elevation mainly to the vertical 
expansion of subjacent roc 

I have now had the ‘great privilege of oe certain 
problems before you. My endeavour has been to point out to 
this Congress, and especially to iis younger members, the 
many scientific secrets that are lying hidden under the plains 
of Northern India 

(Chairman.—Mr. Bernarpd Coventry, C.J.H., Agricultural 
Adviser to the Government of India and Director of the Pusa 
Agricultural Research Institute.) 
gatas in ie relation to Agriculture*,— By 
ARD Coventry, C.1.E. 

The population of British India comprises over 255 million souls. hi 

this vast multitude 80 per cent or over 200 millions, that is to say, 

every 5 are dependent on siaouwutks Any educ ational system shoved 
i i ald» bear as 

agriculture is likely to be at a disadvantage. Out of the whole popula 
tion, 74 millions or about 3 per cent are hobare, though 15 per cent or _~ 

- Sketch o f the Geography and nd Geology ye the Himalaya 
oe and Tibet.” page 160. See also Records of the Survey "Of 
India Vol. IV, page 3, ‘‘ Note on the discovery of the oak of Namcha 

s paper will be oy saree in extenso in the Congress number of 
the Agra Journal of Indi 

Plate A. 

Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XII, 1916. 



Pre-Tertiary Table-land, shown — 


te : 
i MU 
sil | 
| ae 
2h : 
“ari : x 
A je: ; se 
| : : 
5 m oe ee oe 
v ii 
5 X a 
4 it! | 1 
i J 4 
Hy F 
ay 3 
‘ E 
: F 
icin as gal \\ . 
> gp A 
| 3 wT "| | 
TMNT |e : 
\ NI , ‘ F 





“ pPaiien ei 

pS = pas haere ice 
sR aap yb pees 
ease daanpnariaeaie a 
on pa onsite oyna ty 
eee ara EY 



al + ets apiece 
Li iliaietitear staan Te 
3 * fi . . 


i cipal amemnl pace an 


Plate B. 

Proc. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XII, 1916. 

aimur Range 


Section through Lucknow perpendicular to the Himalayan Range 

Central Tibet 



Lob Nor Basin 

Vertical seale exaggerated 13 times 

z ba E " 
agen sated, 











ald Ou 

i ipyelacatl 

1916. | The Third Indian Science Congress. Xcix 

36 millions are of the pve re: age. Thus only 20 per cert of those 
of the re age receiv vat gente atall. Of these 7} Cara 
one about 1 million pia eed to secondary education and about 
40,000 reach a Ttpokae ss 
n aidied of these Rue is in relation to the agricultural cates aha = 
should be borne in ara that the percentage se —— is much hi nighe 
the urban than in the engi areas and also that a very | 
scholars never get more than a mere smattering ss the most t elementary 
education ; so that pacribptiamert ps efficiency in rural a $8 very much lower 
than the official returns of general education would indicate: Much has 

have had qu 

attention, and the need which exists for connecting the ners of the 

schools with our — industry has been and still is fully recognized. 

But it cannot be sa that these efforts have been crowned with the 
success one sti ate sia ishe 

® occasion when aha Pe education first seriously engaged the 

attention of ee vernment and the people was in 1904, when the policy for 

2 d by Lord Curzon. At 

ection and integral part. Large sums of money were devoted to the 
erection of agricultural colleges in nearly all the Provinces. yllabuses 
were Seones red by the Board of Agriculture and the Colleges were 

the coll 
However, as time rolled on, a decline in admissions became a. le 
until the year 1913 when, in some colleges, the position became te and 
the matter was brought up for consideration before e Board my A 

and expressed its approval of a two years’ preliminary practical course, 
which had bee Pa for the agricultura! a eee 
introduction to the more advanced course. Many of the colleges hav. 

c Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

since eda this, with the result that admissions have considerably 
increased. bei nat the sane oro will benefit by an increase of recruits 
i how f: 


no real demand on the part of the youth of the country for an advanced 
agricultural course _— consider: able progress ss has been made in primary 
and secondary education and in t 
Not until the cine is more highly developed and the standard of 
living has been — will there arise a demand for higher education 
amongst the agricultural classes. 

The creation of agricultural es however, is by no means 
only effort that has made to improve the education of our eat 
tural youth. Agricultur rai secede ‘aie see Fou pinncs of the Agricul- 
tural Department have been started in e provinces which were 
commended by the Board. They give considera ble promise of success 

u stem of rural uci i 
based upon the agricultural surroundings of the children, and endeavours 
e ature hat end. 

But there i 
have mentioned and is unknown in India. It is a form of ge tarry 
i n ado i 

behind those of the Northern States. Conditions in the Southern States 
i i i in i ndia. bo 

: Ww. 
in both educational and industrial progress Unfavourable economic 
While the 


cha annual earnings of f agriculturists in the Northe ern States were more 
than 1,000 dollars, those in the Southern States were as low as 150 dollars 

ris nder the auspices of the ( General Educati ion Board an an enquiry wa s set < on 
oot to st 

the ways and means for improving them. Surveys were Sond “State 
by oe Conferences were held, Monographs \ wore prepared, dealing 
with th on. The conclusions 
sich a souilted frcins: thin enquiry are peculiar. To ote from the Report ! 
it ** convinced the Board that no fund, however large, could, by direct 
ifts, contribute a system of pe schools; that even if it were possible 
to cmos a system of public —— by private gifts, it would be a 
positive disservice The public school must represent community 
ideals, community initiative, and unity support, even to the point of 

comm ort, 
rifice.”” ng ong therefore resolved that assistance should be given 

Sch ool Systems could not be given to then, passe Cen ee a 

1 General Education Board, an account of its activities 1902-1914. 61- 
Broadway, New York. 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. ci 

samen § io support them.”’ ‘‘ Salaries were too low to support a teaching 
BEotoms ittOes in stemrvou els ai eebe ages mpetent i megaman! segs Se ne not 

isfactory equipment could not be provided.” Board 
t otal came to the Eis Sora that i ae gaen nad er no pi Coen 
educational service until the farmer d provide themselves with 
larger incomes, and aarti olga they resolved that it was necessary first 
o improve the agricultur fu the Southern States. Now mark what 
followed. The Board was em advised to address itself to = — 

generation and to support the green be agriculture in ~ 

found that in the e r ch the effort was yo acti- 

ble; moreover, there were no funds with which to pay such teachers, 
and the instruction itself would not materially contribute to its own 
upport. inally, it was impossible to force intelligent agricultural 

instruction upon Lgiiatye bit ose sg ait = not themselves alive to the 
ve age ae of their own agricultural m 

** It was Tene i deliberately decided to undertake the agricultural 

e © 

was set up. A year was spent in discov: t effective methods 
of aching ia: impro aa agricultural ieahads* to odult is rs. Dr. Seaman 
Knapp of the pated States Department of Agriculture was engaged to 
show farmers how to improve their agricultural methods and raise the 
standard of their i ey It was not long before successful results 
were obtain Under r improved treatment it may be roughly stated 
that the crop yields were doubled. Thus in 1909 the average yield in 
ieee ee Lage otton was 503°6 per acre: on demonstration farms the 
s 906- unds ; i 0 the an 

faeneeticcls ; in Eishee 624°6 and 1081°8; and in 1912, 579° 6 and 1054°8. 
In the growing of corn similar results were obtained. In 1909 the 
ia average eag as 16:7 bushels per acre, while on the demon- 
stration farms s 31: bushels per acre. In 1910, 19°3 and 35:3, in 
1911, 158 and 33 3 ena in 1912, 19°6 and 35 4. Itis as ed stated that 


This was of course in o State alone. These methods have not been 

restrieted t aay ns 

of crops i, the ere is not Timited ‘to cultural methods, but is 

applied equally to the arm equipm 

houses, better barns, stronger teams. yee ter as i ts and — and 

healthier surroun . Hence it is claimed that the beneficent ——— 

0 is work are not limited to financial profit and cannot entirely 

by money. Characteristic e xampies of a she celiet ag a new 
are Ci Mississi 

from one special demonstration acre realized 152 barrels of high class seed 

cli Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. |N.S., XII, 

which he sold for 300 dollars. s debts are now paid te som bet in 
the bank. So much for the edveation , ae adult farm me 

o the effect this movement has had o e education of ¥ bebe ates andi 
told that the initiation of demonstr; iid on eas an it wap eitti oti of t 

principle of co-operation has resulted in the disappearance of the dis eae 
zation characteristic of rural life. Colleges of agriculture, farmers 
institutes Clubs, ir 

institutes, agricultural high schools, *‘ Boys’ Corn * <«¢ Girls’ Canning 
and Poultry Clubs” and like have been brought into existence where 
practically n he ings existe fore, and ¢ the social 

nin ized 
ye-product of the demonstration movement. Statistics ioe that the 
provision for schools has steadily increased. 
We have seen how the experiment has a. Might we not 
with advantage apply the same principles to India? Might we not invite 

= i th t 
optimistic calculations, they are as low as Rs. 30 per head. " This s gives 
little or no scope for self-help. It shesatonn: seems pore that under 
present pega we cannot expect the country to supply itself with the 

eans for an advan i Gov n 

which hanes been so saccosflly applied in America, a cable to India. 

My belief is that we ec We have sonar the same conditions here 
as obtained in the Soutihons States 10 years ago. Aincndy i n the Provinces 
a great deal has been done by the Monouiarad Department in ‘oer way of 

gave effect to that view when we started our 
would it not seem ons the truth sete in the Opposite set “and ‘that 

in a backward country like India the advance of education is really 
dependent on the ds Sbvclopinaait of spelautiatt taba at the best form of 
education you a nh to the rural classes existing ci ces 
witha Se agricultural ? To carry out the 

idea it is not iseuumiry bs our present educational poli an end 
vernment must a modicum of li ' teaching is must 
continue, but it would be i improvement if the ce cob 

an immense 
nt were called in to co-operate and demonstration were giv 
a large share in the general scheme of education. 

1916.} The Third Indian Science Congress. cili 

ould not be expected at first to progress with the same degree 
of seaiiee as in America, because we have to do a aa amount of 

search and experiment before we can demostrate improved methods on 
a large scal erica the advanced stage in the septate develop- 
ment of the Northern States supplied ready at t ck-in-trade 
required for at once setting in motio demonstration movement in the 
ba South States. not s Still we have 
achieved enough with our small band of workers to s he same 
ki f can ne out here and th we require is expansion 

eo n rat 
part of a general scheme of education, we shall, by such a policy, lay the 
best. and securest foundations for the advancement of education as well as 
‘of the prosperity of the people. 

The a a pterghiin Rainfall and the Succeeding 
Crops '!.—By 8. M. Jacos, I.C.8. 

The aim of the ee i Me establish ae by hegre not only the 
area sown with each pee rop can be vers but also what will 
be the yield of each cr - 5 are per of In bo th cases the 
attempt is to determine what are the Fanhisitative eelntons of crops and 
r and to make e definite what we already know as to the 

e first le dicti 
economic problem, and the effect of changes in niet th cost of produc- 
i nt. In the case taken i i 

one depending on the number of wells. When this has been done an 
bea extent of sowings is es from the rainfall in August, September 
October, it is found, as to be expected, that sowings fall off vo 
— rainfall, and vice ver and the extent of this falling off 
determined. The ncdalatinn oeragitalic ohana d is ‘89, which is high 
mough for very Datipr predictions. A diagram was e: exhibited showing 

unt given pict calculat 
step is the sir ination of yield, and in exami 

ffect of rainfall in February, for example, on unirrigated wheat, it is 

clear that the ben crop will derive in that month will 
whether the rainfall in September, October, No December and 
or not.. If t as mn an in 
January , it is obvious that an excess of rain in February 

can do little good and may do ha A numerical scheme wa: 

on a plied with success to the yield of cotton in i 


y Ki good agree cale 
failed areas or apis 8 wheat in the Punjab is obtained. The corres- 
ce xhibited in diagrams. The method is thus valuable in 
dealing writen a fa important practical problem. 

Agricultural Engineering in the United Provinces.'—By 
F. H. Vick. 
The Relation between Soil Bacteria and Fertility.—By C. M. 

paper will be published in extenso in the Congress number of 
the pet Journal of India. 

civ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XII, 

Scientific Methods in Agricultural Experiments '.—By A. C. 

the probable error in field experiments, and Besos nehinti that eheds received 
ere t abtentin on on the part of those designing ex pihents 
with particular reference to the number of plots employed for , euapeione 
By taking a ga ent tly large number of plots, ee results had been 
obtained in the course of a single monsoon se in spite of un- 
fasuleatle conditions: on the Farm opened at Ranehif in in May 1915. 

coast et of Irrigation Water in Wheat Growing *.—By 
ERT Howarp, C.J.Z., and GaBRigLLe L. C. HowaArp. 

_Although one of the main directions in which Indian agriculture can 

i ; Advanta 
new Fruit Ex eriment Station at Quetta to initiate of w 
saving experiments and to discover how far the se ae “Utab sou 
are applicable to local conditions 
was found that ireipaticen water peste i the heaviest yield of 

wheat and stra (bhusa) when applied to the land prior to sowing. A 

single preliminary irrigation, combined with the pal ca use of the 

ame ad acres, if used according 
method employed at the ens tao Station, would give seven times 17} 
or 1241 maunds of wheat. The difference in favo of the cept is 
therefore 1103 maunds of wheat. If the a an rrigated acreage of 
peep in the Quetta valley is multiplied by 100, the result would Tadicaiet 
unds of wheat per annum, the present annual waste of water on 
this crop alone. On Rigi ~~ acres of irrigated wheat, the water now 
lost would produce unds of grain and a ee amount of straw 
of a total value not i ioe of half a lakh ae: rupees 

—— —— to — tated J. P. SRIvasTava. 

paper will be published in extenso in the aes number or 
the Agricultural Journal of Indi 

paper appeared in eal in the Agricultural Journal of India, 
vol, XI. 1916, p. 14. 

1916. | The Third Indian Science Congress. cv 

The Re-alignment of Agricultural Holdings '.—By B. C. Burr. 

It was pointed out that from time to time attention has been drawn 
to the peat sal water which the present haphazard system of village 
holdings ca , but that the Papin aspect of the question of the neces- 
sity a ‘estriping bed holdin s been less considered. While action 
has taken great tga igs! systems in the Punjab to avoid 
small pert holding seis fveauaas ar fields and certain executive action 
has been taken in the Poona district of the Bombay Presidency to square 

ds i used chiefly f 

n has been edy the pre 
conti baw position. The othitesion presented by existing systems of 
land tenure—no less i custom re poi out, but it w 


also shown that the present small scattered holdings 

nt serious obstacle to the correct cultivation of the land. Nowhere 

s the necessity for the re-stri nee 2 of holdings more Veggies seen than in 
the atid of checking erosion and effecting adequate drainage, wha * 

his kind w e land-owning c 
for general measures and, pending pret aera some Layee te 
able to assist in carrying out partial ‘schemes on their own estates 

Milk Standards of the United dina —By P.S. 
MacMauHon and P. C. MUKEBJI. 

Contains the results of over one thousand analyses carried out in 
1914 of the milk of a num umber of cows ne buffaloes from re Government 
Military Dairy, Lucknow 

The Necessity of New Butyro-Refractometric gakabaaalaae 
P. S. MacManon and B. M. Gupt 

e€ paper oom — nea value 54°0 used in Europe to discriminate 
inarily betw and adulterated samples of butter is too 

high for Indian pi 
Section OF Botany. 

(Chairman.—Dr. ALBERT Howarp, C.1.£., Imperial Economic 
Botanist, Pusa. 

This paper will be published in extenso in the Congress number of 
the aga Journal of India. 

evi Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XII, 

The Application of ago Science to Agriculture !.—By 
ALBERT HowarD, C.J.E. 

In the ni neon a botanical at to are Med esceaah pee: 
arise of a 8 what similar nature to thos acti sally occu 
whenever ties gitechpe i is yaad to adapt scie nti ge >to Practical 
en h 

e fi e, 

the investigator has to study the scientific anges of Botany ps pane a 
way as to combine within himself a well-balanced and accurate grasp of all 
the main eso hes of the subject—anatomy, physiology and systematy. 
In se se os Ysa he has to,devote himself Sod the study of ee 
as at e to understand the physiological aspects of 
aertos ctrl separations Both the pelentiia? per ge of the one t in me 

laboratory and the practice of agriculture in the field must then b 
merged into a connected whole in the mind o the inv ceeiuuter In this 


h bot 
pebdiatin ® are t ive —(1) improvements in the ) 
a working machine, (2) the Stes ment of disease, and (3) the creation of 
improved varieties. The science i 

in the s of an investigator possessing real agricultu nsight ¢ 
satiliead i in rapidly improving the production of the vuthies ais of. ee 
of raw materials. 

The Aquatic Reeds of the Godaveri and acto Canals; a 
tudy in Applied Ecology '—By W. Burns. 

Irritability of the Bladders in Utricularia'.—By T. EKAMBARAM. 

The present views concerning the presence of ieee aap such as 
crustaceans, etc., inside the bladders “ Utricularia i 
(1) that they make their way in by pushing the ‘elastic trap-door of 
the bladder : 
(2) that the bladder is passive” and does not make any effort to 
capture the animalculae ; 
(3) that ot Rear enter in because they expect to find food 
or pte ong 
The object of this etre is to show that the bladders are irritable 
= Svinte Me su co am malculae when they irritate a particular set 
ep lle were made on @ species of Utricularia very 
ose manic nd differing from it in hort lig either very rudimentary 
or no floaters at the base of th ihe flower 
itions the binddans that entrap soot ah occur in 
two distinct side fil viz., os ters pay Saat % wr _ igre —_. nan it 

te. e e 
or trap-door is normally transversely convex. The margin of el valve 
is tightly pressed up against the ‘‘ collar” hon round the mouth. 
On the upper surface of the valve, very near its free tip are 4 to 6 Pe ee 
pointed hairs which extend towards the base. These are the irritable 
hairs. When the irritable hairs of the oo bladders are irritated wi ith 

This paper will be published 7m eztenso in the roe number of 
the Ageia Journal of India. 

1916. | The Third Indian Science Congress, evii 

a ato or a soft brush, the valve Es suddenly and the concave walls 

become convex crea ting a cavity inside which is filled with water suck 
in thro h the open mouth ; ae iatel the valve f to its 
original position. If an n organism s pe cause of irritation, it is forcibl 
sucked in with the water. Dur action to irritation, the valve hae 

comes Concave and the irritable ra “is laid in the hollow of the boa 
thus for cae 

Darwin did not succeed in maki ing the bladders react to irritation, 
eine big peg tis to recognize that the bladders are irritable only when 
they are in e hungr condition and do not react when they are full. 
Since those in ye latter condition form the majority, it is presumed that 
he ex ee rimented on full bladders. The bladders in which the particles 

oe s and pieces of boxwood suddenly disappeared, should have been 
the hungry capaiiie on (Ref. Darwin, Insect... Plants, p- 328). The 
full bladders may be made to assume the hungry condition artificially by 
pressing out th tents carefully with a pair of pincers 3 or 4 imes, 

after bape they will . to react to irritation, 
elation wee een the Sremtrea Ny function of the different 

The Floating Plants of Lower Bengal and their Ad aptations.— 

amic vegeta Hb 8 wore ponds of Lower Bengal was 
pres ollect d studied the author hav n classi- 
ed into groups—the classification being based primarily on the degree of 
flotation and ‘secondarily the natur functions of the flotative 
adaptations. Several interesting kinds were described in de 

esides giving a rather comprehensive list of the fioa ting u pone 
the author also described a few plants ae though not hitherto own 
to be floating were nevertheless seen by h m to be actually so. Thos se he 
found toh dapted to a floa ating 
habit. Such apparatas — also described pre vokaparad with the land 
forms of the same speci 

Importance of Soil-Aeration in oa 1— By R. S. Hoe. 
S paper, which was illustrated by lantern slides, emphasized a 

Dota by eiRAAAh 7 tied “soil-antation 
can be t of action by sufficiently g soil-aeration it may. 
for the the presont, be: be coiveuienthy termed bad soil-aeration. arther work 

Thi This paper will be published im extenso in the Congress number of 
ks! Agelomteeel Journal of India. 

eViii Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

is required for its more accurate definition and to indicate the ghee 

way in which it acts. Successful water-cultures with Sal seedlings, how- 
ever, have proved that the injurious action is not ue me ae ‘to a 
wi n the neighbourhood of the roots ctors 

Some Irrational Aspects of id era Botany.—By 
A. T. Gaa 

The r gave a brief sketch of the general RO pp vi have led 
to: the cc tales of the present epee nal bur - synonymy in sys- 
atic botany; discussed in more etail certa the conditions ; 

tem se 
referred to the views of Alphonse ew Gandott cna Poni toe and 
offered seiumeaticiid for lessening the e 

On the Occurrence of Endosperm in some South Indian Legu- 
nous Seeds.— By M. O. ParTHASARATHY AYYANGAR. 

It is not generally known bag some of the Leguminous seeds possess 
endosperm, though its presence has been recorded in sev veral floras and 
books on syste ieantie botany. But none of these books gives a complete 
list of all the endospermous genera. Of the South Indian cals ‘only 

i i endosper 

C Ip Siehe poring Ga Parkinso i 
Papilionacese No o genera are pth d to. 
It is found, however mig in addition to the above the following 
genera te possess endo 
Mimosae : Des anthus ucaena, Mimosa 
Caesalpinieae : "Cacoalpinia sleep Peltop shorum 
Papilionaceae : Crotalari nella, Ceominns: Indigofera, Ses- 
bania, ‘Aeschynomene, Sane otis 
e presence of endosperm appears to be a fairly constant gene 
character, though an exception is pacha e frie genus Caesalpinia, weage 
some < its species posse endosperm an 
endosperm tissue consists of a with ' thidebeed cell walls and 
rT mich cell contents. The thickening of the cell walls is due to the 
ee in them of a pase quantity of reserve food material for the 
ge fit of the germinating seed ing. tee reserve food material resembles 
sae — ons ee chulze ne a name given by him to a 
mi-cell n taco. in the duckaniass of the walls of the coty- 

ax of ake laine 

Models to illustrate stinaly canton and ooo of Mendelian 
Characters '.—By H. M. Cuts 

Soil Aeration on sips Alluvium !.—By ALBERT oe C.LE., 
d GaBRIELLE L. C. Howa 

_ The dominant factor in the in internal economy of the Indian Empire 
is the monsoon. Tosco Brite oa = people, the commerce of the 
country and the collected b vernment all depend on the 
amount and aiateehetho of the painctiae rainfall. It is not ee 

Ss paper will be ea in extenso in the Congress ‘eeiiitier of 
the Plier oe: Journal of India. 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. cix 

therefore, to ray that the oscaceang of the agricultural investigator 
India tends to be concentrated on questions relatin sate yp baer 
ee i 

water ze ps e same time, the other factors on which yield 
depen ured and crop-production com ar 
almost entirely as a question of water-supply. After ten years’ observ: 
tion of th ps grown on the Indo-Gangetic alluvium, which a 
good deal of first-h expe agricultur —at 
ar, at Lyall in the Punjab and at Quetta in Baluchistan— 
the conclusion h m re at a full s y of air in the soil is 
qui r ciency of wa hile air isan y raw 

larly difficult on alluvial soils like t met with over large areas of the 
plains of India ] soils, like those of the valleys of the Ganges 

d “ k very readil d ays togeth the surface 
after heavy rain, form a well-defined t we own y cultiva- 

oc ‘S are responsible 

wh lluvial soils form surface crusts after light showers and lose 
their porosity altogether after a long continu place, 
th ticles are small in s d it no range in 

t ery great 
and, in the second place, much of the rain comes in heavy 
cone pag torrents quite unlike anything experienced in temperate 

1 examples of soil ventilation were discussed in detail. The 
yellowing ‘of peach trees at Quetta, which at present sight appeared to be 
i due to defecti 

$s nm investigation to be defective soil aeration 

ul reprodu at will either by d an ver- 
irigation. The factors on wh ess in green ere 
en c ered. Copious aeration has been found to ary in this 
ration, otherwise a a limiting factor in the growth of the 
Succeeding crop. It was also suggested that in maturation and in the 
ieee - quality, — soil aeration is much more important 

(Chairman—Pror. J. J. SupBorovucn, D.Sc., Ph.D.) 

Some Additive Compounds of Trinitro-Benzene.—By J. J. 

Note on the Estimation of Iodine values by the Bromate- 
Bromide Method.—By J. V. Laxuumatant and J. J. 

The authors have made a critical examination of Winkler’s Larsen 
of ie the Iodine be i fats and oils by an acidified bromate- 
bromide mixture (compare Wei and Donath, Zeit. ryan“ Nahe. 
Genuss,, 1914, XXVIII, 65). 

The ethod gives excellent results with most fats and oils provided 
the Seandiieg Pacis is not exposed to light. In the presence - fgg os 
values come too et, probably owing to bromine being used u 
cess of substtat = 

Weiser and Dees th claim that acids with olefine linkings also give 
good results by the — According to the authors the esters— 
methyl or ethyl—of unsaturated acids give extremely low iodine values 
by the alien method oa ae the usual conditions. 

cx Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. |N.S., XII, 

Effect of aphlets Linkings on the Reactivity of spams Ooo and 
Ket —By J. J. Supporoves and T. WIL 

Compote - the Disulphonium Series II. Se 
r Interaction with the Alkyl lodides an 
Hemiaetncht of Methyl and Ethy] Radicles by their Higher 
Homologues.—By Prarutta CHanpra Ray 

Methyl nitromercaptide by interaction with methyl iodide yields the 
expected compound ok -Hgle.Mel; if, however, the higher homo- 

logues of methyl iodide, e.g., ethyi—, pr ropyl—, but and amyl- 
iodides be used in the reaction it is oon that instead Ms the sntininatet 
compounds, we get Me—8 Hgiyntl ; YO 8 “Hels. PrT ; 8 Hgh.Bul 

Me —S8 


and .Hgl2.AmI respectively ; in other words an intermolecular 


replacement of the light radicle methyl by its higher homologues takes 
place. Similar replacement also occurs in the case of ethyl iter stonss 

Bromination of Hydrocarbons and the Formation of Bromo- 
picrin and Tetrabromoquinone by the Action of Bromine 
and Nitric Acid on Organic Bodies. --By R. L. Darra and 

In continuation of the researches on the action of aqua regia on 
organic bodies, it has tau found that on mixing nitric acid and hydro- 
: : : 

d to bea owerf 
brominating the lower aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene, Toluene, 
petted 0 Meta-xylene Para-xylene, Mesitylene, ethyl-benzene have 
been brominated with the formation of both the higher and lower bromo- 

A mixture of bromine and nitri a destructive action on 
most ie bodies, resulting in the: ° genoral foniation of bromopicrin. 
In the case of aromatic substances which possess or pass through a quini- 
noid ae roe tetra-bromoquinone is faviais ably produced and as tetra- 
bromoquinone also breaks up ores i ae the mips of 
the latter also takes place in these c These © been found to be 

so from a study of a large number ae apo case 

Direct Iodination of Hydrocarbons es means of Iodine and 
Nitric Acid.—By R. L. Darra and N. R. CuatrerJer. 

It has been found that in the presence of nitric acid, iodine directly 
enters into aromatic hydrocarbons ‘etal the sage rape of iodo-derivatives. 
: a f ‘ be 

realized by this meth ne, Tolue ene, Ortho-s e, Para-xylene, 
Meta-xylene, Mesitylene, Thiophene, Cymene @ yr found 0 is e 
the monoiododerivati ily. Napthalene Sori @ mixture o 
and nitronapthalene. Anthracene is oxidised to anihbounsnons aio no 
iodination takes pla 

di some of the aliphatic hydrocarbons has 

irec ination of so been 
found to be possible though the yield is very small, due to the chance of 
hydrolysis of iododerivatives in the presence of are s- Pentane and 
hexane give small q 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. exi 

Note on the Constituents of the Bark of the smog. age 
excelsum.— By C. 8. Gipson and J. L. Stmons 

The ps haere experiments which were ~ sag out wit th the 
a i oe iso g the op id hymenodyctine. They confirmed the 
of Bro meee m who wed the bark to be non- silestnidal: aid to 
ranted the glucoside aescu arog 

The hte pe of 2—Acetylamino—3 : ia ee benzoic 
—By J. L. Stmonsen and M. Gopata Rav 
The authors isolated from the nitration of the above mentioned su 
stance 6-nitro-2-acetylamino-3 : 4-dimethoxy benzoic acid and reir 
amin thox ne. sie 

: 5-di me. 
stances was converted into 5-nitro-2 : 3—dime y benzoic acid which 
was found to be identical with the acid previ ba prepar Cain an 
Simonsen. “The 6-nitro-2 : 3-dimethoxy benzoic acid was also investi- 


The Root Bark of Calotropis gigantea.—By mtg GEORGE 
Hitt and Annopa Prasap Sirk 
The authors have isolated two white solid crystalline esters melting 
at 140°C and 210°C respectively. 
oe on or ation gave two solid crystalline alcohols of the for- 
mulae #0.0H and C3sH, ve mi The melting points of these alcohols 
were 176°C and 215°C respecti 
esters t 
From the alcohols the acetyl derivatives were pre 
also crystalline white solids melting at 195°-196°C and eG Richonsetivarg 
Oxidation of the aleaiok gave solid acids whose silver salts had the 
formulae C30H,O;Ag and C sH;gOsAg respectively. 

Reduction of Ato Nitrites to farang morte P. Ngoa1 
and . CHOWDH 
In earlier paper the authors had shown that aliphatic nitrites 
Ee pa rtially rir into the corresponding nitro-compoun = when 
a 30°-140' 

pete” The 
at a higher temperature is explained by wah fact — the nitrites a re first 
converted at that —— into the nitro-compounds which a t. then 
reduced to amines 

Space Formulae of Organic Ammonium i tain according 
to Werner’s Hypothesis.—By P. Nzo 

he i Bites that the isomerism and stereo-isomerism of 
oun I nting 

Bay pedro ge Jains the i i 
outside tet: Seneher ie Pagel xi | resentation explains the isomerism of or- 
ganic yin oe porbaietag much better than Van’t Hoff’s mal 
Willceradt’s. 8 pose tetrahedron and Bischoff’s pyramidical formulae. 

exli Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Chemical Action and Actinic Rays.—By P. Nzoet. 

On repeating earlier experiments on the emission of Spares hpi 
rays from intensely exothermic ae Ne reactions such as t sit mn of 
zine and sulphuric ay caustic alkalis and sulp buri ic acid, it 

hat i ion i d 

ac i 

heat rays. Such photographic action was given by hot water pete yh 
The author is also studying the photogr he — of ionised gases and 
showed photographs of - ata star, iron key c., obtained by joniieedl 
hydrogen, air, and nitrog 

Estimation of Calcium as the Sulphate——By P. Nzoct. 

As the estimation of calcium by the ultimate conversion of calcium 
xalate into caustic lime requires very le heating in platinum 
ertibles by means of a blowpipe, the author converts the oxalate into 
onate in reelain crucible by eons heating and then into sul- 

phe ate by a, ddan of chem ically pure dilute sulphuric acid. The 
resultant sulphate is then moderately ignited and weighed This method 
gives satisfactory results aa takes much less tim 

SPERPEORE Ne. of volumes ane dissolution - rearimarices in 
water ATH Rak 

—By Jit 
is pri ac e volumes ped a gms. of some oo ee are dis- 
solv alk in increasing quantities of water have been calculated on a basis 

of the determination of specific gravities of their aqueous solutions of 
different strengths. 

Action of Chlorine on a Solution of Silver Nitrate. — By 

Stability of Arsenious Sulphide Sols to onesie in Presence 
of H,S.—By J. N. M 

The Production, Metallic a a ee Constitution of 
uanidine.—By H. 
bi _— of the oe produced by oe action of 

heat on ammonium thio te, it was show at guanidine thiocyana 
is better obtained Se ren “a 200° for 4 aap than at 185° for 20 hours 

(vide J.C.S. 1913, 103, et 8.) 

The meth of obta’ ning potassium, silver and copper ee 
were explained and the isomerism of bed silver derivatives was discussed. 
A tautomeric ronan was sugges ich was claimed in 

ore 1 
accordance with the chemistry of aeeeree ghar 0 the traditional doteiedin: 
(vide J.C.8. 1818, 107, 1396.) 

Equilibrium between Mercury and Copper Salts in Presence 
of Halogen Ions.— By J. C. Guosa. 

Reduction of Nitric Oxide by Contact Action of Metals and 
Metallic Oxides.—By B. B. Aputcart. 

Some Weak Fen hig the Explanation of Radium Disintegra- 

Studies in Liquid Crystals —By T. C. CoowpHURI. 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. exiii 

SEcTION oF ZooLoey. 
(Chairman—Pror. W. N. F. Woopianp.) 
Notes on some recent Enquiries concerning the so-called ‘‘ Renal- 
Portal’’ System in Vertebrates.—By W. N. F. Wooptanp. 
In 1906 the author spanlseed a paper (P: ae Soc. Lond., p. 
ed also acne. June 13, 1907) which ‘disputed ig mmonly accepted 

that ** renal- -porta al” system, like the hepatic- -porta] system, is 
of Finctional ~~ ue to Sp organ it traverses—in this case the kidneys. 
His re riefly s 

nee in a ea 

su pply | which Aisi me affects Niels it patil aap 1D t t the *‘ renal- 

portal’ system is radically eet in develo hh ie a hi ye ie 

upeiiante a oxygen od, Sha Ge A st diuretics employed (Bainbridge 
an d ), i = P oduced is ‘‘ too pace i 

intertubular . stem and pea ia "shoes is no necessity to 

lumbar veins of a frog, found that the excretion of the kidneys was, 
king allowance for the physiological disturbance due to the experi- 

ma allow: 
ment, we reciably afte 
no PP cia gin ated fod tha axperiieens t of Gurwitsch ona number of 

ys re rease in we 
6 vey eeoulp which — does not caltate lessened kidne 
t animals remain qui i 

the live course | no 4 fe 
Reptilia and abnormal Amphibia in which the ‘‘ renal- 
Partially or wholly absent, the blood in these cases passing into the main 

CXiV Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

venous system), the liver sooner or later usually becomes diseased, 
numerous cysts being developed. When only one a teal rage vein is liga 
tured, the kidneys remain approximately the same size. The reason 

s relieved of venous blood does not seule in eh x 

bsence of a venous supply , of a ** renal-portal’’ system, is of no 
importance—the arterial aarsoly 4 is all that matters 
e problem it is at lh goss difficult to solve is why the anterior 

abdominsl vein em the liver at all—why it does not retain its 
primitive connectio with one or both of the ane veins. Too much 
venous blood is, as we hay ithe seen, bad for the liver and yet it would 
appear from daha weeps men tae eine hes: ct that it és is 
connected with the aeart that the liver of frogs and toads at least pres 
some blood from the hind legs poured i epatic-portal vein, 
use in at least three toads in which the ectme abdomin 
been ligatured (and so all the venous blood from the nd pelvis forced 

through bree “ reenter system) a new connate has ome formed 

the legs is = therfore tralia a gfe nto the liver as before. However, more work 

requires to _ upon the subject before these results can be regarded 

as absolutely certain. 

rom the a soe 7? standpoint and stao4» the mare a rhe gene derived 

from anatomical and physi ological facts, we are justified i ncluding 

that the ‘‘ renal-portal ”’ system is Met onless. The fact eer seuss 

blood ch his i rn 
sot by the physiological enquiries above sari et then is the 
aning of the ‘‘ renal-portal’’ system ? in those animals in 
whi ch the kidneys are sical and therefore regains ta little room for thet 
development ee primitive — ranchs and some bony 
fishes), the ki in most animals is situated in a confined position, 
being Surrounded above and at the : sides ay dense connective tissue and 
below byt the © perl Under t 
e numerous # developing tubules tend | to encroach upon the adjacent space 
occupied by large thin-walled posterior cardinal sinuses, and as a 
of common incites, the successive developments of the so 3 santas 
phros, mesonephros and metanephros _ follow the paths of these venous 
i i far close 

ho: renamed 
— BE tron sche ie system it in his original paper as the ‘renal cardinal 
eshwork’’—a term already adopted by Papin sale has shown that one 

i i eae the mammal have caught b 

iempoeta not y 
the kidneys, so or is because the latter have shifted fev’ 3 - 

have been equally impo 
We conclude then that the ** Galabooben as system, or as I prefer to 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. exv 

call it, the renal cardinal meshwork, is the characteristic of an imperfec 
kidney which being unconcentrated and yet bu ilky has had to encro a 
upon the lumen of the @ posterior cardinal vein in gee to develop. In 
the active bird the femoral veins have resisted kidney encroachment t 


oged as to ope 
rag? convenient way possible, it has shifted outwards and forwards and 
ts Pappas abbreviated development has kept clear of the veins 
> ioe ther 

Seasonal Conditions governing Bond pte in the Punjab.—By 
Barni Per 

seasons in the Punjab are oir oC from those in Bengal 

and other parts of India, and it was with a view to ascertain the effects 
of t asons on the pond-life that ihe cone was begun. It was found 
ies uadtanle like Hydra, Spongilla wet Australella, do not seta in 

ter which is very severe, but ing the latter part of summer— 
summer and winter aoe = ey, we! oes marked seasons in the P jab, 
spring and autumn bein and ill-defined. During winter a's sfes 
forms die, weray ary vel or resistant bodies like spiny eggs, gemmules or 
ee for the preservatio e species. 

e case of Daphnia win Heli are formed at the beginning of 

Seon sa eg the case of insect larvae like those of Chironomus and Ano- 
eles, 1t was found that in winter mad? Dene of larval life is much 
al and that they are very inactiv 

The Aortic Ligament in Fishes.—By D. R. BaaTracHaRyYa. 

Notes on Elasmobranch Blood Cells. —By R. H. WurraHOUSE. 

The history of Rees red blood cells is interesting in consideration of 
the following poin It seems most likely that they are produced 
through life in pe spleen. Young cells are char: y their 
Pi gsitae i large n nucleus with ae ly ~~ chromatin and the. 
very small envelope of cytoplas -, which is basophile in its reaction. 

compac outline. ** Kernbriick or 
nuclear dges served which c to the structures 
described by Stauffacher and a in a variety of other cells. The 
isintegration of the cell begins by a basophile degeneration of the cyto- 
pens spreading from the Teclisn eadially and sea eeeeeing a struc- 
much as suggested that 

cases va pn parasites invading ¢ cells aa dnc the nucleus to 

be e revised for fear in peuges they were only cases of 
basophil ewianias of the 

leucocytes are of the cual t and show the eosinophilous 

forms 6 great advantage. ‘‘ Kernbriicken” are also to be observed here. 

The Indian Varieties and Races of T'urbinella pyrum (Linn).— 
By James HORNELL. 

In this paper it was shown that the Indian representatives of the genus 
Parts nella a re limited to a single species—T. pyrum (Linn.). The species is 

ingl ; but must be consi- 
aaa a ici bated praet of the collective species, as it comprises at 

Cxvi Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [(N.S., XII, 

least five strongly characterised varieties old sauces co-equal 1 in taxo- 
nomic value, thus shams bor definite co-varieties or sub-speci 

Including Linnaeus’ type as one, five varieties were enumerated and 

efined, namely :—Varieties obra: acuta, es comorinensis and 

fusus. ith the soap ca of the last named, e new varieties. 

Each of these five forms, if judged by shone individuals possess - 
ing the mean of the different characteristics and proportions, may rea- 
sonably be classed as a distinct species. Study of large numbers—nea arly 
2 millions of these satin — imported into Calcutta annually—shows that 
this view would be in 

The f rc ame ie the five varieties defines the principal character- 
istics of eac 


icra angular, 

Spire elongate : | prominent......... .. var. fusus, Sowerby. 

poe widely fu si-/ 

th in » a. Profile of whorls in Se convae> 
pace 1.75 to 2 var. ar. 
[snouts oe b. Profile of whorls in spire pats 
word bala straight, 

var. comorinensis, var. nov. 

Spire moderately short ; | 
shell g eerie — : 
racum i 

sega magi wees thick 
sha “a 

var. globosa, var. nov. 

: ° ‘Breadth/ Bini ; : 
pire often very short; 
oak length, under shell inclined to y var. obtusa, var. nov.» 
top-shaped, very ce with 2 prea 
at shoulder ; perios (a) typi 
cum thin in Asie an ad | (6) rapa Ponoka) 
medium-sized shells. 

e peculiar pet i se IR revasiear ee of varieties obtusa and acu 

inntoding globosa and comoré a e latter) is most Cape ene 
upon the influence of differe: nvironment upon separated groups 
of an originally united soaieetin in pai certain warnions from the 
og cna pica 

adduced for the belief that — a single form 
inhabited, ery whl of the shallow waters that on tended uninter- 
ruptedly from what is no Her ah Co diag to patean During this pines 

diverged and two very pepe varieties were formed. Had the land 

barrier - broken down these two varieties would assuredly h d- 
ened in But with the breaking down of the barrier—a 
i th 

varieties will continue to crystallize their respect 
will an Shey. were undoubtedly doing up to the vg on land barrie! 
became interrupted, in becoming distinct 
The taal of aeoagee section of the atiiok i in the Andaman Islands 
has ul the formation of a variety with well-defined 
differences Sin the cintinedtal form. 
paper was an attempt to give a reasoned account of nig pasts orase 

rd one of the dominant molluscs of Indian seas an offer 

hypothesis for the explanation of the origin of some of the varieties which 


1916. ] _ The Third Indian Science Congress, OXVli 

wees ont the same time to define and demarcate the ee mae 
limi the chief Misi gta a matter which till now has been a dis 
ad gitieee conditio 

The Geographical Distribution of Indian Earthworms.— 
y J. StepHenson, I.M.S. 

e modes of spreading in the Oligochaeta differ very ech ret 
in ine case of freshwater and terrestrial forms. Freshwater forms spread 

uch ease and so widely that the facts of their disteibution. are 
practically auetles for Pedoes Hier The case is quite different with 
terrestrial forms. 

ormer conection by land of India and Australia, and India and 

New Zealand, is demonstrated by a comparison of the earthworm faunas; 
but it is not nieestind to suppose, as Strat that. mi land connec- 
tion must have extended across the f Benga al: r t disco wtiiten in 

the Abor scary renders it ane ne oo. suppose that tie ‘Obgeduesks im- 
earente took a path round the head of the 

The former connection between India ee Africa Napa cor tage is 
documented by fewer faunistic records; though these have recently 

o by the dsseaeued ty: Bork ay o of a a genus whi ah ciara is 2 se 
as a direct Migiandacih of a form at present Renulinr to Malden aa. 

Indian Freshwater Prawns of the family Atyidae.— 
By Stanley Kemp. 

uthor gave a brief account of the principal besernig ames and 
<li of the inne in India and discussed Bouvier’s theory of the 
mutational origin of certain forms. Siseakt! invcaineniets pone to show 
that the Atyid fauna of me Andaman Islands is one of peculiar interest, 
comprising a remarkable combination si forms similar in character to 
those on which Bouvier founded his theor 

Puysics SECTION. 
(Chairman—Mr. G. C. Srupson, F.R.S.) 

e Meetings ee — Physics se were very successful, but owing 
to the | sti number — oe had to be considered it was 
va a a ves possi’ 

necessary cut 0 the 
Although a discussions were agers rt they were very much to the point 
nsiderable useful work was done in the section. ri airman 

Some Problems of Atmospheric Electricity.—By 
G. C. Simpson. 

Five problems of atmospheric electricity were discussed. 

(1) It was shown that although there appears to be sufficient radio- 
active matter in the earth and atetaphars to account for the ionisation 
of the air over the land, this is not so over the sea where there is little 
radio-active matter in the air and p y none in the sea. 

2) Recent observations made in balloons indicate that a very 
penetrating radiation pare the aieth's atmosphere from above: the 
origin and nature of this radiation were discussed. 

eXViii Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

(3) The difficulties a with eri ram the permanent charge 

on the earth were stated. he shown as ssi oes charge current is 
constant to the atest listens. reached in n balloo . the renewal cannot 
tak abe const from gehen ont in acca lower atmosph The 2st of a 
very penetrating radiat carryl tees nega aie. or arge 


and the pagutbinty of che: jepoataneete generation of Sagaure sladteiates 


in the earth caused by e being the variable and not m in the ratio— 
which is a variable function of velocity, was discussed. 

The question ‘‘ What is ball lightning ? ” eg next considered and 
it was stated that ‘‘ active nitrogen” as prepared by Prof. Strutt was 
the ee ae to ball lightning yet pro oduced in in the laboratory. 

Ng importance of Prof. Stormer’s work on the aurora 
as out, and the consequences of Vegard’s theory of the aurora, 
re a nabs the aurora due to a rays aihitted by radio-active matter in 
the sun were described. 

On ey Le ae of the Kinetic Theory of Gases to Epidemio- 
logical Problems.—By Mason McKEnpDRICE. 
On the rib want bee ea interact among st each | acre in a 
somes manne as shown how it is possible t rob- 
ch de aah iad ase ontagion, immun ity, e Conve ay if suit- 
stile atadisins are available, it is possible to pe Aa infor mation regardi 
mod tran es—their tendency toward. een 

oO s 
how they are affected na eeamtinenen the degree of their epidemicity—their 
single or dual nature—and whether they were on the increase or the 
ecrease. It was alsoshown how Ge: pones of sopvelntion arises naturally 
out of the consideration of two dimensional phenomena of this nature : 
and how there are two main tae of acral, oh differ from each 
athe fundamentally. 

The Mechanics of the Violin Bridge and Mute.— By 
C. V. Raman. 

The author Leena (with the aid of diagrams and lantern merase 
ory h 

mechanical theo e has developed which closely predicts the mode of 
vibration t any given point with the specified pressure 
and ve portant feature indicated by th nd_ verified 
xpe: lly is that the bowed poi oes not generally move with 
uniform velocity whilst slipping past the hairs of t ow. The effect of 
seating on the vibrations the violin-bridge w s 

R t m 
ices by Giltay and De-Haas on the subject appear doubtful. 
Winds at various Cloud Levels and their relation to the 
Monsoon.— By W. A. Harwoop 

The object of the work described m the paper was to examine the 
msoon currents at various heights above the earth’s surface in relation 
‘c ‘the character of pherie circulation of which the monsoons 
m @ part, i ca to diseover any points requiring special attention 
: P asepenics with the research work with balloons recently started in 

was explained t the form of clouds enables one to estimate 
bs altitude, and thus Siaiey done of the directions and velocity of 

ement of clouds furnish a core eans of examining the winds at 
pate heights above the earth’s 

1916. } The Third Indian Science Congress. CXix 

uth-west monsoon current was found to be on the arene. abou 
3 vais aan at Madras, 4} to 5 miles at Vizagapatam and Calcutt apa 
about 5 miles over north-west India. Above it there a) 

south-west at th rface, rises and osits its ture in ; 
then return southwards. T inter or north-e pote: as wn 
of the circulation of the same character, but in the jo pre 

form par 
direction, and its stone. § esemblance to the north-east Sade. wind of the 
Atlantic was pointed ou 

The effect of Tensile Stress on the oak of Expansion 
of Nickel.— By E. P. Harri 

The instrument used in making these measurements was the same 
as that recently devised by the author rsa investigating Young’s Modulus 
at high temper a and exhibited to the Science Congress sf the Madras 
meeting last yea: 

ction from the experiments a series of per ge is as site 

By dedu 
sho “sid the relation between the elongation of bet te and its tempera- 
ture, each graph co rresponding to a different te 

Fro the whats series of expansion sacecsemataite graphs the av — 

bcatticient of expansion ies different ranges of temperature and c 
ponding to different tensions can be de sears These ouiciect pe 
plotted against the tension. 
e fo ped 

increases sri. aes pie as a linear function of the tension in aooordanoe 
with the known equation 
1 dE 

7 — _ — 
dT Er dé 
where a is the ara of expansion 
e tension in the wire in kilos per m 
E re value at 0° of Young’s as for Nickel and 
seas 5 the temperature coefficient of HZ supplied by the author’s previous 
experiments (Lond. Phys. Soc. Proc., Dec. 1914). This may be called the 

( : a ae 
normal change in a with tension, and its value is about 2 x 10 “deg 

kilos pee 
(2) For — above about 150°C the an ag of expansion 
increases linearly (as in case (1) ) until a certain tensio Stover after 

which a very rape increase of a takes place. This n may be called the 
gti ina tant tension, and begins to occur when the tension 

exceeds 15 kilos per sq. m 

The codheinod ales, from the present researc! ch so far as it goes is 

that during the measurement of veh coefficients -Aegaasemeg y at high 
temperature careful regard cise be paid to the stress conditions 
even though the latter are far baie Faint is n to cause a per- 

manent set. Only when the stress on the material is below a certain mini- 
mum value, i poeroar (no doubt) on the material, can the true or normal 
coefficient be obtain 

Potential Difference ard current in De la rae — 
tube.—By D. N. Mati and A. B. D 

In such a tube, so long as, and only when, there is a bd aeiies 
which alaae bobetes taster eh epeten of Tranyerse Magnetic Fields), 

exx Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

the enh of Potential difference to pressure remains constant both in air 
and in hydrogen. The Potential iieneisse goes on decreasing as press 
panned up to a certain point, but after that, it increases with deersaal 
The — dealt with a mathematical theory which explained all 
these | features 


= <4 

oe SS larit. ule 
but that connecting current and potential diffrence (exhibited on ‘he 
screen) was very complicated, showing one nodal p 

On the Radio-activity of some of the ss Fah Rocks.— By 
W. F. Smeets and H. E. Watson 

Deter < oree aee have been mai ade of the amount of radium in a num 
ec r 

history of ince rocks is known with some accuracy, and ody 
certain geological groups contain similar amounts of radiu 

On the Cathode fall from ag agp — —By 
H. E. Watson and G. Par 

ace cathode ru from as many nia as goer seeslyy is being measured 
in the inactive ere appears to efinite relation between 
the cathode fall gs the position in the oot aie of the metal used 

The Contribution of Arabs to Astronomy and Sepia 
with Special Reference to El-Biruni and h 
asudi.— By Z1ta-Up-Din Auman, O.1 Eb. 

A New Method of observing the Zeeman Effect.— By 
Watt MonamMap. 

The Potential cant at Patna.—By V. H. Jackson, M.A., 
- K. Mirra, B.Sc. 

Continuous Sse ords of the potential gradient were commenced in 
January 1914, absolute nibs being obtained in the manner recommended 
by Simpson tien Zeitschr. XIV, January 1913) by attaching a radium 
a to the oe. of a long insulated wire stretched hatigantally 2°5 

bove alawn. For satisfactory insulation under all weather con- 

dstinsis the ee ae the sulphur insulators used o te 
and age Ag Pre reliminary results Ww te 
ony range for the whole year gives P=125 + 70 sin 

(0+ ist) +43 gon (20 + 195 cee. sin (36 bea +11 sin (4¢ + 348). 
Th an eens a wrdteet about 75, in May, and reaches a maximum 
The diurnal variation shows an unusuall 

ut : 

e vim. A ave record ced the gradient over a flat roof 12°8 

aboee the ground, commenced in October 1915, leads to the con- 

prec that at this. level oe diurnal cncillat tions are much less marked, 
e.g., analysis for December 1915 gives— 

At ground-level P=207°4 + 121°5 sin (@ + 136) apes y = (26 + ah 

in (36 + 30 
At roof-level P=153°3 + 65°6 sin (@ + 125) ia sin (20 + 190) 
+ 6°5 sin (3@ + 318) 

1916. ] The Third Indian Science Congress. CXXi 

In the hot weather months ve rie) very high negative gradi- 
ents are vie aps! = = betw or 9 A.M. and 5 P.M hese 
due to clou f d by th pe a epee usual at this season, 
ada ae latte ER oe ap about 15 eniip an hour 

Utility of ee ae in Electrostatic Measurements.— By 
VB wad , M.A., and A. T. Moxerser, M.A. 

ing most months in the year accurate measur ements with sensi- 
be made 

auti ; 
of earlier work “ AS. B. Vol. X, 1914) the authors find that t leakage can 
be reduced to a very low and constant amount for an indefinite period if 
c in Oo r 

GEoLocy Srotron. 
Notes on some ee teeth from the Spr ver of Western 
. Das-Gup 
this paper the author d seeps some fish teeth obtained a 

the Tertiary beds of Rahiewace a Sind. Of these species one is 
and it has been described as Oxyrhina Feddeni 

On the Hyperathentaaeie of Manoslinic Pyroxenes.——By 
Kiran K. Sen 

The meaigeenn of Rane into garnet in the rocks of the char- 
nockite series has been proved by Sir Thomas Holland, bu se aes coped 

plained acco: Dr. bagmiy as due to a release of pressure. But the 
innumerable other instances go t saiguonte dS that the change is in the direction 
from augite t 

garnet and vice 
Hypersthene is the most charac bichoE , though not an sovenienie con- 
stituent. Some charnockites are entirely free from 

rsthene which is 
rather striking but not surprising in view of the gt Revaiagad that both 
hypersthene and garnet are believed bos bed erived from 
anted, one or other of the ferr ian gite, 
ga hene, and ndary hornblende may be found missing i 
some rocks of the charnockite se Although me is a c 

ite series. t is ac- 

constituent of the charnockites of South Seek as elsewhere, the 

green cis arco is ris fun ae constituent. The bluish green colour of 
the rays vibra lel to the minimum axis of erugeed ¢ in the 
augite is guitars 3 at of the rays ZT Pp g 

exxii Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N..S, XII, 

axis in the hypersthene, so that there may be a teh between augite 
and ln ane without a complete rotation of the nicols. Hypersthene 
ma; ed. 

The question of the extinction of rho bie : iepining t has zle a 

aa hom nd, in 
series, writes that although he has examined henicienlie, of cases fro 
Salem district and from all parts of the Madras Presidency, he feeteag never 
found a pyroxene in fcipagt Lie giving the pleochrosm of Gh decir 
ithout at th lin re exhibited, show 

ing a straight extin ction. He "hee very carefully sea aire every specimen 

the extensive pomaghade ma ade by his colleagues and himself, ‘and has to 

nstan such a 

ava which he as- 
SCOR Had pe In several cases the angle of extinc- 
as hyp 

er rmediate an 
augite and generis showing 
oblique extinction but he ae ‘appoacond rea hypersthene in all its 
charac — 

hetero augite is cuaeewal to ont ss into which is pre: in the 
form of large blebs and stringers forming a peace pa rk. “The Horn 
blende o a tive s right inside garnet, occasionally at the margin. Ina 
specimen of norite, green augite is observed to pass y itg pink hypersthene, 
the “tpanttdeival’ stage being marked by a fai i i 
by a dark pleochroic band. The peculiar cleavage lines of augite can also 
be traced in the altered fo: rm with which the augite is crystallographically 
continuous. e sieanhitete. mineral does not Mint bly show straight 
extincti ut often reaches as much as 26°. In cation section, hypers- 
thene is found in sparing quantity,» but usually chews a ere at ced wet 
e . is fg win where both the a e and hypers- 

H men of 
tatite) and monoclinic oribeerl re, some exceptional “hemi ine 
varieties of augite-norite. These intergrowths perhaps va 

1916. ] The Third Indian Science Congress. exxiii 

contigs oe fot ties ae DP aithepenieee into the rhombic forms. Before de- 

cribin na of fine-grained rocks which show a peculiar micrographic 

prion ‘anes up & i sinuous blebs of augite-hypersthene and fe spar, 

which ultimate! alter and pass into garnet, it has been found desirable 

h hypersthen 
men of norite the centrical and irre ct hig micrographic au sugite-teleoan eet 
not proceed from garnet at all, but is observed to stretch out from hypers- 
e alteration of augite is shown below :— 
Augite (monoclinic pyroxene) 

] : | 
Hornblende (?) Clino-hypersthene 

(?) Garnet Hypersthene 

On the correlation of a ease ae dolerite.—By Kiren 
K. Sen Gup 

The intrusive poe (augite-diorite) is evpiealy developed in the 
Cochin State. It is essentially holocrystalline and granito id, but homo- 
geneous rock, the Fae Sve minerals felspar an z= ite being distinct. 
From the microscopic ewig ers it is reasonable to infer that these types 

° y crystalli ites. ; 

also at Nunnanchira, half a mile upstream from the nieces bridge. 
The dolerites may be considered as the ae of 

ginal rite has not been = far in oie rocks examined, 
S isolated intrusions of dolerite are of frequent occurren 
©xposures of gabbro and dolerite are Stole i in eral zones or ‘belts run- 
ning ina N.-W. ection. ey are thus closely related or are 

separated by a ahort interval of time. 

Malabar Magic.—By L. K. ANANTAKRISHNA IyER. 

saa according to Mr. Iyer, is supposed to be the land of magic, 
Sorcery and witchcraft, and seg — slp persons practising various 


of doing injury of all kinds if oe io up : a heed who had always 
to feed daar a material sense. In the absence of this propitiation to 
these i they were supposed to turn against the pro- 
bably bait € hint to death. Another in eenting topic on this subject was, 
as Odi cult. It meant the breaking of a man’s hoay 
some special yesh The adept in the art was supposed to possess tw 

CxXxiv Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (N.S. XII, 

medicinal ols, one of which was extracted from boiling the foetus ex- 

racted from the womb of a woman in her first pregnancy and the other 
om the frei i wer a tree. The processes of extraction were too 

elaborate for a detailed description. Suffice it to say that the sorcerer 

be n ae forehead prepared with this kind of oil, and 

it o' rinking some toddy, set be for this purpose during the 

his body et 
is oan ie owed i himself to be transformed into any animal he liked and 
put his victim to death in no time. 
The Thandapulayans.—By L. K. ANANTAKRISHNA IYER. 

The. Thandapulayans are one division of the agricultural tribes in 
Cochin and Travancore. They are in a most primitive state, wearing leafy 

On the Chronological >i of some — 
mo 1 acer: . 
It is a common occurence to come across dolmens ae known as 
** Muni-ara”’ (huts of sages and hermits) in the Faves of the Cochin 

hac it — the east in some Spree n a e Cochin State the entrance to 
he bei 

oO e 
four haga at the corners in Singhbhum, be me highly Seveloped pate 
represented by the South Taio Steere npg ee of smooth and flat 

four ce cone, the truncated top eer pped a 

uge circular plano-convex stone with bevelled —_ . Hat-stones with 
flat capstones hav observed in the S pore dinre the hat- 
stones are sorne high conical structures made up of cpa or nine 
stones measuring seven feet long but soba any ice The um- 
brella-stones associated with these m nts are hewedes 9 found flat 

on the ground. dela, dense ter emo and devas made of 
terite. Logan was ome 7 not aware of the occurrence of ak Lu 
(hat-stone) in association with kuta-kallu (umbrella-stone) and was thus 

1916. ] The Third Indian Science Congress. CXXV 

led to refer the topi-kallu to the ‘‘ dolmen period.” The hat-stones un- 
doubtedly belong to an advanced type of civilization as could be made 
i is aceful appeara: 

ro Are 
style is but the character of the nation and of the e epoch sy ty ssed in 
wood, stone or brick. The chronological sequence of Logan thus modi- 
fied would be as follows :— 
I. Dolmens, menhirs, cromlechs, ete. 
Probably synchronous 
IT. Excavated cav 
III. (a) Caves with massive urns (t no 
sto: and massive sepulchral 
urns writhiout caves 
(6) hat-sto 
IV. Modern seguichral urns of a small size. 
No definite chronological sequence can be traced in — evolu- 
of meg of different countries, sa less can their 
ce, ange and co: ntents be said to in peep a phase of 

co. ta jects ch 

istic of the Iron paris whereas in India, the practice of erecting meg al 
thie structures still obtains ee some of the aboriginal tribes, ical 
as the Mundas, Kuruvas, and Khas 


Dr. E. H. Hankin’s lecture on ‘‘ The Evolution of Flying 

ings of insects — a x pe developed from tracheal gills 

AP he were leaf-like appendages born airs on each body-joint of the 
primitive insect wn nid eet of the earliest known fossii 
i of the joints of the thorax carried a pair of wing - 
quently the animal The suc f the abdo- 
en were each sped wes bie F aath of sgpese: gills. The wings of these 
hse i their structure in 
cer vince tracheal 1 gills fig to Smear a in the same respects from the 

en i ch gre ave in many cases evo into 
An illustration was s a fossil flying fish gf "hang 
the win, pel attached below the level « of the otis of gravity 
of ane < this point as is the case in modern flying fishes. tis wold 
uch a position of the wings to conduce to a: Be instability 

r ind : 
teryx,’’ was described and its reptilian characters were explained. Each 
wing was provided with three claws which for reasons descri in detail 
were suppo to be functional. In modern bi the second and third 

of th digits ovided with ge feathers whic 
a rig ye 7 e. Th he muscles that moved the hand in the 
cestral reptile w a) or of e bir he 
m that: moved the hand were also adapted for this purpose in the 
ossil-flying re own as pterodactyls. In these animal 
the wing is supported on an eno n bats also the 

In each case it is probable that the _ of gliding asian that of 
flapping and that the power of gliding in a straight line preceded the 

CXxvi Journal of the Asiatie Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Sask - Aes, Nea the glide. Movements in pono babieae . a 
nnected with the origin of steering m ents. 
Flapping y pxbbably oriented from a repetition of certain reyes move- 

ae oe ena ribs have been ener 9 to gral the agai that 
org tions a In flying squirrels t facie ith the ission of 
eh aie Prades nt the membrane or "patagia i such pasa the 
parte of flight could not develop very far as ia the complicated hand 
moving mechanism was not available ioe daca to purposes of fight. 

of a ber of interrelated movements: both in this and in other charac- 
ters the pterodactyl appears to have been far more specialised for flight 
than any other animal of which we ava knowledge. A study of the 
anatomy of the different joints of the arm shows that these animals och 
not walk as quadrupeds. It is difficult to understand how they could 
have walked as bipeds as they were unable to furl their wings. It is con- 
sidered that after alighting on their hind feet they fell over on to their 
stomachs “py pushed oo pei laboriously somewhat after the 
manner of a penguin. adduced for be erg that they 
could not hang from the eakokes of a fics by their hind leg s do flying 
It has 

ada; and spe e eir 
urnish a proof that the phenomenon of soaring flight is one which is 
quite inexplicable in the light of our present knowledge. 

Prof. Neogi’s Lecture on ‘‘ Manufacture of Tron in Ancient 

Prof. Neogi showed a oe of oe Pate oo Dhar pillar, an 
Mount Abu pillar as well as of 

1: ate: 
an ubaneswar temples and te Seton te eae gons ae the Moghule—in 
fact, remar e specimens of iron manufact om the earliest tim 
down to the 17th century. ee analyses of she reveal the 

fact that the iron used was pure wrought iron *‘ - with low sulphur and 
manganese and Las. ceh stein! eevee ee ee ee 
the pillars and beams were constructed by forging and then welding 
me blooms of wrought iron sr that the wr Garth constitution of these 
iron specimens was responsible for their remarkable corrosion-resisting 
e next dwelt upon Indian steel or woots which was the mate 
from which the famous Damascus blades were yee A remarkable 
specimen of ancient Indian steel, dated as seni c. 150, has recently 
been discovered { in Gwalior and analysed by Sir Robert Hadfield. The 
as of surgical i i 
, the 

; rit surgical 
was such that ts! as — bisect a hair r longitu dinally ” shows the know- 
ledge of the use of dank enakais **tikhna” or sharp) as early as 3rd 
century B.C. 

1916.] The Third Indian Science Congress. exxvii 

The ae regarding the knowledge of cast iron in ancient India 

is very mea 
Turning Pe the methods Bo Ce gy aweiggeri of wrought iron and stee 
Prof. ot showed that wrought ir yas pared by the ‘ direct 
method,” i.e., directly from “the ores without the Saturmedlate 
tion of ¢ on by heating the ores in all blast fur- 
fons small crucibles by heating wrought iron with 
certain plants obtained as cas of. N main ong 
with Dre Perey rath the ‘‘ crucible process of m making steel by cementa- 

ere was really an Indian discovery sillomevenied by Mushet in 1800 in 

MARCH, 1016. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the et was held on 
Wednesday, the Ist March, 1916, ‘at 9-15 p 

LiEvT. pas Sir L. Rogers, Kr., C.1.E., M.D., B.S., 
F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.S.B., I.M. s. , President; in the chair. 

The ne page were present :— 

Maulavi Abdul Wali, Dr. F. H. Gravely, Mr. H. G. Graves, 

Rev. R. Oka, in Satis Chania Vidyabhusana, De Annandale 
and Dr. Hossa 

Visitor :—Lady Rogers. 

The minutes of the January ecaanae Monthly Meeting, 
the Annual Meeting and the Feb ruary Ordinary Monthly 
Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Sixty-nine presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Mr. P. Mukerji had 
expressed a desire to withdraw from the Society. 

The General Secretary also reported the death of Sir 
William Turner, K.C.B., an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

Dr. Annandale read the following obituary notice :— 

Obituary Note on Sir William Turner, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
Hon. F.A.S.B., etc., died 15th February, 1916. 

William Turner, ee Scotchman and citizen of Edin- 
burgh as he became, was born at Lancaster in 1832. For well 
over half a century (1854-191 6) he was on the staff of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, for thirteen years as Demonstrator of 
Anatomy, thirty-six years as Regius Professor of the same 
science, and finally for eleven years as Principal and Vice- 
Chancellor. For at least twenty years he dominated university 
poligine, and even those who complained that his ideas were 
old-fashioned had no thought of questioning his Dols hoariea 
devotion and the power of his personality. sash his death a 
chapter in the history of the Scotish universities is : 

Though a biologist rather than a medical man, ee took a 
very necieaes ‘part in the work of the British Medical Asso- 
ciation, of the General Council of which he was President from 
1898 to 1904. He was President of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1900. The lucidity of his 
academic lectures was famous. 

It was not only asan anatomist pure and simple that Turner 

cCxxx Procs. of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [March, 1916. 

achieved enduring fame but still more in the capacity of anthro- 
pologist and student of the marine mammals—in particular 

his series of human crania, a collection to which the gratitude 
of old students was continually adding specimens from all parts 
of the world. 

Turner’s most important contribution to original research 
was perhaps his account of the human skulls and other bones 
obtained in the course of the ‘ Challenger’ Expedition. In this 
memoir, which was published in the Scientific Reports of the 
expedition in 1884, he evolved a method of investigation that 
forms the basis of most modern work. In the many papers 
he subsequently wrote on the same subject he departed in no 
important respect from the system there laid down. Among 
his later papers those on the craniology of the peoples of the 
Indian Empire were among the most valuable. He sum- 


as the parasitic Copepoda and the Hexactinallid sponges. In 
recent years his papers, with few exceptions, were published in 
} Pag 

was in the University. 

The President announced that Dr. N. Annandale had been 
appointed Anthropological Secretary in the place of Mr. J. 
Coggin Brown, resigned. 

The General Secretary read the names of the following 
gentlemen who were appointed to serve on the various com- 
mittees during 1916: — 

Finance Committee. —Dr. N. Annandale, The Hon. Justice 
Sir Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, Kt., Mahamahopadhyaya Hara- 
prasad Shastri, C.I.E., Mahamahopadhyaya Satis Chandra Vidya- 
bhusana, Hon. Librarian (Ex-officio). 

Library Committee.—The Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh Mukho- 


March, 1916.] Proes. of the Asiaiic Society of Bengal. CXxxi 

logical Secretary, Biological Secretary, Physical Science Secre- 
tary, the two Philological Secretaries, Medical Secretary, Hon. 

Philological Committee.—Abdulla Al-Ma’ mun Suhrawardy, 
Esq., Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, The Hon. Justice Sir 
Asutosh Mukhopadhyaya, Kt., Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, Rai Bahadur Monmohan Chakravarti, Babu Rakhal Das 
Banerjee, Babu Nilmani Chakravarti, A. H. Harley, Esq. 

Hon. Numismatist.—Mr. H. Nelson Wright. 

on. Joint Secretaries, Scdence Congress.—Dr. J. L. Simon 
sen ie Prof. P. S. Macmahon 

e suggestion of Lieut.-Col. Sir Leonard Rogers, Kt., 
regarding the transfer of all medical journals to the School of 
Tropi cal. Medicine, of which intimation had already been given 
by circular to all members, was brought up for final disposal. 

votes of the members were laid on the tables and the 
President requested any members who had not expressed their 
rh to take the present opportunity of filling in voting 

The President a Sai Mr. H. G. Graves and Maulvi 
Abdul Wali to be scrutinee 

The scrutineers sehared as follows :— 

For the proposal—92 

Against the proposal—1. 


The following —- was balloted for as an Ordinary 
Member :— 

Mr. Prabhat Rie Mukerji, Barrister-at-Law, 4, Chowrin- 
ghee ieee peoaprge rhs by Babu Rakhal Das Banerji, 
seconded by D y. 

Dr. N. Annandale exhibited some Japanese pictures. 

ae following papers were read :— 
Some old Records of the Madras Army, 1757-1759.— 

Raited by the Rev. H. Hosten, 

2. A Tibetan Funeral Pruses “weed Davsampvr. 
Communicated by the Joint Philological Secr 

These papers will be published in a Sean number of 
the Journal. 

The President announced that the next adjourned meeting 
of the Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 8th 
March, 1916, at 9-30 p.m 


¢ a 

i SNe? = 
seit Soke 

ea ny osu 

APRIL, 109016. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 5th April, 1916, at 9-15 P.M. 

Lrevt.-Cot, Sir Lronarp Rocers, Bt. C1... M.D. 
BS., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.S.B., LM.S., President, in the 

The following members were present :— 

Dr. N. Annandale, Dr. C. A. Bentley, Mr. H. G. Carter, 
Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri, Mr. G. de P. Cotter, Babu Hemchandra 
Das Gupta, Dr. F. H. Gravely, Mr. H. G. Graves, Dr. H. H. 

ny oe WN, , Mr. S. W. Kemp, Mr. R. D. 
Mehta, Mr. C. S. Middlemiss, Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, 
Mr. E. Vredenburg. 

Visitors :—Mrs. H. G. Carter and Mr. K. C. Ghose. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Thirty-three presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Mr. L. Petrocochino 
and Lieut.-Col. R. P. Wilson, I.M.S., had expressed a desire to 
withdraw from the Scciety. 

General Secretary reported the death of Raja Saccida- 
nanda Tribhuban Deb of Bamra, an Ordinary Member of the 

The following gentleman was balloted for as an Ordinary 
Member :— 

Babu Radhanath Shaha, Medical Practitioner, No. 16, 
Lachmi Kunda, Benares City, proposed by Mahamahopadhyaya 
Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Babu Nilmani Chakravarti. 

The following exhibitions were shown :— 

1. Dr. H. H. Hayden exhibited ores of tungsten and 

2. Mr. G. de P. Cotter exhibited Teeth of Eocene 
Mammals from Burma. 

3. Mr. H. G. Carter exhibited some samples of Asafcetida, 
showing unexplained differences. 

e President announced that the next Adjourned Meeting 
of the Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 26th 
April, 1916, at 9-30 p.m., there being no Meeting on Wedn esday, 
the 12th April, 1916. 

exxxiv _ Procs. of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (April, 1916.] 

The Adjourned Meeting of the Medical Section of the 
Society was held at the Society’s Rooms on Wednesday, tlre 
26th April, 1916, at 9-30 P.M. 

Linvt.-Cox. Sir Leonarp Rogers, Kt., C.1.E., M.D., B.S., 
ER.CP., F.B.CS., F.AS.B., LMS., ‘President, in the chair. 

The following members were present :— 

Dr. U. N. Brahmachari, Dr. K. K. Chatterjee, Dr. W. C. 
Hossack, reas McCay, I.M.S., Lt.-Col. F. O’Kinealy, 1.M.S. 

Vis eh at B. Ganguly, Dr. N. H. Hume, Dr. RB. P. 
Wilson, Dr. Teg 

The minutes of the December meeting were read and 

Dr. K. K. Chatterjee showed some clinical cases. 

Dr. W. C. Hossack read a paper entitled ‘‘ German Influ- 
ence on Modern Bacteriology—Need for Elimination 

Rai Bahadur Dr. Upendra Nath Brahmachari, M A., M.D. 

Ph.D, read a paper entitled ‘‘ Third Report on the treatment 

of Kala-azar with special reference to the use of Antimony and 
Forinal dee de® 

i ta 

MAY, 10916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of gi aad was held on 
Wednesday, the 3rd May, 1916, at 9-15 

Ma hirer tle tc HaARAPRASAD SuHAsrtrtr, C.I. E., Vice- 
President, in the chai 

The following members were present :— 

Mr. - C. Atkinson, Babu Rakhal Das Banerjee, Mr. J. A. 
Chapma , Mr. H. G. Gra ves, Mr. S. W. Kemp, Rev. R. Oka, 
Babu Badliansth Laha, Me Satis Chandra Vidyabhisana. 

Visitors :—Mr. A. C. Ghose, Mr. G. D. Sarkar. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
‘Twenty-eight presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Mr. R. C. 
Burton of the Geological Survey of India and Mr. M. §S. 
Ramaswami of the Botanical Survey of India, Ordinary Mem- 
bers of the Society. 

The General Secretary reported that Capt. John Inglis 
Eadie, 97th Deccan na had expressed a desire to with- 
draw from the Socie 

ei ferns gentlemen were balloted for as Ordinary 
M. van Geuns, Esq., Managing Editor of the Newspaper 
Sasssbasnuth Handels blad,’’ Pe per-9 (Java), Great Eastern 
Hotel, Calcutta, proposed by M r. W. R. Gourlay, seconded by 
Mr. F. H. Gr ravely ; Babu hares std Dutt, B.A., Nepal 
Educational Service, Katmandu, Nepal, pr opos sed by Mr. 
B. L. Chaudhuri, seconded by Mr. Gopal Das Chaudhuri. 

Mahamahopidhyaya MHaraprasid Shastri exhibited a 
golden manuscript of a very rare work entitled Heruka Tantra, 
Section Sambarodoya only. 

Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhisana exhibited Nag-Sgron—a 
very early indigenous dictionary of the Tibetan language. 

The following paper was read :— 

Some traditions about Sultan ‘Ala’uddin Husain Shah and 
Notes on some Arabic Inscriptions from Murshidabad. By G. D. 
Sarkar. Communicated by Basu RakHat Das Banerut, 

CXXXVi Procs. of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [May, 1916.] 
This paper will be published in a subsequent number of the 

The President announced that there would be no meeting 
of the Medical Section during this month. 

JUNE 1916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the stad was held on 
Wednesday, the 7th June, 1916, at 9-15 p 

LizvT.-CoLONEL Sir LEoNaRD lpia Kt., C.1.E., M.D., 
B.S., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.A.S.B., I.M.S., President, in the 


The following members were present : — 

Maulavi Abdul Wali, Dr. N. Annandale, Dr. B. L. Chau- 
dhuri, Miss M. L. Cleg horn, Mr. T. P. Ghose, Mr. S. W. Kemp, 
Mr. C. 8. Middlemiss, Rev, R. Oka, Dr. Statis Chandra Vidya- 

Visitors :—- Miss O. M. Cleghorn and Mrs. B. M. Cooper. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Fifty-seven presentations were announced. 

a he following to be added to ‘the ‘* Regulations regarding 
the lending out of manuscripts 

‘* 6. Applications for the ice of Government manuscripts 
in the charge of the Society shall be dealt with by the Hony. 
Librarian in the same terms as manuscripts belonging =f wo 
Society ; the Officer-in-charge shall hand over to the 
Librarian the ma nuscripts required for this purpose and shell 
take a formal epvae from him in each case 

To the ‘‘ Office Regulations regarding leave and late 
attendance,’’ the following to ee inserted instead of ‘* All other 
leave shall be without pay ’ 

“* In cases of illness, ies a on half pay for a period not ex- 
ceeding fifteen days in the year may also be granted, provided 
a certificate is produced showing that treatment is being 
received from a recognized hospital.’ 

The following gentlemen were balloted for as Ordiriary 
Members :— 

Mr. Suryya Prasad Mahajan, Honorary Secretary, Sri 
Mannu Lall Library, Murarpur, Gaya, proposed by Babu 
Nagendranath be seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Hara- 

exxxviii Proes. of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [June, 1916.] 

prasad Shastri; Mr. Joseph Orlando Ferrer, Cuban Consul, 
5, Hastings Street, Calcutta, PaSa by Mr. JA. Chapman, 
seconded by Dr. F. H. Grave 

Dr. N. Annandale tina living specimens of Campanu- 
lina ceylonensis from brackish water near Calcutta. 

The following papers were read :— 

Zoological Results of a tour in the Far East.— By N. ANNAN- 
DALE, D.Sc. 


1. Freshwater Lumellibranch Shells. 

2. Polyzoa of fresh and brackish water. 
3. ee of fresh and brackish water. 

e President announced that site would be no meeting 
of Ge ‘Medical Section during this mo 

oneness a ee ee oO Oe 


Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. XI, Nos. 10-11, 1915. 
P. 437, in the first line a the third paragraph: for 
‘‘invertebrates’’ read ‘ vertebra 
P. 477, last line but one: ae = ae read ‘* 
P. 478, line 8: for ‘‘or’’ read ‘‘ and.’’ 
P. 478, line 15: for ‘‘prihtivt vijitva’’ read ‘* prithivi- 


478, note 3: for ‘‘ virudda Mnatrskrt’’ read ‘‘ virudda 
eek se 

6. A Progress Report on the Preliminary Work done 
during the year 1915 in connection with the Proposed 
Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana. 

By Dr. L. P. Tessrrort. 


The difficulties which have made it impossible to com- 
mence the Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana in 
Jodhpur on the lines proposed in the scheme approved by the 
Council of the Asiatic Society in December 1914, and published 
in the Society’s Journal for that month (Vol. X, pp. 373-410) 

transference of my work to Bikaner, where it is hoped that it 
may be possible to commence the Survey on similar lines, 
though probably on a smaller scale. 

I moved to Bikaner on the 6th December, invited by 
H. H. the Maharaja, who had decided to employ me for four 
months in the first instance, i.e. from December to the end of 

n wi 
History of Bikaner and the publication of the most impor- 
tant bardic poems referring to the State, will be taken into 
consideration together with the question fof funds. The field is 
@ rich and interesting one, and the inteszgent and enlightened 
support of the present Maharaja, Colonel Sir Ganga Singh, 
affords good hopes of a complete success. 

Tue WorkK Done. 

except for a few differences imposed by the limited means at 
my disposal. My two assistants, Pandit Rama Karna and 
Carana Kisora Dana, were liberated from the Tawarikh and 
Bardic Mehkma, where they had been employed, only on the 
26th of January, but I had been able to utilize their services 
even before, in their non-office hours. The travelling man, 
Bhata Nani Rama, was regularly employed from the Ist of. 
January, and so was the copyist. The two former assistants 

58 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XU, 

were no funds to meet the expenses of publication. 

To begin with the editing, the most noteworthy result 

Ratlam, in Malwa, wXg was killed on the field. Itis a work 
of a high literary va...y and enjoys a certain popularity, espe 
cially in Marwar, though the form of language in which it 18 
couched, is far beyond the intelligence of the average reader. 
As proposed in my Scheme, the edition of the poem will consist 
of two parts: the one containing he Dingala text with differ- 
ent readings and critical notes, and the other the English trans 
lation with historical introduction and explanatory notes. 
Besides the Vacanika, the edition of another work has 
been prepared for the press, and this is the Uktiratnakara by 
Sadhu Sundara. It is not a bardic work, but a work on gram- 
mar in the form of an etymological glossary, and its chief 
importance lies in the fact that it throws a considerable light 
on the Old Marwari of the beginning of the seventeenth century 
.D. I have shown elsewhere that the Dingala language of 
the bards of Rajputana is ultimately but Old Marwari, or, to 
use a more comprehensive term, Old Western Rajasthan, 
hence the connection of the Uktiratnakara with our field of 

1916.) Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 59 

research. It was first meant for insertion in the ‘ Bulletin,’’ 
but since, owing to the present impossibility of starting the 
Survey on an official and permanent footing, the ‘ Bulletin’? 
now has hardly any reason to come into existence, it might, 

like the Vacanika, form a volume in the “Series of Bardic and 

there are some grammatical and literary works, which are 
directly or indirectly connected with the bardic literature of 

ome other materials, which had been prepared for the 
** Bulletin,’’ will be found given as an appendix to the present 

ge volumes, almost all forming part of two rich private col- 
lections at Jodhpur. The work was interrupted when, in 
consequence of the Darbar’s departing from its friendly atti- 
tude, people became afraid of lending me their books. 
n the searching department of the work, I was a little 
better off, for in spite of the existence of the same difficulties as 

© appointment of Bhata Nani’ Rama for a travelling man 
eventually proved a failure, the man soon revealing himself as 
unreliable and unfit for the search of manuscripts. He was 
ismissed at the end of January and another employed in his 
e, his name Candra Bhana, a Puskarana brahman who was 

@ clerk in the Tawarikh Mehkma and had been recommended 
by the first assistant Pandit Rama Karna. But he also proved 

60 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [NS., XII, 

unfit for the search of manuscripts and had to be dismissed in 
the beginning of April. was more fortunate with the third 
man I employed, Ujala Rama Dayala, a Sindhayaca Carana, 
whose services were at Jast found satisfactory. 

(February 17th—April 5th), Bhandiyawas and environs (April 
13th—20th), Phalodhi town (April 22nd—23rd), Godhwar pro- 
vince (April 27th—-May 31st), Sojhat town and villages in the 
district (June 2nd—24th), Phalodhi district (July 10th—Sep- 

spent by the travelling m lely in returning the manu- 
scripts borrowed during the preceding eight months, exceptfora 
visit to Sitamau and 8 her, in Malwa (Octo 19th— 

28th), the object of which was to collect information concern- 
ing the life and epoch of Khiriyé Jago, the author of the Vacani- 
ka, whose descendants live there. 


and Jhanwar (January 30th), Phalodhi, Kolu, Jalora (February 
21st—24th), Pali (March 29th—3Ist). Outside Marwar, I 

interest were also purchase 

a total of 32 manuscripts, which include not less than 
different works. The manuscripts copied in my office contain 

Rl: wMs areat Tt Ta, 
azaz aratagt tt ara, 


1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 61 

feat cat Zt ata, 
aufaat sts caafaga a aBactata S, 
TILT BTA Tt ate . 

Siz x 72”. No. of leaves 72, of which many broken 
and ieee Unbound. Jaina. Fragmen ntary, all the works 
contained being incomplete. The last Aap contain ordinary 
illustrations, in water-colours, sixteen in a 

e first two works were written at N agora, Samvat 1808; 
the he at Merato, Samvat 1809. 
nted by Pandit Panna Lala Bakalivala, Nagora the 
9th afeuhbots 1914, 

R. 2: aeqax et ara, 
azae aratagr a a4, 
aI yare Tt ala. 
Size 81”x653”. No. of leaves 72. Unbound. Jaina. 

The first work is esbuaplate owing to the first page being want- 
Written at Rayapura, in Samvat 1845. 
Presented by Pandit Rama Karna, Jodhpur, 24th Sep- 
tember, 1914. 

R.3: Fafamr cats wafer A asacreta A 
wa fagt atsarsrsit <1, 
faretat <t ata, 
Went sar. 
e 63” x 84”. No. of leaves 140. Unbound. Jaina 
“tee script. Most of the works comprehended under the 
general title of Beat atat are Jaina. 
Written between Samvat 1842 and 1890 at Vanara. 

Presented by Pandit Rama Karna, Jodhpur, 24th Septem- 
ber, 1915. 

R4: seqe dase. 
Foolscap. No. of leaves 6. Loose 
Modern copy made at Kheravo, Samvat’ 1969. The original 
oe composed Samvat 1757, vunder rana Amara Singha ii of 

bs Presented by the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya Siri, Decem- 
r, 1914. 

62 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

R.5: wawratat x Set aifaar aiatera a afsar, 
sh aes afagst @ Sa aate a 

eet ae at wet, 
WSs weal sat faa cafe. 

Siz "x 7”. No. of leaves 30. Unbound. About a 
hisctbed mn. old. 

Presented by Carana Sindhayaca Udé Raja, Jodhpur, 24th 
March, 1915. 

R6: Wa areger ut cen vaefape x fefsat 
SRA a afear, 
Relea aaa tz ALA tt AeA, 
alta seit : dang iz dare at afeat, 
went afsa 
Size 44’ x 63”. No. of leaves 97. Leather-bound; some 
leaves procter” 

Written at Judhiyo between Samvat 1867 and 1874. The 
second work was written by the author himself. 

Presented by Carana Sindhayaca Udé Raja, Jodhpur, 24th 
March, 1915. 

R.7: faaa aetteax o fastat fattaaa . 

Foolscap. No. of leaves 7. Loose. 

Presented by the Jainacirya Dharma Vijaya Sari, April, 
R.8:  Stearat & vaya a afan, 
a No. of leaves 4. Loose, 

Modern copy. 

Presented by the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya Siri, April, 

R.9: atafaeowaa aafanzag . 

wert ie of leaves 8. Loose. 
Modern c 

Pitasiited: te the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya Suri, April, 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 63 

R.10: Btafafeatiareat sae. 

Foolscap. No. of leaves 10. Loo 
odern copy, made from a MS. eaten by Hetu Sagara 
at Kisanagadha, in Samvat 1717. 
a Presented by the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya Siri, April, 

: ll: gag ut wimaa Asaedai GB aadta a 

Foolscap-size. No. of leaves 12. Unbound. Caused to be 
compiled by Nathi Singha, thakura of Dudora, in Samvat 
1968, and tortie by the same on June 4th, 1915. 

R.12: qeax afaat. 
Size 54”x9%. No. of leaves 95. Bound but uncovered. 

Presented by Carana Gadana Ladhi Rama of Dhanad6é 
(Vali), Bepeenitee 1915. 

R13: @erarast efeuraga aa. 
Size 8” x 61”. No. of leaves 13. Loose and fragmen- 
Written i in the year Samvat 1852. 
ted by Carana Gadana Ladhi Rima of Dhanado 
(vat, aniecae 1915. 

R14: were wafegen oo ated fefsar saat x 
ene Alaar. 
Size 8” x 61”. No. ofleaves51. Loose and fragmentary. 
Originally forming one body with R. 13. 
“site: a hundred years old. 
ted by Carana Gadana Lidhtii Rama of Dhanado 
(van). Septet: 1915 

R15; wettst 3 euR Tae Wasa Tt aheat. 

Size 64” x 103”. No. of leaves 14. Loose. Moder 
Copied and presented by Carana Lalasa Ganesa Dina of 
tk a descendant of the author. Jodhpur, 2nd Novem- 

64 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

R16: Wa aeqe a wm vaefeset ua fafsa 
BRAG cu alsa, 
wens afaar. 
Size 64” x 44”. No. of leaves 82. Cloth-bound 

The first pages were written at Bhadord by Sadhu Rama 
Bs ont in Samvat 1912. 

ted by Carana Baratha Kisora Dana, Jodhpur, 
Roveaiice, ‘Dis 

Manuscripts PurcHASED. 

P.1: eat ta afan ge San ase tia ct afeal. 
Any 53" x 62”. No. of leaves 94. Bound. 

nal MS., apparently all written by the very hand of 

the bay who lived in Godhavara under Maharaja Mana 

Singha of Jodhpu ur. One of the poems, the Godhana Pacisi, 

is dated Samvat 1862 and was written at Ghanerava by the 
author himself. 

Pischnesd at Jodhpur, the 24th September, 1914. 

P.2: Staarat & wana. 

Size 53” x 61”. No. of leaves 4. Unbou 

Thi s MS. originally formed one bod with the foregoing, 
but nates be detached and subject dillorent , it has bee 
classed separately. 

P.3: taat sate A aa. 

Size 63” x 43”. No. of leaves 50. Unbou 
Purchased at Jodhpur, the 25th SRR ag 1914. 
P.4: gaerel Seea aat a afta, adizaa. 

Size 5" 64". No of leaves 94. Cloth-bound. 
Written in Samvat 1879, 

Purchased at Jaipur, the 29th September, 1914. 
P.5: aTwatsar. 
Size 5” 7". No. of leaves 38. Bound. 
Purchased at Jodhpur, the 25th September, 1914. 
¥. 6: TULF, 
AIast a aaa aaa UTaTE. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 65 

Size 53” x 52”. No. of leaves 126, of which the last 20 
added subsequently. Marwari script. Bound but uncovered. 
Purchased at Nagor, the 9th September, 1915. 

P.7: sage afaaaae . 

Size 4” x 94”. No. of leaves 9. Unbound. Jaina. In- 

Date of composition Samvat 1745 

Purchased at Jaipur, the 30th September, 1914. 

P.8: Ree Geae aia, 
Has UT AST a TMA, 
Hiae UT ATI VatafayPsat Tt ttarat fafsar 
BAA tt Ret (incomplete), 
wraatifa a atau afs Zatera Aa (incomplete), 
zat wea sfaafegt A <tanete 
yuarteat ct ast, 
Gene afaar. 
Size 134” x 10”. No. of leaves 168, of which about one 
half Blaha *Cloth--bound: Almost all in Devanagari, only a 
few Jee in Marwari script. 

A a hundred years old. 
Dashies at Jodhpur in November, 1914. 

P.9: qaMetea Gat ct aafaar. 

Size 82” x 51”. No. of leaves 26, Incomplete, owing 
to the first pages s be eing missing. Unbound. 

Written in Samvat 1799. 

Purchased at Jaipur, the 5th June, 1915. 

P.10: utaafea wuat vacat far. 

Size 44” x 93” hose of leaves 16. Unbound. Jaina. 
Written i in Samve 1919. 

Purchased at ghd the 5th June, 1915. 

P.11: famafeaafea waltaquad . 

Size 44” x 10”. are of leaves 86, of which the first one 

und. Jain 
chased ‘a coin ‘tbe 5th June, 1915. 
P.12: frarg nae tt aa. 

Size 4” x 9”. No. of leaves 6. Unbound. Incomplete. 
Purchased at Jaipur, the sth June, 1915. 

66 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

P.13: aHz Wate T ara. 
Size 9” x 53”. No. of leaves 6. Unbound. Jaina. 
Apparently about 150 years 
Purchased at Jaipur, the 5th cy 1915. 
P. 14: wat tt ata, 
Size 8}” x 6”. No.of leaves110. Bound, but uncovered. 
Jaina. Beautiful writing. 
ritten in Samvat 1868. 
Purchased at Jaipur, the 5th June, 1915. 

P.15: wet wafeget <a afaa fefgat qwat ot 

Rene aa, 
suiga afta fram uate. 

e 82” x 64”. No. of leaves 192, of which many 
rary _ Bound, but uncovered. 

n by oles Raya Canda of Jodhpur between Sam- 
vat 1853, aad 18 

Purchased fe Woaheul the 12th September, 1915. 

P.16: @emare afaat wetter <} afeat, 
aaa ata Tate Tt TET, 
faye . 

Size a “x 8”. No. of leaves 270. Bound. 
Written by Sevaga Raya Canda of Sosisar between Sam- 
vat 1852 and 1853. 

Purchased at Jodhpur, the 12th September, 1915. 

Manuscripts Coprep. 

C.1: staat aetars asfagat ua fasta afaa, 2 


From a MS. sink 100- ve ngewe old, borrowed from the 
Jainkskiye ‘Dashnd Vijaya Sir 

C.2.: stage at 2aera aur faarat a faaa, 10 


From the MS, No. 11 (r-s) of Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, 
pt. i. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 67 

O.3: autawe ct ugiaett, 33 leaves. 

From a MS. written in Samvat 1889, borrowed from the 
J aindotirya Dhaewe Vijaya Sa 

C.4: wgacadtat ule wreta Tt WT, 12 leaves. 

From a MS. written by Sevaga Piraga at Ahamadabad in 
Samvat 1773, borrowed from Carana Sada Riva Dana of Toka- 

0.5: diearaa alet aTezx Ut Ret, 56 leaves. 

a MS. written by Bogaso Ganga Rama Panauta at 
Siairart.” in Samvat 1923, borrowed from Carana Asiyo Guman 
Singha ‘of Sonand. 

Usb Se CIC L wrafaaaaa, 10 leaves. 
From a MS. written in Samvat 1748, borrowed from the 
Jainacarya Daal Vijaya Suri. 

0.7: Gawafag creat ct ata, 6 leaves. 

From a MS. written by jati Moti Sagara at Dudovara in 
Teasley 1766, borrowed from the Thakura of Lhasani (Mewar). 

C.8: atwageequgmamtcra cafata7aa, 35 leaves. 

From a MS. being the autographic original written by Dipa 
Vijaya himself in Samvat 1877, borrowed from the Jainacarya 
Dharma Vijaya Siri. 

C.9: Wane eae at ag, 7 leaves. 

a MS. about 50 _ old, borrowed from Carana 
Kaiys San Dana of Jodhpur 

C. 10: alats at TAA, 2 leaves. 
From a MS. written by Pandit Jiiana Vijaya at Sivapuri 
ace Samvat 1765, borrowed from the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya 

C11: stage a cats cst wat ¢ atau fear faut 
zt fana, 5 leaves. 

; From the MS. No. 11 (6-e) of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i, 
Pp ig i, 

68 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
C.12: Stat areaait J age, 16 leaves, 

From a MS. written at Untala in pata 1763, borrowed 
from ee Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya Sur 
O.13: aes ASaztant ct afsat, 45 leaves. 

a MS. of the Samvat- cpemieaty 1700, borrowed from 
Cheane ‘Sidi Ghana Syama of Hilori 

C.14: Franz dtera at <1, 11 leaves. 

a MS. written in Samvat 1775, borrowed from the 
J aise ‘Destin Vijaya Sir 

C.15: Tel qeatstt Tt Afaar, 9 leaves. 
From the same MS. as C. 13. 

C. 16: aie ATatat Tt Alaa, 6 leaves, 
From the same MS. as C. 13. 

C.17: wget a ee stem ate Fert a afear, 3 

From a MS. written in cole 1806, borrowed from Bhati 
Dolat Singha, Thakura of Ola 

C.18: UTgst €1 Tet TTI Tt AfSaT, 11 leaves. 
From the same MS. 

C.19: Waa x} faaat, 3 leaves. 
From the same MS. 

C. 20: Staatat at Saya, 2 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

C. 21: Seal atarereatt acafagsat ou afsa FETs 
a ATTAT, 8 leaves, 

From the same MS. as C. 13. 

C. 22: sumer Stat Tt auftat, 17 leaves. 
From the same MS. as C. Vk 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 69 

C. 23: slat qrarstt Tt wfaat, 25+9 leaves. 

From a MS, written in the first half of the Samvat-cen- 
tury 1700, borrowed from Carana Adhd Sankara Dana of 

C. 24: Blet qatwatt Tt afar, 11 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

C. 25: Bet Heaarastt Tt afaat, 8 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

O. 26: wget a ee Stee ale Fest ut afear, 4 


From a MS. borrowed from Carana Asiyd Pabii Dana of 

0.27: saz Vat a ata, 28 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 17. 

CO. 28: lat zareerast at afaat, 14 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 23. 

CO. 29: atta crdtet A sataat Tr, § leaves. 

From a MS. borrowed from Baratha Narahara Dasa of 

C. 30: ret faaarstt Ct afaat, 16 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 23. 

C. 31: wrafgat cratet & ema, 7 leaves. 

From the MS. No. 11 (a) of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i, 
t. i. 

C. 32: waar werera sarafeaRat x aie arTarat & 

afeat, 9 leaves. 

From a MS. written at Bhadoré by SadGi Hanit Dina in 
Semvat 1365, borrowed from Carana AsiyO Sumera Dna of 
Vasi (Pa 

0. 33: one & Bini G Wfeail, 82 leaves. 

From the MS. No. 8 (c) of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i, 

t. i. 

70 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

C. 34: aylaegugtastt, 4 leaves. 
From a MS. borrowed from Vyasa Mitha Lala of Pali. 

0.35: HEM Aw Uafeget ct ate Aras x 
afear, 8 leaves. 

Pron the same MS. as C. 32. 

C. 36: fega <t age, 5 leaves. 

From a MS. borrowed from Carana Asiyo Pabi Dana of 

O. 37: US WHET UW BH Wes Ber a afeay, 

5 leaves. 

From a MS. written towards the end of the Samvat-cen- 
tury 1600, heescwed from Mathena Jiva Raja of Phalodhi. 

0. 38: Sadttarat Aaestaa, 4 leaves, 

_ From a MS. borrowed from the Jainacarya Dharma Vijaya 

C. 39: aat areatfg B, 39 leaves. 
From the MS. No. 15 (g) of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i 

C. 40: Wael Tata atcit ot ala, 4 leaves. 

From a MS. written in Samvat 1766, borrowed from Vyasa 
Mitha Lale of Pali. 

0.4): 3 = wtafsat < ata, 8 leaves. 

From a MS. written at Balitdo by Pandit Guna Candra 
about Seiaved 1814, poe ne from Carana Jogaji of Dhadha- 

O. 42: atavestt at eam eet getsera a afedh, 24 

3 pages : MS. borrowed from cia Vanasiira Kirapa Rama 
C. 43: UgEeal a cer afa gee x afeat, 5 leaves. 
From the same MS. as C, 37. 

1916, } Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 71 

C. 44: Stat Are UT TET, 3 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 41. 

C.45: afaa agat Scfayett ua set asisera at 
afear, 4 leaves. 

From a MS, written in Samvat 1881, borrowed from Cara- 

na Baratha Rudra Dana of Indokali, 

C. 46: alt qe dara, 3 leaves. 

From a MS. written in Samvat 1863, borrowed from Carana 
Lalasa Milo of Tolesara. 

C. 47: gratag area at ald, 8 leaves. 

From a MS. written at Pali in Samvat 1810, borrowed 
from Candra Vijaya Sari of Pali. 

C. 48: Bane Stat ct qa, 6 leaves. 

From the same MS as C. 41. 

OC. 49: Wats Tt TAs, 3 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

C. 50: afaa Gate CT aes Arar ct Afsar, 3 leaves. 
From the same MS. as C. 46. 

C.51: weafafeatfae Tt ata, 7 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 41. 

C. 52: sage u cetst A ema, 144 leaves. 

From the MS. No. 16 (first volume) of Descriptive Cata- 
logue, sect. i, pt. i. 

C. 53: Bawera Stat Tt ata, 4 leaves. 

From a MS. written in Samvat 1775, borrowed from Can- 
dra Vijaya Sari of Pali. 

C. 54: stage ua uate? A deat om aux & 
ATs TaafayF ATs, 9 leaves. 
From the MS. No. 14 of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i, 
pt. i. 

12 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
C. 55: fas at fastait, 3 leaves. 

From a MS. about 100 years old, borrowed from Candra 
Vijaya Siri of Pali. 

C. 56: WMT AEE yarafagst x STZ ATaATSHL ET 

ateat, 4 leaves. 

From a MS. about 150-200 ey old, borrowed from Cara- 
na Sadi Rama Pratapa of Bhador 

C. 57: az AIaTHT TE FSRL Ta, 9 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

C. 58: WRU WAIT ylaetestt xt aiz Ararat 
ateat, 3 leaves. 
From the same MS. 

C. 59: wera wees cafagst x Siz ATeTst eT 
afear, 5 leaves. 

From the same MS. 

C. 60: ateatfg aie adie ways xaat a waa, 5 

From the MS. No. 15 (h) of Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, 

C. 61: Sawer att ct aafaar amex faaera 
zt RSt, 13 leaves. 

m a MS. written in Samvat 1918, borrowed from Cara- 
na Vesias Maha Dana of Jodhpur 

C. 62 : guefaar staat (ee Bist WeTSaIa 
aT area, 5 leaves. 

From a MS. written before Samvat 1918, borrowed from 
Carana Baratha Likhami Dana of Angadosa 

C. 63: ie oe. 91 leaves. 

From the ig No. 16 

(second volume) of Descriptive Cata- 
logue, sect. i, 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 73 

CG: 64; ZTaT arcaqat zt ata, 28 leaves. 
From the same MS. as C. 62. 
C. 65: Haas que zt ata, 9 leaves. 

From a MS. written at Baratiyo by Céna Rama about 
Samvat 1855, borrowed from Carana Siraja Dana of Khina- 

C. 66: aeata ae waza wd, 19 leaves. 

From a MS. 50-100 years old, borrowed from the Jaina- 
carya Dharma Vijaya Siri. 

0. 67: ata cats wadE Gt Wea x, 4 leaves. 

From the same MS. as C. 56. 

C. 68: stage a ustst Y ena ae & HER 

afaafagat até, 65 leaves. 
From the MS. No. 11 (c) of Descriptive Catalogue, sect. i, 

1. THE e AND o SOUNDS IN MaRwarI. 

It is no exaggeration to say that in the Prakrta, Apa- 
bhram&a, Old Bhasai and Modern Bhasa& languages, one of the 

o e and 9, or ai 
chief characteristics distinguishing the Prakrta and Apabhram- 
from that of Sanskrit, whilst, on the other 
and, the contraction of ai and aii into e and o is the most 
important phonetical feature of the Modern Bhasa, in compari- 

u > 
ai and aii into é and o mes the chief characteristic distin- 

guishing it from the Old Western Rajasthani. 

74 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Before proceeding, I must correct a mistake into which I 
have incurred in my ‘‘ Notes on the Grammar of the Old Western 
Rajasthani, with special reference to ApabhramSa and to Guja- 
rati and Maravari.'’’ Iam hardly responsible for it, as when 
I wrote the ‘‘ Notes,’’ I had never been in India and for all 

Old Western Rajasthani become é, 6 in Modern Gujarati and 
at, aw in Modern Maravari. This is inaccurate. In both 
Modern ance: and Maravart, the ai, aii of Old Western Raja- 
sthani become é and o. 
mean by é and 6 is a wide sound of the e and o 
vowels, scat atid not exactly, aia be to the wide 
sound of a in the English word ‘‘ hat,’’ and o in ‘‘ odd.’’ The 
ceeanon is cient in the quantity, the Maravart vowels é and 6 
being more prolonged in pronunciation than the corresponding 
vowels in the two English words quoted above. It is therefore, 
originally, a long wide sound. In contradistinction to it, Mara- 
vari possesses on a narrow sound of the same vowels e ‘and 0; 
which I will mar k by an acute accent, thus é,6. This ae 
corresponds to the sound of a@ in ‘‘ care’’ and o in “ old,’’ 
can be quantitatively both long and sidPEathe latter case " 
very rare,—whereas the wide sound can be only long. Now, in 
Maravari—and so in Gujarati—the Abitinstion between the 
wide and narrow sound of e and o is of primary importance. 
ere are many words, which are identical in form and 
differ only in that one contains a wide e or o and the other 
It is strange that no Gujarati grammarian has 
ever wate that the real difference between the two sounds of 
ujarati is not one of quantity, but one of quality. 
The case mee is very analogous to that of French and italian, 
where we also find two sounds of e and o, one narrow and t. 
other wide 
In Modern Ps ace there is nothing to distinguish the two 
different meen? e and o in the writing. Bot 
sented by a single naira a, thus: % stays for both ké and ké, 
ait for both: ké and ké, In Old Maravari manuscripts, though ‘the 
distinction is by no means generally observed, there is a ten- 
dency to represent the wide sound by two matras _ eps narrow 
by a single maira. Thus: ki=@, ké=%, ko= wi, This 
tendency is evidently based on an orthogra aphical nadie: and 
the history of the language shows that the Maravari spelling is 
the correct one. : 

m an etymological study of all words which contain 

1 Indian Antiquary, Vol. XLITI-XLIV (1914-15). 

1916.] Bardic and Hisil. Survey of Rajputana. 75 

Mar. &< O.W. Raj., Ap. 4x; Mar. q< O.W. Raj., Ap. z,: 
Mar. yt< O.W. Raj., Ap. se; Mar. et< O.W. Raj., Ap. sit. 
A few examples will illustrate the law better : 
Mar. ¥ ‘is’? < O.W. Raj. ex< Ap. wex< Skt. eefa, 
Mar. wre ‘over’? < O.W. Raj. wraz< Ap. wax Skt. 

Mar. qaa ‘‘sovereign’’ < O.W. Raj. qaar< Ap. 4qaqz< 
Skt.* qmufa, 

Mar. gat ‘‘ seated ’’ < O.W. Raj. axa </Ap. waxgy < Skt. 

Mar. dat ‘‘ grandson”? < O.W. Raj. raz< Ap. dre < 
Skt. alam, 

Mar tq ‘‘ conceals’’ < O.W. Raj. wum@at< Ap. waear 
< Skt. qqwqfa, 

Mar. aie ‘‘runs’’ < O.W. Raj. 399%, 

Mar. atgt ‘‘slow’’ < O.W. Raj. avgy< Ap. yeu < Skt. 

zee, : 
Mar. #tgt “‘ jujube ’’ < O.W. Raj., Ap. aixgt < Skt. qex- 

Mar. #r< “peacock ’’< O.W. Raj., Ap. ait< Pkt. war 
< Skt. Wak, 
Mar. arqtt ‘‘ othakurs!’’? <O.W. Raj. arqti < Ap. SHE, 
Mar. 4@ ‘ plantain”? < O.W. Raj. afe< Ap. wet < Skt. 


Mar. @qz ‘‘ Riipade’’ < O.W. Raj. eq? < Skt. eqzat, 

Mar. fark ‘who’? <,0.W. Raj. fax< Ap. & H< Skt.* 
a 3, 

Mar. #2 ‘‘ by the sons ’’’ < O.W. Raj. az (< *@ez) < Ap. 

The distinction between é, 6 and é,6 is, therefore, a funda- 

logical law, the very same law which is the chief characteristic 
marking the cain of the Old Western Rajasthani into Guja- 
rati and Maravari. Thus of the two sounds of e and o, the 
narrow one seems to be as old as the ApabhramSa, whilst the 

76 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

wide one has originated only in the interval between the Old 
Bhas& and Modern Bhasa period. The corollary that can be 
deducted from the above, with special regard to the Old Wes- 
tern Rajasthani, is that the é, 0 sound was unknown to this 
language, and consequently all es and os of the Old Western 
Rajasthani were pronounced as narrow. 

otes ’’ above mentioned, I have held that the 

ava'. ‘The reasons for which I cannot agree with Mr. Divatia’s 
theory and still hold to my explanation are the following :— 

(1) There are no sure instances of any ai, aii of the Old 
Western Rajasthani having changed to aya, ava in any stage of 
the language. The three examples of this pretended change 
which are quoted by Mr. Divatia, viz. < aax < age, aqctat < axl, 
and qaqa < WEI, constitute no proof, when one knows that 
Old Western Rajasthani manuscripts often write ya for i. 
Moreover, the two first examples are of a doubtful value, as 



az. e a 
Mr. Divatia’s theory, and even that one is infirmed by the 
orthographical peculiarity mentioned above. 

(2) The change of ava to aii is one of the undoubted char- 
acteristics of the Old Western Rajasthani, in contrast with the 
ApabhramSa. Cfr.O. W. Raj. aegt< Ap. aaqgt, O. W. Raj. 
est < Ap. aay, O. W. Raj. aye < Ap. aaqq, O. W. Raj. 
WSEs< Ap. waa, O. W. Raj. agag< Ap. wag, etc. Now, 
itis not admissible that a language, which has begun its existence 

y reducing every ava of the Apabhramia to aii, should have 
brought aii ck to ava again, in its later stage, . 

_ (3) The diphthongal forms ai, au, which I explain as being 
derived from ai, atu, are found in all the earliest manuscripts 
of both Gujarati and Maravari, and there can be no doubt 
that when ai, au began to be substituted for ai, aii in the 
writing, the latter were pronounced as diphthongs, and only 

erwards were reduced to long wide vowels. If ai, aii had 
passed into aya, ava in the earliest Gujarati-Maravari stage, 
as Mr. Divatia holds, we do not understand why manuscripts — 

1 See Ind, Ant., Vol. XLIV , Pt. DLII and DLVI, J anuary and May 
1915, and cfr. . ivatia’: 
cfr. also N. B. Divatia’s ZaUAat are Ft shea, p- 6. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 77 

which otherwise show a tendency to write ya, va 
should only in this particular case make an exception and 
write ai, au instead of aya, ava. 

n connection with the general law formulated above, it 
is further to be noted that é, 6 are not the resultants of ai, aii 
only. Old Mss oe Rajasthani aya and ahi can also contract 
into é, and so can ahu into 0. All examples of the first case 
are Sanskrit or Prakrta words. Take the few illustrations fol- 
lowing: & “ victory’? <a, wu“ both’? < wy, T ‘elephant ’’ 
< 44, tu “sky”? < aya, *aaa “ golden’? < Madey, # “fear”? 
< Wa, wa * wordly destruction’ < 94, ¥ ax “ horse’”’ < saa, 
# aw “elephant”? < ayaw, qa“ mountain << qaqa. Here, in 
all probability, the passing of aya into é was effected through 
an intermediate step ai. The fact that in the manuscripts there 

Cc way infirm the above explanation, but i 
easily accounted for by the remark that all words in which aya 
ccurs, are ta amas,' and therefore they continued to be 

The passing ‘of ahi to é was also comma through ai, h being 
thrown back before the foregoing syllable, according to the 
well-known metathetical tendency of the Old Western Raja- 
sthani (‘‘ Notes,’’ §51). Thus Old Western Rajasthani yfees 
passed into Gujarati and Maravari wet through the inter- 
mediate form * ¥exay. The same happened with regard to 
the ahi of Persian and Arabic words, and af¥< “ poison ’’ was 
turned into #¥t, and fet “‘city’’ (for wet) into at. 
Other illustrations of this change are the two following: 

Mar. wx ‘‘ wave” < O. W. Raj. wfefe, wef, 

Mar. qzuea ‘« dresses’? < O. W. Raj. yfeuage 

Quite analogously to the above, ahu has passed into 0, 
through metathesis of / and consequent coming into hiatus of 
the two vowels. Examples are: 

Mar. weix “watch of the day’’< O. W. Raj. qsx, gst, 

Mar. egtet “small’’< O. W. Raj. asgs, 
Mar. wtx ‘‘ golden coin” < Ap. 48t, ¥Bt. 

Turning now to consider the é, 6 sounds, we find that 
these also are not the resultants of Old Western Rajasthani 

1 he te n a wider sense than it is commonly 
und gf eo the ‘Old Western Re josthEat point of view, not only 
Senses Sate, but Prakrta words also can be styled as tatsamas 

78 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

when in hiatus and when separated by yasruti or vagruli. As 
illustrations of the former case I may quote Maravari a@, 
which is from Old Western Rajasthani awl, the conjunctive 
participle of qa@a¥ generally used in the function of a conjunc- 
tion, Dingala ##at from Old Western Rajasthani aalaz, and 
Maravari—Gujarati yie from fatsama yx. In connection with 
this change of 7, @ into ¢, 6, it is however, to be remarked 

common in Old Western Rajasthani and Apabhramiaé as well. 
(Cfr. ‘* Notes,’’ § 7 (2).) Illustrations of ea, oa passing into 
6 are :— 

Mar. 2a “to give’’ < O.W. Raj. tau or ay, 

Ding. gsira ‘‘ Duryodhana ’’ < O.W. Raj. 353 a or F514, 
Mar. agit “‘ Mandora”’ < O.W. Raj. aw@rac or awax, 
Mar. arez ‘‘ Malade”’ < O.W. Raj Aree a. 

The last example is an irregularity, inasmuch as the va in 
3. + A Mg 
4 S 

is not a vasruti, but consonantal ys and vs are often treat- 

when they are medial. Here by final I comprehend also an é 
or 6 forming part of the penultimate syllable of a plurisyllable 
word ending in a quiescenta. Thus the din @a¥ “ son” is never 
pronounced as wide as the 6 in @t< “ mirror,’’ nor are the és in 
aa = ‘is sleeping’? and aaa « distinguished soldier ’’ pro- 
nounced as wide as the é in @gt ‘‘ near.’? Nay, and in some 
cases final é and 6 are actually heard as narrow, as for instance 
a ‘ 

in dtarat, which word—though °#< is from °aac—is always 
pronounced as In Maravari popular songs, ¥ ‘‘ is ”’ 
is frequently pronounced =. It would therefore seem that the 
language has a tendency to prefer narrow vowels, and that the 
pater ug which once converted Sanskrit WM into Witt is still at 

The practical conclusion I wish to draw from the above 
I have incidentally 

note, 1s one in regard to orth : 
mentioned that Gujarati does not distinguish ¢, 6 from é, 6 in 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 79 

the modern system of spelling, bebo Maravari sometimes 

rites Y, “I, and* sometimes Etymology teaches us 
that in both the afore-mentioned Ianguages we should write 
a, Bt to ae the wide sound é, 0, and 4, Wi to represent 
the narrow sou é, 6. Some Gujarati grammarians have 

them popular, have faile et them resort again to the old 
spelling = $1, which is a only the simplest, but also the only 
correct one 

2. Tae Sone oF fyb Sonigaro. 
The following song belongs to the class of commemorative 

manuscripts under the general title of phutakara gita, or ‘* mis- 
cellaneous songs.’’ As ae title implies, their subject may be 
a multiform one, and it may vary from a feat of gallantry to 
the grant of a village, and ‘thaie character may also vary from 
eulogistical to satirical. A good many, not to say most, of these 
songs are anonymous, and have been handed down by tradi- 
tion, the names of their authors having been lost. They are 
almost Aries logs Ai a Bekele oo of the Caranas, the high-class 

bards of the Rajputs, and most of them possess both a liter- 
ary a peop intere st. 

The song of Jasavanta Sonigaro, ey is given below, is 
one of ‘hice which commemorate a of bra avery. Jasa- 

vanta, according to the explanatory oe "Lsataened in MS: 4G, 

altétdative left but die or surrender. Like every good Rajput, 
he chose the former, and to preserve his wife from the disgrace 

to Parvati, his wife, she notices the he ad of a woman amongst 
the others, which are all heads of warriors, and is naturally 
surprised at the strange asco ery and inquires what the reason 
of it may be. At this point, one is tempted to find a resem- 
blance between the fiction in this song and that in the admirable 
opening stanza in the Mudraraksasa, where Parvati, stung with 
jealousy at seeing the Ganges on the head of her husband, asks 
him who the fair one is. But our Poet takes a different turn 

80 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

here. Mahadeva explains that the head is that of the wife of 
k ; : 

the song, and ascertain his epoch, and have succeeded to an 
nt. i 

y the Muhammadans, and on this occasion he fell in the fray 
in the manner related above. Much more precise information is 
supplied by the Khyaia of Mihanota Néna Si. Here we can 

Cc , 
need report here only the portion of the genealogy which goes 
from Vanavira to Jasavanta :-— 

(1) Vanavira (Samvat 1394). 

(2) Ranadhira (2) Rene. 
(Samvat 1443). 

Et | 
(3) Rajadhara (3) Kelhana. (3) Lolo. 
(+ Samvat 1482 ?) ; 
— 1 en 
Mas | 
(4) Khivo. (4) Diidé. (4) Karma Canda. (4) Sato. 

wd | 
(5) Savata. (5) Jé Singha. (5) Khivs. 

(6) Ranadhira. 
(7) Akhé Raja 
(+ Samvat 1600). 
ise ee 
(8) Bhoja, (8) = Singha. 
(9) Singha. (9) Jasavanta. 

(10) Jasavanta. 

1 Ep. Ind., Vol. XI (1911), pp. 26-79, 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 81 

Of the two Jasavantas, with whom the above apnesercd 
terminates, it is with the son of Singha that our hero o be 
identified. ’ According to Muthanota Néna Si, he was a beet of 
Rathora Dalapata Raya Singhota, and owned a fief in Bhatan- 
éra. Dalapata, as we know, succeeded his father Raya Singha 
on the throne of Bikaner in Samvat 1668, and continued to rule 
till Samvat 1670, when he was dispossessed by his brother Sura 
Singha. Whether it was during Dalapata’s reign that the battle, 
in which Jasavanta lost his life, too place, or whether it was 
afterwards, we do not know, but certain it is that the ria 


with Dalapata, and had to be reduced by the imperials, in con- 
sequence, If Ve conjecture is correct, the event comme 
rated by our f peppeet in the year Raanas 1670 or 1671 
at the latest (1614. 154 

e date thus sduijeeritalty arrived at, coincides with the 
period in which the author of the song lived. The name of 
the Poet is given only in one of the five manuscripts examined 
by me, namely B, and it is ThakuraSi Colavata. Though 
the caste, to which this Thakura Si belonged, is in no way speci- 
fied, yet from his patronymic, we have no difficulty in identi- 

at Bikaner during the reign of Dalapata ‘Singha and his succes- 
sor Stra Singha, and was rewarded by the latter with a lakha- 
pasava in Samvat 1672.!_ The song must have been composed 
by Thakura Si me after the fall of Bhatanéra or, at the most, 
a few pa after 

r the pe fr of the text, which is given below, I have 
otilined. the five manuscripts following :— 

ri A of Phutakara giia, in the eae Library of 
Bikaner (No. 5 of the Bardic Collection). Written in Samvat 
1799 fies p. 2216.) Our song is given p. 1464, a contains 
only the stanzas following : 6, 

G: S. in the form of a "huge vahi, containing different 
prose-chronicles and miscellaneous historical informatio on, be- 
longing to on oe Carana Asiyd Ganesa Dana of J odhpur. 
(The MS. escribed in Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, pt. i, 

only the six — following: 1, 5, 6, 7, 8,9. The pages 

oyna the song were written, apparently, towards the end 
the Ree Ktentory 1700. 

a: A of Phutakara gita belonging to Carana Asiyd 

Hamira Dana of Bhadiyavasa. About 100 years old. The 

1 The kB information is daived from the Khyata No. lin die Dax 

bar Library of Bikaner, p. 225 b (see Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, pt. ii). 

82 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XU, 

song is given p. 101, and it contains only six and a half stanzas 
in the following order: 6, 7, 8, 9, 1, 2, 3. 

P: AMS. of Phutakara gita belonging to Carana Asiyd 
Pabti Dana of Bhadiyavasa. Also about 100 years old. The 
song, which is given p. 12a, contains only the four stanzas 
following: 1, 2, 4,5 ; 

Rk: AMS. containing the poems of Sadi Malé and other 
miscellaneous songs, belonging to Carana Sadi Rama Pratapa 
of Bhadord. About 200 years old. The song is given pp. 1076 
—108a, and it contains only the five stanzas following: 1,2, 3 


In the text, which is given below, I have restored to 
their original form all the words which I have found to have 
been modernized in the MSS. The song was composed three - 
hundred years ago, and it was, of course, composed in an 
archaic form of Dingala, not in the Dingala of the present day. 
Therefore, I have corrected Ts into Ufa, = into efe, atwe into 
aiufy, AX into @rzt etc. This will not be approved by the 
Caranas and scholars in Rajputana, but I could not allow my- 
self to deviate from the most elementary canon in philology, 
according to which any literary work that is to be edited, 

should be presented in the same form in which it was originally 
composed by its author. 


(a) Teat : 
Gt we we wm qa staal 
ufs ae ceat fea ufa| 
amt @ ei fea stud 
yatta aat at sifa ye | 

wifes sifea aa afar 
at ew ae ate, 
HAA aml aaa 3S aT 
au sifast aa afe ye) 

(:) Rat (ae), G a, H saat, ceat, A Stara, R states, 
P at(—t); 

(:) Pat (gs), H g aa art As, HPS (2), H aiar, P #4 
svatat (a sifast), H ae eis da fae; 


(@) R we (afm) ; 
(2) R sat (aur), duet fas are, P sat (fared; 

Bardic and Hisil. Survey of Rajputana. 

afa cana ste faa 
aie ta nafe + Ga 

atx wifwar atfe a stat 
a2 a aa mat Fans 0 
saqn wat ant et Bawa 
ay ae @ atafs af 
Zauete a fafa eat 
fay satea faet darfe ie | 
ay aut faa aut arfaay 
ue went usat wT | 

fax ag afae atiaaz 
fat yw as eae a) 
scugt fax afa atfusit 
fusat we fafa are He! 
wescugt 2fe wesat 

ex afm qeat ce Trier 
afaat awe aifa afs fatest 
ew feat Tx se 

Sut am weal 2a 

a aalt Ga wisn 
Sta acfa at ae am afte 
fag aut afsst a sata! 
age sifu tfa 3 aFt 
age ce@ fee at ater 

(a) G faa, P F qree, R arfeet (stfu), GPR saat, R 

atat (eter) ; e a 
(¢) H quaja (qcyst), BH a¢ Se we wn?, A fies 

(feeat), ze, B fawee, H ual <u, B fra; 

(9) BH aue (as), faca, fewifwats (<re feet), B fre 
(=) H fasist (wfewt), B fetiat a, BH faw (&), Beg fra 

84 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

aat atfart qa aw afa 
ate sat tate fafa, 

AR FAT a wi = WA als 
cet stuat we wef yy 

(6) Translation : 

1. ‘‘Innumerable ages have lapsed away under my eyes, 
while I was staying by your side night and day, (but) this is a 
new sort of thing you have to-day inserted into your garland, of 

- (The heads which you) got in all the different battles, 
I have seen them all, I think. (But this) head of a woman, 
0 (my) beloved, where did you get (it) ? Tell (me) the truth.’’ 

3. “In the midst of a battle I have picked up (these two) 
heads,—thus sayeth the Lord to Gauri,—(and) you also know 
that (I) got (them by) going (to a field of battle). How can 
you think that I would ever omit to take (them) ? 

_ used to get many heads even before,—sayeth the 
Lord,—(but) hear o my wife: another donor like the son of 
Singha I never met in the world. 

- His own (head and that) of his wife the hero offered 
(to me), whilst the weight (of the hostile army) was falling on 
Bhatanéra. Both the heads Jasiyo Sonigaré gave to me, (he) 
the great donor. ; 

. The head of (his) wife was shining at (his) neck, whilst 
the weight of the (enemy) swords was penetrating into the 
stronghold.’’—At seeing (this), the wife of Hara began to trem- 
ble: ‘* God forbid that (my) Hara (also) gets into a similar 

. After tying the head of (his) wife to (his own) neck, the 
grandson of Dhira fought showing (the bravery of his) arm. At 
seeing this Parvati was frightened: ‘‘ God forbid that Kapali 

! 2? 

-_ After adjusting to his neck his wife’s head, (like) @ 
garland (as it were), that (gallant) chief, the son of Singha, 
fought. At seeing which, the wife of Sankara got alarmed : 
** God forbid that Sankara takes my head!’’! 


(e) Beat wea gat a3, H ai 2, Bara aw afer faa, H 
aly a4 wet aa, B awe afea; He ay ater. 
! It is difficult to avoid the suspicion that of the three s 

: tanzas 6- 
which contain the same and identical meaning, two might be spurious. 
But they are all found in the two oldest MSS. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Raiputana. 85 

9. ‘* The Sonigaro and (his) faithful (wife) have died with 
great a and they have displayed a — determination. 
I do not take the heads of cowards! ’?__(Thus) spaketh San- 
kara, and (Parvati), the wife of the terrible god, ceased to fear. 

3. THe History ofr PHaLODHI AND THE LocaL 

The oldest petiimaran in connection with the history of 
Phalodhi, that seems to extant, is an inscription in the 

tioned above, this city formed part of the territory of Vikra- 
mapura, ( Bikampur), and was under the rule of rana Katia, a 
Pavara feudatory of maha@raja Prithi Raja, the Cahamana ruler 
of Ajmer. This is in accordance with the tradition contained 
in the Jodhpur MS. 12,' where it is stated that the old name of 
the place was Vijayanagari and that it was in the hands of the 
Pavaras. The same MS. 12 mentions an inscription dated 
Samvat 1145 and referring to raja Hatha Deva Pavara, as 
existing in the temple of Kalyana Raya, but here, pease 
ere is a mistake in the reading, and it is the aforesaid i 
scription that is meant by it. In the text of the somniption; 
ran@ Katia is described as a son of the mahdsamanta Palhana, 

@ Pivara of the Kaundinyasagotra. This Palhana is in all 
probability the same as Palhana Si, the son of Sakhalé Cho- 
ala, the founder of the Riineca branch of eral Pavaras. Ac- 
cording to Mihandta NénaSi, Udaga, the son of Bhoho, a 
os gi of Chohala, was also one of the sceaiite of king Prithi 


The afore-mentioned inscription is possibly responsible for 
the origin of a legend Soapiiges: to king Prithi Raja, which is 
contained in a manuscript in the Darbar Library of Bikaner. 

he MS. dates as far ‘ack as the end of the Samvat-Century 
1600, and is described in the Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, 

who was being taken to Ajmer to be married to king Prithi 
Raja. On the way, the Dahiyas who escorted her, stopped in 
Some part of the Jagali-country, and there Ajiya De caused 
&@ stronghold to be made, which, after her own name, she 
called Ajiyapura. In the course of time, Prithi Raja came to 

1 Descriptive Catalogue, Sect. i, pt. i. 

86 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Ajiyapura to hunt, and there he found Ajiya De, whom he took 
with him to Ajmer. Afterwards the Dahiyads lost Jagala to 

hen the place changed its old name of Vijayapura, or 
Ajayapura, into that of Phalodhi, we do not know. According 
to MS. 12, Vijayanagari was successively depopulated by 

Baharamera. It was on the ruins of Vijayanagari that the 
new city of Phalodhi was founded by rava Naro. How far the 
above account is correct, it is difficult to say. Certain it is 
that the name of Phalodhi brings us back to a much earlier 
time than that of rava Nard. MS. 12 gives an explanation of 
the name of Phalodhi, which is grossly artificial. Phalodhi, 
as also proved by the inscriptions, is a derivation of Phalavar- 
dhika, and there can be no doubt that the place had come to 
be called so long before rava Naro6 settled there. 

the pur Chronicles agree in tracing the Rathora 
colonization of Phalodhi back to the time of rava Sijo, who 
was born in Samvat 1496 and succeeded to his brother Satala 
on the throne of Jodhpur from Samvat 1546 to 1572.' The 
task of colonizing the place fell to Nard, the younger of the 
two sons Sajo had had from his Bhatiyant wife Likhami, alias 

seem to be no reasons for suspecting it, we certainly need not 
resort to an incident of that kind to find an explanation for 
Naro’s emigration. That vie: 

populated land. Nard went and discovered the vestiges of the 
old Vijayanagari and the bed of the river, and decided to settle 
there. The place was deserted, but for a small spot, 400 feet 
from the modern fort, on the way to Khictida, which was 

| Some chronicles give slightly different dates. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 87 

inser. No. 2, below), we can conclude that it took place some 

ad some spies at Pohakarana— 

the time. 

The conquest of Pohakarana brought no good luck to Naro. 
The dispossessed rava Khiv6 and his son Liiké sought a refuge 
in the neighbourhood of Baharamera and Kotaro and from there 

., | According to the Bhati chronicles, Satalamera was founded by 
Satala, the son of ravala Kehara. 

88 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengai. [N.S., XII, 

overcame t c 
hai, but in the struggle that ensued, lost his life. His fol- 
lowers fled and locked themselves up in the fort of Pohaka- 
rana. Sujo made an expedition to vindicate the death of his son 




It is stated that when Goyanda was installed on the seat 
of his father, he was still a boy, and Sijo had to place him under 
the tutelage of emtrs or thanedars, who for four or five years 
never allowed him to take the field. In the meantime, Khivo 
died, whilst Liko continued to raid and pillage the country 
aided by a large band of followers. One day Liiké ventured 
as far as the dehurd of Rama De, near Pohakarana; Goyanda 

: lost 
sight of his elderly relative fleeing half-naked, Goyanda was 
moved to a sense of pity and respect, and, says the chronicler, 

with 30 villages. T need hardly point out that all this story is 
an absurd fiction. The obvious fact, which is contained in it, 

immense trouble and anxiety, and Goyanda had no other al- 
ternative left but give him some territory to set him at rest. 

According to MS. 12, that was for Satalamera a period of 
great prosperity, the city at the time numbering not iess than 
houses of mahdajanas 
‘5 en, continues the chronicler, Goyanda gave Phalodhi 
to his younger brother Hamira. It is clear enough that this 
second act of generosity on the part of rava Goyanda, is at 
least as absurd as the first. If there is some truth in the state- 

no evidence that he ever ruled there. On the contrary, there 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 89 

are inscriptional documents showing that Hamira was ruling at 
Phalodhi at least as early as the year Samvat 1573. Another 
argument in favour of the above supposition, is in the tradition 
that Goyanda and Hamira had a difference between each other 

their grand mother Likhami, and it was agreed that the line of 
enemas should run through the Thorakunthi 1% magari, 

Feats is the ruler of Phalodhi who has left the most 
illustrious name in the local tradition. Tho ugh the foundation 
of the fort dates at least as far back as the time of Nard, 9 
the tradition is that it was built by rava Hamira.' MS. 1 
states that Hamira erected the kota in the year Samvat 1565 
the date is probably incorrect—and the gates in the year Sam- 
vat 1573. The latter date is confirmed by the inscription No. 3 
(see below). Besides, Hamira is said to have digged inside 
the fort a well (kéhara), which in the course of time was filled 
up, and ceo the fort a tank which after him was called Hami- 
rasara. Again, the most conspicuous building ho to this day 
is extant ‘rigid ‘the fort, is designated as ‘‘ the palace of Hami- 
ta.’’ He also or his territory, by taking from the Bhatis 
Kundala and Kir 

I have not bee ‘ible to ascertain any precise date for the 
sets of Hamira, but from the indirect evidence supplied by 
the fragmentary inscription No. 4, which apparently refers to 
his successor, we can conclude that he pe have died before 
the year Samvat 1589. He was succe by his son Rama 
(Singha). Of this r@va the chronicles nies very little, beyond 
the general statement that he was a man of great determina- 
tion. He digged the Ramasara tank to the west of the city, and 
the work was apparently completed in the year Samvat 1589. 
In the year Samvat 1600, Rama was with his contingent in the 
army, which rava Mala De of Jodhpur had brought against 
Ser Sah, who had invaded Marwar. On that occasion, Rama 
did not join in the onslaught which ae the life to Jété, Kiipo 
and other chiefs, but moved off his tents after rav a Mala De, 
and it is stated that for this reason "the latter took to dislike 

im. Rama did not survive longer than one or two years after 
the ploracata event. The chronicles say that he was poisoned 
by his own minister, Jaga Hatha Depavata, and the fact is 

recorded in a commemorative verse, the meaning of which— 
though the Kadtie of the text is somewhat doubtful—seems to 
be as follows :—‘‘ O Jaga Hathiya! thou art a shameless man ! 

Attor etna a 4 (our), ree of a rava, thou weptest him ! 

micle C. 39 (see List of MSS. Copied. above) represents rava 
Homie as re actual founder of Phal lodhi. 

90 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

With the death of Rama was lost the rava-ship, and the thakura- 
ship also fled away.’’! 

Raraa was succeeded by his brother Digara Si. It is diffi- 
cult to refrain from the suspicion that he was the ultimate 
author of the murder of Rama, and such a suspicion seems to 
be further confirmed by the fact that Jaga Hatha continued to 
occupy his high office under the new rava. But it must be 
observed that a superstitious populace is always only too ready 
to attribute to poison any sudden death that may occur from 
a natural cause; and on this ground it would be unjust to 

on our. However things may be, Diigara Si, who 
eventually was not a man of such energy as his brother, could 
not enjoy long his power, nor save his domains from the astute 

k h 
with Phalodhi, but march next against Pohakarana and Sata- 

Raja. With this contingent, engrossed by some other forces, 
raivata Bhivo, a subject of Jéta Mala, marched on Phalodhi, but 
on nearing Ma e’s camp, realized the difficulty of the task 

mated. Ravata Bhivo was taken prisoner by Prithi Raja Jeta- 
vata. Rava Mala De at last succeeded in occupying Phalodhi, 

! The text, as I have reconstructed it fr i din 
of MS. 12, runs as follows :-— tana aniston 

waeteer a faeset) ce at ta wat | 


wa atat ae wk) at wmarqatinn. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 91 

but only with the help of Digara Si who bartered his personal 
liberty with the sovereignty of the place. It is related that 
Diigara Si was taken under the ramparts of Phalodhi, and 
here shouted to brave J aga Hatha to open the gates to Mala 
De. Jaga Hatha obeyed and Mala De entered the fort, which 
—says MS. 12—he kept for 15 years, till his death which oc. 
curred in Samvat 1619. It would theréfore seem that Phalo- 
dhi fell into the hands of Mala De about the year Samvat 1604. 

Candra Sena and Udé Siagha. e former succeeded his 
father on the throne of Jodhpur, and the latter inherited Pha- 
lodhi. The facts in the long period of struggle and unrest that 

se, for 

shelter in the fort of Phalodhi, but had to retire and the Bhatis 
plundered the country. Four years afterwards Phalodhi fell 
into the hands of Bhakhara Si, a son of ra@vala Hara Raja, and 
remained under him till the year Samvat 1635, when Akbar 

gave it to raja Raya Singha of Bikaner. 
he rule of the raja of Bikaner marks for Phalodhi a 
period of peace and prosperity. Raya Singha first sent to 
govern the city the Rathora Kadhala Mala De Vanavirota, and 
later the Mihanota Karma Canda Sagavata, who brought to 
halodhi a number of new settlers from Bikaner. It seems 
that the outermost wall enclosure of the fort had its founda- 


75,000 (MS. : 
the place the Mahandta Jé Mala—the father of Néna Si, the 

92 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

famous chronicler—as hakim, and the Cahamana Sikharo as 
thanedar. But after two years, Straja Singha asked the em 

peror to resume the pargana of Phalodht, sighatiy because he 
did not find it sufficiently remunerative, whereupon the em- 
peror assigned it to raja Sura Singha Rayasiighdta of Bikaner. 
What followed affords us a conspicuous example of the jealousy 

enlarge his rival’s territory, resolved to retain it, and imme- 
diately despatched ve Phalodhi his eldest son kavara Gaja Sin- 
gha, with instructions for hakim Jé Mala not to consign the 
fort to anybody, as he had decided not to surrender his native 
place and “Bra going to write to the emperor to have Phalodhi 
re-assigned to himself. This he did, and so Phalodhi was 
restored ae: to Suraja Singha. 
When Siraja Singha died, in the year Samvat 1676, Pha- 
lodhi did not pass to his successor Gaja Singha, but remained 
the possession of Sabala Singha, a son Siiraja Singha had 
had from his Aheri wife, Sulatana De. Probably Sabala Singha 

, but was eventually re- 
covered. In the year Samvat 1680, or, according to MS. 12, 
1679, Phalodhi was added to the khalisa of Gaja Singha and 
ane for a few temporary changes has ever sab continued 
in the possession of the maharajas of Jodhpur. In Samvat 
1863 it was for a second time added to the nae ei of Bikaner 
by maharaja Strata Singha, who retained it till Samvat 1865. 
The history of Phalodhi from the time of Gaja Singha to our 
days is too mixed with that of Jodhpur and unimportant to 
deserve any special notice. 
us now turn to the study of the most noteworthy in- 
scriptions which are extant at Phalodhiand serve to illustrate cope 
concise historical sketch given above. They are the followin 
nsor. No. I: An inscription incised on the left pillar of 
the inner shrine in the temple of Kalyana Raya. It consists 
of 28 lines of writing covering a ree of 241” high by 14}” to 
1334” broad. The text is in a mixture of corrupt Sanskrit 
and Bhasa, and the writing ae incorrect and illegible at some 
points. The chief orthographical peculiarities of the _inscrip- 
tion are: the representing of the 
for u, oa the e writing of & for initial q, and ¥ for w and ¥ 
e inscription is dated in the year [Vikrama-] Samvat 
1236, the 10th day of the bright fortnight of the first month of Asa- 

1916. ] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 93 

dha, Wednesday, and refers to the reign of maharaja Prithiva 
Deva and the mandalesvara rana Katia. Then it records some 

one of his feudatories. It also appears that the latter was 

ruling over Vikramapura (Bikampur), and that the old name 

of the place where the temple stands, was Vijayapura (?), and 

an Pig included in the territory of Vikr ramapura. It is, how- 
» to be remarked that there is some doubt in the reading 

of ‘the word Vijayapura, the text actually having Viajayapura. 

- Se (?) y fafufaaraagarerq 1 Hiatat | 

2. astafa gagt adaryat na: | Faas wet 

efu faxfaa: | aret carwiaad | wat arta qfufec- 

yfaaat ataq Hat suet I aaalty aa nat aqaat 

Hai war areata y daq yRad VaHatatcale ro 

(aa 0 Staerissitfafaataceg Fa aoa[2-] 

. TASH QTcTATHaAT HATA (sic)! | fawage fafarar- 

a afar] ai(?arage aatenazasniataesreat- 

9. gates fusad tifeaisaHafeana 

10. alghenefaad fanisefed aifewaat[s] 

Ll, garde weterdamreeagactan[ sit la- 

12. Haas gers] (0) stadaea ares aa fasta 

13. Hfeat (") saq Ula WAT ATH ataq Are | aTE- 

14, 4 (i*) [ule BF Srerg fearg = ‘les healings 

15, son's ioese ee Oa oe 

1 For (7. 
? As the Sanskrit in the —, as Lenlene as the following inscriptio: 
is very bah ge eo in most cases so mixed with the Bh&asa that it i is 
impossible it agree with an ¥ ermciciaaion’ standard, it has 
Seemed desirable ee give = text as it “seasdle, and refrain from burden- 

some n 

SD TR ww 


94 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Sanskrit and Bhasa. Letters very badly engraved and several 
of them. utterly indecipherable. 

The inscription is dated in the year [Vikrama-| Samvat 
1532, the 2nd (?) day of the dark fortnight of Vaisakha, Monday, 
and refers to the reign of Nara Singha De, the son of the Rath- 
avara raya sri Sirija Mala. Though a good part of the text is 
unintelligible, yet it is clear that the object of the inscription is 
to record that the erection of the gate in question was com- 

poraneously repaired. It would therefore seem that the fort had 
been built some years before Samvat 1532. Of the names given, 
Nara Singha De is the entire name of N aro, and Sirija Mala 
the entire name of Sujo, his father. Rathavara is evidently the 
same as Rathora. 

1. i-o Saat que a 
2. 0@ Fare af = (?) ate. 
3. fet cas cra H- 

4. | @fealalega ac- 

5. 1 ates cq othe g- 


6. 1 81S aea(?)ax z- 
7. aS Brat atearn 

8. n[@laat) afearea 
9. WH?)e- ae-at 
10. 0 ga ute as g- 

LU. 0 ufea aera [aa] 
12. 4 [Si] wag aR- 1. 

The i 
the 10th day of the bright fortnight of the month of Margasira, 
Thursday, and then it records that the pillars of the above-men- 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 95 

tioned gate—which was erected by maharaya Hamira, the son of 
maharaja Nara Singha of the Rastrakita family —were repaired 
in that year. Next follow the names: pirohita Divakara, 
Cahavana Selahatha Udha, Bhati Niba, mantrisvara Gangi, and 

naka, son of Lakha. Lastly, there comes a stanza on the in 
stability of i i the same stanza with which the inscrip- 
tion No. 1 begin 

1, So heen aa: afea Stanmaaaratadad Wyss 


2. aafaqcare® gaan to fast qaart afgataas 
: ufaata fear 
3. = faqatt regi agmingat quagsd cuggedt 

4. US aewarta stat uta ahigdex dtnge¢ec yst- 
Wie SaHutaR aa- 

5. Daaelal: walzanaaa: wernaattedta: arfca 
yateien Sufcat: wife- 

6. a fearag aeam Saga Sut wet ata Aabac az: 
wapat tar: afea: eau: 

7. Sal GS aaarquiaga eau data ae Haq: 
: ate atae: » at 

8. Rimat a adinfa aaaqaitateayat na: (\*) taza 

awed facfaa: grat carwiaaa (\*) 
9. sat arty afufee: wezaat waty ae Tat: (*) aaah 
aa wal aqaat Ha wat atefa (1*). 

Inscr. No.4: A very short and apparently fragmentary 
inscription, incised on a kirtistambha, in red sand-stone, erected 
on the brim of the Ranisara tank. it comprises only 5 lines of 
writing, covering a space of 9” high by 10” broad. Written 
in es Sans 

record s simply consists of a date, [Vikrama-] Samvat 
1589, the 9th day of the bright fortnight of Bhadrava, Sunday, 

96 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

and refer not to Sirija Mala,—who was dead since Samvat 
1572,—~ but to some of his successors, probably Rama Singha, 
who, according to the local tradition, dug the Ramasara tank, 
to the west of the town. The name of Sirija Mala ought there- 
fore to be followed by that of Nara Singha, his son, and 
Hamira, Nara Singha’s son, and lastly Rama Singha, Hamira’s 

1. ) Maa quse aa: ute- 
2. 1 at gfe: « fea: ef ]a- 
3. 1 aTe: tags: [a]- 
4. | were Stafe[a]- 
5. [0] aa 
n inscription incised on a stone on the 

Insor. No.5: A 
outer wall of the fort, consisting of 7 lines of writing and cover- 
mg a space of 83” high by 16” broad. Written in the usual 

1. Waa duc ay State |ar[S] alana} waa fast <- 
2. aare afeat ua falar afar y Sly] 0 

3. ta afafaas aercenfacts were st 

4. sterafeest fa[ssko(er]) wela]fifaraac] 3 

9. £5 warfaar | Ele] ware ature | a(?)era(?)[-—]ar 
6. = () der (e]a(s}) fewatere Suxaté am = 

7. Sure arfeaat | exer fad Stet p. 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 97 

Insor. No. 6: An inscription in a bhimigrha in the Jaina 
temple of Santinatha, in the Phalodhi town, carved on a marble 
slab in the wall. It consists of 9 lines’of writing, covering al- 
together a space of 73” high by 15}” broad. Written in mixed 
Sanskrit and Bhas&. Well preserved. 

The object of the inscription is to record that in the year 
[Vikrama-] Samvat 1689, the 13th day of the bright fortnight of 
Margasira, Wednesday, during the victorious reign of mahara- 
jadhiraja maharaja Gaja Simha [of Jodhpur), and his son 
maharajakumara Amara Simha, and while the Munanotra Jaya 
Mala was holding the office of mantrisvara, the temple of San- 
tinatha was repaired by the common accord of the sangha. 
At the end, the names are given of the superintendent on the 
work, architects and stone-carver. 

1. y se y Swarfaga® aa: daa edse aw Atafax- 
ale ¥- 
2, aud | aatestifael | quarat | aerersnfacrarerersy 

3. Sausaffen weremsgae Marifses fase | 

4. aya) dathae sttraaestt fast | Mamas | 

5. at) Qaaeafee (sic) fast aiaifaaresrme Fa- 
Sgt atfeat | Fa- 

6. ata) ale] ete | Faw@t suas wae wet ote 
Suiftal | Baye 

7. aaiz eat qa aaadlal| eau are aat aiaet 

8. wa wat xfo] ste Bal Blewawraqms) ae 

Steet fray ae fertaa 
9. *y aH Haq a | aera | tee ST at 

Inscr. No.7: An inscription in the same bhiimigrha and 
the same temple as the foregoing, and also carved on the same 
material. It consists of 10 lines of writing, covering a space of 
52” high by 121” broad. Written partly in corrupt Sanskrit and 
partly in Rajasthani Bhasa. Fairly preserved. 

98 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ([N.S., XII, 

The inscription has the same object as the preceding one, 
and also bears the same date, [Vikrama-] Samvat 1689, and 
makes the cere reference to maharajadhiraja Gaja Sitigha and 
his son, yuvaraja kivara Amara Singha. But it contains in 
addition the name of the then Tapagacchaniyaka, the acarya 
Vijaya Deva ee , and those of the acarya Vijaya Singha Suri, 

Gani. It was as a result of Vinaya Vijaya Gani’s preaching, 
during a rainy season when he halted se oR dhi, that the 
sangha were persuaded to take upon themselves the expendi- 
ture involved by the repairs to the old temple of Santinatha. 
Next comes a short praise in recognition of the great pains 
taken by the superintendent on the work; and lastly the name 
is given of the setha who sustained the expenses of the fes- 
tivity of the installation of the image of Santinatha in the 
newly rebuilt temple. 


Se | Stawtecstt ea wx | calteqaeataat- 
tH Fees |faals]  stasrcatt at | TaEts 
3. Staraxfatastt ae Vese a auine vsi(r)n stfasa- 
4. Xi aaa sifasafsattex arararfe ufsa sR 
5. stafasaafa fry ufsa sifaaafssanfa weary 
6. x(?) atard cfs ax atista ax 2ecr at sudn 2s fa 
7. 9 ot sthisare aat orene auait a7 wae F(?)[-] 
weet | ulalatfes(?) aus we situs Azifu Fae 
9. HIE Sale SatsrxqME grate fagraty at Far wa awl 
LO. aags at: set sitwifaaatiagaaastes anfea: ats 
afe y qGuarae . 
cr. No.8: An inscription incised on a stone slab in 
front of the temple of Kalyana Raya, at the left, consisting of 11 
lines, covering a space of 10” high by 10” to 12” br. ve A few 

conventional phrases in corrupt Sanskrit, and the rest in Raja- 
sthani Bhasi. Very well preserved, and exceptionally clear. 



‘1916.}. Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 99 

As regards orthography, . is interesting to note the use of a 

particular character—t ame as is used in modern Marwari 
script—to distinguish § from = spr 
The inscription open h the date [Vikrama-] Samvat 

1696, the 2nd day of the bright | frtnight of Asadha, Saturday, and 
refers to the reign of maharaiadhiraja maharaja Jasavanta 
Singha [of Jodhpur]. It then records that in front of the tem- 
ple of Kalyana Raya, the Muhanotra Nayana Singha Jé Malota, 
conjointly with all the maha@janas and vrahmanas of the town, 
had caused a theatre (rangamandapa) to be built. At the en nd 
come the names of the architects and superintendent. 

1. y sttaarfayae vq daa ede 
2. aw sure af 2 fea foraata? 
3. ASI fHuAAs (icles BWtraadafe- 
4, ea! faxaciey Sarruararca- 
5. ¥ Staetaaastt f Sear Bt S(P)aT a 
6. qeats Saad SHeata saa 
7. y ate + dade RETaT Baw AEI- 
8. a4 aeHa AS gE Ft va aat 
Q, qaye gras ater ys Rat n HAT 
10, da stat suuars faad 
ll. aaa qaa 1 SH HAA Te. 

Inscr. No. 9: An inscription incised on a stone on the 
outer wall of the fort, consisting of 10 lines, covering a space of 
123” high by 203” br oad. Mixed Sanskrit and Bhasa. Letters 
very deeply engraved and consequently broken in several 
places, especially in the first three lines and the fifth. 

The inscription refers to the reign of maharajadhiraja 
maharaja Jasavanta Singha [of Jodhpur|, and maharaja kum- 
Gra Prithi Sin ngha, and next gives the date, [Vikrama-] Samvat 
1715, the fith J day of the bright fortnight of Vaisakha, Tue esday. 
It t then records that the wall in question (kota bhuraja) was 
caused to be built by the Muhanotra manirisvara Sama Karana 
Jé Maldta and the Sahani Jaga Natha Khiyavata. At the end, 
a names of the architects are given, as usual. 

1 For tt. 


Journal of the Asiatie Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

b Sey Stetara aa y [sttaaara aa] fe] 

fe Stasrersnfelaa eet sit ladadast 
Aesaga |e] Stila east [aaar|a(?) [aalq pouy 
ay FaTMMTS BaTVa daalfad vtaart she 
vafage[ael] qeata[atS] aa] ae] wae F- 
aate aieat saiara Wara)a [facts a — 

SH RU RZHCHA aa || AML wae sat- 

Ga | Go FUT Hal Alsat | AW waa | Aea- 

aaad ) fagiad ar’ atam exaiat 

10. 3) ates Feu. 

Insor. No. 10: An inscription incised on the outer wall 
of the fort, comprising seven lines, and covering a space of 9?” 
broad. Written completely in Rajasthani Bhasa. 

Huge and deeply engraved characters. 

O OT GD Ot m & DO 

raja Vijée Singha [of Jodhpur] and kavara Phat? Singha, and 
ords ai 

1. | @fea(?) Stersasae aretarar shfa- 

2. [S)fetasht alae Taafier ae 

3. —a sititera cua g aait ga F ate 

4. AG)at et A sua care g ate 

5. ara # ate aia wma 3 Aaa si- 

6. attere ain sat @ a ese at ATET az t ai 
‘ Set MT | AIST erat ste (MI PLP] 0 

Insor. No. 11: An inscription incised on the pedestal of 
a murti of Surya, the Sun-god, which is found in a small open 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 10} 

chamber within the enclosure of the temple of Kalyana Raya. 
It consists of only four lines of writing, covering a space 2)” 
high by 16” broad. Written in corrupt Sanskrit. Fairly 

he inscription refers to the reign of 5 ahaa maha- 
rajadhiraja maharaja Bhiva Singha [of Jodhpur), and then 
records that in the year [Vikrama-] Samvat 1852, corresponding 
to the Saka-year 1719, on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of 
Asadha, Sunday, the image of Sirya mentioned above was 
caused to be made by the Mahesvari Bhavara Saha Dhanaripa 
a Canda Kevala Ramaka. 

1.) Siriaas aa stterseac arerersnfyctrsr aret- 
uss Ahittafsaat fa- 

2. SUI: daa UsuR ae WF ove gataia fHAL sare 
af y faut cfaara? 

3. aBaS Waser wd: arent [AtluciaeR az 
Meat WARY BEyAs Fa- 

Aareraaa steaas aufaar: frag wea feax[ee: sear[e—] 
ata arfcar: y at 

Deva anpD Ketnana Deva (V. S. 1219, 1227). 

The following two inscriptions were found in an old 
Vaisnava temple lying outside the village of Jhavara, about 12 

comprises 15 lines of writing covering a space of 11” high 
broad. The letters are partially filled with whitewash, but only 
few of them are illegible. As regards the language, ah is interest- 
ing to note some peculia. She viz., the use of asi t in e two 

and [la]gamane (I. 11 mika seems to be an an equi ivalent of 
or her net limits ghanaka and lagamana fave ali 
been found by D. R. Bhandarkar in inscriptions from Nadalai 
referring to the Cahamana Raya Pala, dated Samvat 1195, 1189 
and 1202 respectively (see Hp. Ind., XI, pp. 36-7, 34-6, 42-3), 
The inscription opens with the date [Vikrama-} Samvat 
1219, Sravanavadi 1, and then, after mentioning the maharaja- 

102 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

putra Gaja Singha Deva in connection with the city of Mandavya- 
pura, records that his general Solanki Ja[sadhavala], the son of 

Alhana and his brother Kelhana Deva m this fact, D 
Bhandarkar had concluded that Alhana had apparently given 
a share in the administration of his king to his fi 0 

1. Haq wre atau- 

2. af€ . Bae aerars- 

3. Wastasafeats ai- 

4. sauuatg alfa] aa(t]- 
5. faut <te[at] sre[aa]- 

6. [=] witexgaa sraht- 

7. RaRaTaefaygen[aT- 

8. sralerq stataza- 

9. & vale aa) Fy 
10. @a(?)- -— qm 
LL. & q aer-[etjma eq. 
12, ata atfy Suave 
18. ata - —seygaa y- 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 103 

14, [ee] wal ft} -s8) faa- 

15. ara oem |}. 

of 43” high by 104” broad, and the remaining four only a space 
of 24” high by 5” broad. Much li e in the first inscription, 

The inscription opens with the date [Vikrama-] Samvat 
1227, sudi 10, and first of all refers to the victorious reign of 
the maharajadhiraja paramesvara Kelhana Deva, at Nadila, the 
chief town in the Saptasatabhiimt. Next it mentions the rule of 
the maharajaputra Camunda Raja over Mandavyapura, and lastly 
records a grant of 1 dramma made by Nanada, the son of 
Samagha (?), from the amount of some cess, at J hamara, one of 
the four padras in the bhimi of Mandavyapura. The donor is 
described as a Rastauda, i.e. a Rathoya Rajput, but the meaning 
of virau, which is appended to Rastauda, is not clear to me. 

Kelhana Deva, the Cahamana king of Nadila, is well 
known from other inscriptions, bearing dates ranging from [V.] 
Samvat 1221 to 1249. Saptasatabhimi is undoubtedly the same 

Camunda Raja as the ruler of Mandavyapura. Camunda Raja 
is anew name, not yet found in any other inscription, and so far 

Gaja Singha, who was the ruler of Mandavyapura in V. Samvat 
1219, had been succeeded by Camunda Raja in V. Samvat 
1227. A few years later, in V. Samvat 1241, the ruler of Man- 

vat 1219 to 1241. Jhamara is evidently the same as Jhamara 
seen above, and from the present inscription it is evident that 

this village was one of the four padras included in the territory 

104 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
1, Si Waq yRzo uzlnzafe eo fea stanala faa 
(sic) qut|aju- 
2. a[4] atai(s}e Ae last faxrsayTa ay [aes laze [a fal- 
wae sa | 
afeayai AY (sic) TaisTTT ASI TaRIG|S ]- 
UALS AY F Hai Weaaay ay (sic) waraqre- 
Sharia chert Zastare(a Plaeifa ulstisfaat (?) F- 
anagatiaed oia(?)ataa_ata ved [FR] @ F- 
- % Ty Ma (gee] | ——— at (?) 
8. — wafa — -——— (?) yreiy- 
. 2) ae ae [set walt a- 
10. @ [aj aet [we] 9. 

De oo 


5. EpicrRapHicaL Recorps of THE TweLrtH Century A.D. 
AT Pata (JoDHPUR). 

[The first part of this article, describing inscriptions found 
amongst the ruins of the Jain temple of Ghanghanaka, was 
published in the ‘‘ Specimen-pages ”’ given in appendix to my 
‘* Scheme for the Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana.’’ 
See Journ. As. Soc. of Be., Vol. X, 1914, pp. 405-10]. 

The epigraphical records in the locality of the old Diigelava 
tank, are twelve sati-tablets, which bear inscriptions with 
dates ranging from V. Samvat 1218 to V. Samvat 1244. They 

inscriptions in the first line, from the left, are illegible. The 

other ten are the following : 
(1) 1. Sty daq eee Fararafe ve a- 
2, weate sifa fafa uraedter Feat (2) 
3. at sat etfefa afafa statafea: 9. 
(2) 1. @t aq aes a- 
2. fangs 2 da- 
3. aatfa wat ut— 
4. a(?)ea [sae 






Pp Da 


mee Pe BO AE 0 80) oe 0 eg te 

Bardic and Hisil. Survey of Rajputana. 

masa Rat: I. 

a’ faataaa |. 

[ai ?] aq (Ree Faraate r2 
aee(alaa wea as(?)at at(?)- 
aza an (aa!) (1). 

at Hala] wReo arE- 

afe (8 awaRa 

aTRT ATES favq(?)- 

a exeaeatta a4(2)eants (1). 
Bt | Faq wes Ta afe x 
ae uaenfa crerzat[s] 
atfa|at] wmatga ataiaz 

Na |. 

St #aq (rer araafe « 

aa) daasifa wa[z)- 

[a] Stetga sar Tat (sic) aT 
Ha Mada Afeatz- 

aq Haitaa: |. 

Bi Haq (Rar dare af= rz 
qufes enestta utae- 

ma aiaaga ate- 

aw ea ala] 9. 


fe = umesifa utaa- 

ma alaw yresaga 

Hist Gaeta ataia- 

. Baa [n). 


106 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, . 

(9) 1. [aif] daq aRee utaafe ys atafes 
2. maesnfa wtaanta aaycgs 
8. Hea Nasa waa yeA[ at |A(s). 
(10) 1. daq yaad arate 2 a 
2. at (slatere wiereteat at- 
3. amt Staiafca: | aati sit- 
awe | — | 4. 

ut of the ten inscriptions, six refer to the Dharkata jati and 
its gotras the Pocasa (inscr. 7, h 
and the Dasara (inser. 5); two to the Ghanghala jatv (inser. 
2, 6), one to the Bhici jati (inser. 1), and one to the Pratihara 
7) n 

is surmounted by the figure of the deceased, sitting at the left, 
with his saft standing at the right, and a linga between the 
two. In the sculpture over the inscription No. 1, the safas are 

6. Past, a Raruora HERO. 

One of the most popular heroes of Marwar, who has been 
elevated to the rank of a semi-god, is Pabii Rathdra. From 

dhala, and grandson of rava Asathana, the son of rava Siho. 
He lived at Koli, a village some 18 miles south of Phalodhi, 
though apparently he was not the ruler of the place, and was 
associated with a band of Thoris, a wild tribe of pillagers of 
the desert, who accompanied him in all his daring enterprises. 

in the neighbourhood. Therefore, he is worshipped as a pro- 
tector of the cattle, and has little shrines devoted to him 
throughout the country, he being most commonly represented 

on horseback and the seven Thoris on foot arranged in a ll 
behind him, all in the attitude of shooting an arrow from their 

to village and singing on the sarangi the exploits of Pabu, 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 107 

and whilst singing they display before the eyes of their audi- 
tors a long sheet of cloth on which the most salient events in the 
life of the hero are represented in colours. 

So far, there seems to be no evidence extant for fixing any 
particular date in connection with the life of Pabi. But if he 
was the grand-grandson of rava Siho, as the tradition implies. we 
can safely, though approximately, place his lifein the second half 
of the Samvat-century 1300, probably the seventh or eighth 
decades, a period roughly corresponding to the second and third 
decades in the fourteenth century a.D. The chief point of 
reference for the above calculation is the date in rava Siho’s 

dhala, which is V. Samvat 1366 (=1810 a.p.) (Ibid., p. 301). 
great help, because later in time, are some epigra- 

(1) 1, Sala] pequ ad armar get (a are! eretaal[a] 
2. Uses Bleaeyig qq wuss aa aa 
3. aa 2quia Glas |a Bly Ba Utwe- 
4, <I aarer vate Tas. 
e second inscription is likewise engraved under a stone- 

image of Pabi, and records that the same was caused to be set 
up by Dhadhala Pa(ha@ 2), in the year Samvat 1483, under the 

reign of maharajadhiraja Lavakhana (?) : 
2) ae = aaa (?) 
5. (ese yawala aera afe 
6. a Waat gu & [gatlarer [a]a- 
7. 3 werarsrfaas aa(?)aa- 

1 The stone seems to read 4@T@. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

8. asa wis ate?) wg at 

O.. Sas Sue 

The third inscription is engraved on two faces of a es: 
a, and records that the temples were repaired in the y 

Samvat 15 

the reign of raya Satala, the son of maharaya Jodho :— 


3. ~~ 4a 

4. Quay ae 
5. utaat afe 
6. (2 quarta- 
7. 2 wea 
8. use ute- 
9, & Wa AST- 
10. wea bit § 
ll. gare a 

fa aifa- 

13. @ar war- 
14. fad yiu- 
15. 4 Was 
16. ga atu 
17. 03 ate- 
18, © wal a- 
19. e[t}ets ai- 
20. at faet et- 
21. at afea- 
22. 4 gTarz 
23, sufza: 

1, wees 
2. atu ga 
3. ta Btar- 
4, aa fax- 
5. au, 


» by maharaja Cado and other Dhadhalas, duvie 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 109 

Kola, and they claim to have descended from Udé Singha, 
one of the sons of Dhadhala.! According to the tradition 
orally preserved by them, Dhadhala had 15 sons, of which 
Udé Singha was the first, Bird the second, and Pabii the 
thirteenth. Jasavanta Singha and Bhira Singha, the oldest 
and apparently best’ informed Dhadhalas in the village, gave 
me the following genealogical list of their ancestors :—(1) 
Dhadhala, (2) Udé Singha, (3) Rama Singha, (4) Gaja Singha, 
(5) Likhamana Singha, (6) Deva Raja, (7) Khiva Karana, 

evidently incorrect, as it gives too many names to fill the 

period between Dhadhala (about Samvat 1350) and Schara 

(Samvat 1415), and too few for the period between Sohara 

(Samvat 1415) and Bhird (Samvat 1970). I wonder if Deva 
aja is the same as the Devathana of the first inscription. 

A short distance from the two temples, there is a well, called 
the Gujavé kid, which the local tradition identifies with the well 
near which Pabu was killed, after he had drawn water for the 
rescued cows. On the other side, between the temples and the 
village, there is a tank, which is called Pabisara, after the name 
of the hero, and on its slopes there are some chatiris and many 
funeral stones. One of the stones under the chatiris bears an 
inscription, in which—though much of the writing is illegible— 
the date Samvat 1563 can be safely read, and also the phrase : 
rava Stirija Mala r(é] vare (=‘* at the time of rava Sirija 
Mala [of Jodhpur]’’), and the names Sohara, Godo and Ghara 
Si. The village of Kola, which numbers only a few houses at 

1 In most of the Bikaner chronicles, Pabi himself is represented as 
a son of Udé Singha. Cfr. the following account, which is taken from the 
Khyata of Day@la Dasa (see Descr. Cat., Sect. i, pt. ii, No. 1):— 

| yivestt 2 G21 Se Sar ast ae eet wee! Sx eee? 
Far ty sat | aet ast Ser gS (p. 475.) 

110 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

The version of the legend of Paba, which follows, was 
drawn up in accordance with the account in the Khydta of 
Miuhanota Néna Si. 

Dhadhala Rathora, the son of Asathana, from his an- 
cestral seat in Mahevo went once to Gujarat. There he had 
the good fortune to surprise some heavenly nymphs who were 
sporting near a pond, and succeeded in catching one of them. 
The fair prisoner asked him: ‘‘Why do you detain me ?’’ 

homage to. There Dhadhala had a separate palace built for 
the nymph, and in the course of time she made him father of 
two children, a girl, Sona-bai, and a boy, Paba. Now, when- 
ever Dhadhala went to see the nymph, he used to give her 
notice before. But one day he could not resist the curiosity 
of spying what she might be doing, when unobserved, and went 
stealthily into the palace, and what did he see but a lioness 
giving suck to her cub. On noticing him, the lioness, who 

In the course of a few years, Dhadhala died, leaving 
besides Pabii and Sona-bai, two other children of an elder age, 
namely a youth, Bird, and a girl, Pema-bai. Pema-bal was 
married to the Khici Jinda Rava, and Sona-bai to the Devaro 
ruler of Sirohi. Being elder in age, Biro inherited all. his 
father’s rights and property, and nothing was left to the 
younger Pabi. He had only a she-camel in his possession, 
and on this he used to go hunting about and earning his 

Somewhere south of Koli there was ruling a Vagheld 

chief by name Ano, and he had seven Thoris in his service, 

no one would accept them, out of fear of Ano Vaghelo. 
At last, they went to Pemo, the chief of Kola. and he sent 
them to the Dadhala’s. The Thoris then went to Biro, and he 
told them to go to Pabi. Thus at last they went in search of 

1916.] Bardic and Hisil. Survey of Rajputana. 111 

they asked him where Pabi was. He said Pabi had gone to 
hunt. The Thoris said they would wait for him to come back, 
and meanwhile asked the boy for the she-camel, which he — 
to appease their hunger. The boy gave her to them, and w 
away telling he was going to Pabu. The Thoris had mde 

their surprise when they learned from the nurse that that boy 
e first question Pabi asked of them 
was: ‘‘ To where have you taken my camel?’ They said: 
** You gave it to us, and we ate it.’’ Pabi said it was 
nonsense and sent them to see where they had left it. They 
went to where they had left the skeleton, and there they found 
the she-camel standing in flesh and bones. Then they under- 
stood the power of that little boy and became his servants. 
From that day, the Thoris never left the side of Pabi. 

of daring Se tis for men in the service of such a cess 
for bardly had any ere ae occurred to his mind, he wa 

already in for it. On the occasion of Biro’s daughter being 
married to Gogo Cahuvana, Paba promised her as a marriage 
gift the she-camels of Devo Simard. Now Devo was such a 
powerful chief, that people used to call him ‘‘ a second ithe son io 
Everyone laughed at Pabii’s promise, but Pabii was in earnest 
and sent Hariy6, one of his Thoris, to find out the whaccabouts 
of Devo. Meanwhile ns task imposed itself on the hero, 
and this was one of revenge. His sister Sona-bai, who had 
been married to Sirohi, had been insulted by her husband. 

replied that Pabi’s Thoris were better than the very emirs in 
the service of the rava, her husband, whereupon the rava, who 
overheard, gave her three cuts with his whip. On hearing of 
the insult suffered by his sister, Pabu at once prepared to go to 
revenge her 

Before setting out, he went to take leave of his elder brother, 
Biro, at the head of his Thoris. mounted on his Kalavi mare. 
This was a mare that had been born to = Kachela Caranas 
by a mare fecundated by a marine horse. Being a mare of 
superior ae many chiefs, and sakeniost ‘these Jinda Rava 
Khici and Bird, had been longing to — her, but the 
Caranas had aieeni her to everybody, except Pabia, to 
whom they gave her at last on the condition he should draw 
his sword for them, whenever they happened to be in need of 
his help. On seeing Pabii coming on the Kalavi mare, his 
sister-in-law, Doda Gaheli, blamed him for having ace epted a 
horse that was desired by his elder brother, and scornfully 

112 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

but as for the question concerning the use he would make of 
the mare, he was also a Rajput and needed the horse, and 
was brave enough to go to Didavand, his sister-in-law’s native 
place, and bring to Koli her brothers in fetters. Doda Gaheli 

laughed, but not many days passed ere Paba came back and 
called her to his palace and asked her to look out from a 
windo heli looked out, and what did she see but 

the Thoris were pulling them by the hair and administering 
them a generous thrashing. 

Meanwhile Hariyo came back and told that the proposed 
expedition against Dedd was impossible, not only because of 
the power of that chief, but also the impregnability of his 
positions. Pabi was by no means disheartened at the in- 
formation, but thought he must first go against Sirohi and 
revenge his sister. He set out with his seven Thoris all on 

horseback, and only Hariyd on foot ow the seven Thoris 
had been always pressing him to revenge them on Ano Vagheld 
The village of this chief was just on way to Sirohi; on 

his mother’s ornaments. Pabi forgave him and installed him 
on his father’s seat. Then Pabia proceeded to Sirohi , where he 

released him. Then he gave her the ornaments of the wife of 
Ano Vaghelo, and Sona-bai’s triumph was complete when she 
went to show them to her co-wife and at the same time told 
her that her father Ano had been killed by valiant Pabi and 
his Thoris. 

After thus revenging his sister, Paba set out for the ex- 
pedition against Dedé Simard. On the way thereto, he came 

the Pajicanada, there there was an immense sheet of water, 
many fathoms deep, obstructing his way, and there were no 
means of getting across. He had recourse to his supernatural 
power and in no time brought himself and the Thoris to the 
other shore. There he found the she-camels of Dedo grazing, 
and ordered the Thoris to surround and capture them. Only one 

1916.} Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 113 

_ Now the way from Paficanada to Sodard was through 
Umarakota. On passing through the last place, Pabii was seen 
by the virgin daughter of the Sodho ruler of the place, her 
name Phulavanti, who immediately fell in love with him and 
told her parents she had made a vow to get married to Paba 
or nobody else. The father of the girl approved of her resolu- 
tion and sent a man to offer his daughter in marriage to 
Pabi. Pabi accepted, but said he could not stop just then, 
but would come to marry after making over to Gogo the camels 
of Dedd. And continued on his way. When he reached 
Sodaro and brought the camels before Gogd, Gogo praised him, 
but a doubt arose in his mind, that those might not be the 
camels of Dedo, but camels wrested from somebody else. He 
therefore resolved to have a trial made and see if Paba had 
really such a power as seemed to be necessary for the carrying 
out of a similar feat. He told him: ‘‘I have some wrong to 
revenge on a personal enemy of mine. Let us go to-morrow 
and take the auspices.’ Accordingly, the next morning, they 
both went into the desert, but had no auspices. They lay 

ing he had not been able to find the horses. Then Gogd went 
‘for them, and what did he see but a large lake, with a small 
boat in the middle, and both the horses in it. Then he under- 
stood what the power of Pabui was, and went back to him, and 
this time both the heroes went for the horses and found them 
still grazing where they had left them. 

On reaching Kola, Pabi_received the marriage invitation 
from the Sodho chief of Umarakota. Then he called his 
relatives Jinda Rava, Gogo, Bird, and the rava of Sirohi to 


turned back, to the exception of Deviyd. Pabi . 

, howe 
reached Umarakota safely and married the girl and brought 
to Kola. 

114 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

ow Jinda Rava, after he left the marriage procession 
bound for Umarakota, on his way home robbed the cows of a 
Carani, her name Viravari. She went to Baro to demand help, 
but he refused it, adducing the pretext that he had a pain in 
his eyes. Viravari then went to Pabii, who readily undertook 
the task of revenge. At the head of the seven Thoris and the 

marriage guests of Cadiyo, Pabi ran after Jinda Rava and 
: : 

2 , Pab 
run to the rescue and lost his life at the hands of the Khici.”” 
The news, of course, was false, but Biro believed it and with- 
out further consideration went in anger after Jinda Rava. The 

he hastened to Kola, where he went to see Pemo, the ruler of 

the place, and won him to h 

scheming to dispossess him of the land. Pabi was still at the 

well, where he had drawn water for the cows, when he noticed 

a cloud of dust nearing from a distance. ‘* What is that 2’’ 

not escape his fate, and lost his 

in heaven. Jinda Rava, however, was defeated by the gallant 

__ The Sodhi wife of Paba i 
join her lord in heaven, and so did the Doda wife of Baro, who 

¢ grow a man of super- 
natural power. Since he has been brought forth by practising 
a cut (jhararo), his name will be Jhararo,.’’ 

supposed to be still living on the face of the earth. 

7. Kora-Insorirtion or Raya Laxwd (V.S. 1445 2) 

_ The following inscription was found at Kota, near Desiri, 
in the Godhavara province, incised on a pillar of a Jaina 

1916.] Bardic and Histl. Survey of Rajputana. 115 

dharmasala. Originally, it formed part of a temple of Pars- 
vanatha, which is now seen in ruins outside the same village, 

used in the building of the said dharmaésala. I have not seen 
the place, but edit the inscription from two impressions taken 
by my travelling man Carana Ujala Rama Dayala 

e inscription consists of ten lines of siting, and covers 
a space of 9” high by 104” broad. The text is in a mixture of 
corrupt Sanskrit aed Bhasa. It opens with the date { Vekrama-] 
Samvat 14[4]5, the third day of the bright fortnight of Asadha, 
Monday, and after an allusion to the victorious reign of rana 
Lakhai and the jurisdiction_of thakura Madana, refers to the 
temple of Parsvanatha at Acalapuradurga. The a of the 

ga Simha 

toes spiritual merits. At the end the pupretwdl is given of 
e whole irc and the aforesaid thakura Mad 

mes mentioned in the inscription, 1 rana Lakha 

Of the L 
is that of alia "hh ous ruler of Mewar, and Asalapura the old 

name of the place, was published by D. R. Bhandarkar in 
Ep. Ind., XI, pp. 62-3. The Samvat year is not clear in our 
inscription, the third numerical figure looking more like 2 or 7 
than 4, but from the fact that Lakha ascended the throne in 
the year Samvat 1439 and was succeeded by Mokala in 1454, 
it seems impossible that the date should be anything but 

The chief importance of the inscription lies in the fact 
that it is the first a ee document of the rana of Mewar’s 
over — val 

subordinacy to Mewar. 
Samvat 1443—only two years before the date of our inscription 

—ti havara province still remained in the hands of th 
Cahamanas. Whether Ranavira and his father Vanavira, whom 

in the year Samvat 1445—the date of our Seectnubion the 
Ca amanas were no longer on their een and Godhavara had 

1, at efa Steaaa ei 2]y aa srats- 
2. of a ata crsteretfaracrse 

116 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.] 

8. TEMS aaisaat Staraa- 

4. qe staraarsdfaaa | wudad- 

5. & feats ae ASM HTT RAAT Y- 

6. a anette H---— Seer sade uray 

7. ateeuz Wa Bat(?) wat saat wa q-- a- 
8. wafeat qraqwsae areanisusit- 

9. ature: aretfaa: | ae wag waa?) ais- 
10. watlgx] arfarat 4. 

Bikaner, 2nd Jan., 1916. 

- SS ea Agta gen te Sek ne GE oe ip 

7- Demon-Cultus in Mindari Children’s Games. 
By Sarat Cuanpra Mirra, M.A., B.L. 

A theory has been recently propounded to the effect that a 
number of the games played by children are survivals of 
demon-worship. I have already shown ! that the origin of 
several of the N orth Indian children’s games may be explained 
by this theory. Take, for siecle the highly interesting and 
popular North Indian game known under the name of Ankh 
Mundaul. It has a very atk similarity to the German 
game of ‘‘ Blind Cow,’’ the French ‘‘ Blind Man’s Buff,’’ 
the Dutch ‘ Blind Cat, > the ‘ Blind Goat ’’ of the Danes 
and the Swedes, and the “ Blind Fly ’’ of the Italians. The 
method of playing it is as follows: —One boy is selected to be 
blind and has to stand facing a wall. The other players 
Same themselves, and, ane the blind player is searching for 
them, try to touch the wall Whosoever among the players i is 
touched by the blind man becomes a‘ thief ’” or‘ blind man’’ in 
his place. Curiously enough, the Bengalis, ‘like the Italians, 
designate this game with the name of Kan @ Machhi or the ‘‘ Blind 
Bhy.” da 

his name. In the Dindi-Khel or the Miinda version of this 
game, however, the “blind oes * playmates slap him one 
after the other. If the former succeeds in identifying the boy 

who slaps him, the covering is removed from his eyes, and the 
boy who has ‘been caught slapping him and recognized, has 
at once to take the place of the former a is blind-folded. 
And the play goes on in the same way as before till he, in his 
own turn, sir sail in recognizing the boy who may have been 

are him 
Applying our theory to the explanation ve lise foregoing 
North Indian game, we find that the ‘‘ blind man ’’ represents 

the masked demon of the German children’s Jag who tries 
to catch the rest of the players, while the latter try to evade 
being —— by him 
ssential component of these games is the evasion of 
the sea s efforts to catch one of the players. But there 
is not the least trace of the existence therein of wide incident 
! ** North Indian Children’s Games and wi Chonan ie Journ. Colaba 
Anthropol. Soc., vol x, pp. 1- % 
2 The Miindas and Their Country. By S.C. Roy, M.A., B.L. With 
an ae Chee 8. EB, A. spon Esq., 1.C.8., C.LE. Caleutta: The City 

118 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XII, 

which may be construed into a mimicking of the worship of the 
demon. The theory set forth above, therefore, seems to be 

goes by the name of Kantara ina, or the ‘‘ Jack-fruit game.’” 
The mode in which it is played is as follows :— 

One boy represents a jack-fruit tree. A certain number 
of boys and girls represent the fruits thereof. One boy acts 
the part of the owner of the tree; another boy represents 

i ile a 

stealing his jack-fruits—whereupon he raises a hue and cry. 
Thereupon the thief takes to his heels and carries away with him 
the jack-fruits he has helped himself to. 

e next morning, the thief presents himself before the 
proprietor of the tree and asks for the loan of a knife. There- 
upon the latter asks the former the purpose for which he wants 

reply, the proprietor lends him the knife. Chuckling over the suc- 
cess of his rus i i i 

time, raises ahueandcry. But the thief runs away as fast as his 
heels will carry him, taking with him his booty. The follow- 

1916.3 Demon-Cultus in Mindari Games. 119 

ng morning, a ue of the tree, who had by this time 

sa wiser man owing to the theft 
of his fruits, ape to “asain: ‘IT shan’t leave any more 
of my fruits on the tree. The rascally thieves are tae 

the loan of a knife to kill a fowl with. The owner of the 
tree, believing his words to be true, lends him the same knife 
as he had done on the previous occasion. On g etting it, 
the former goes away. During the night, hiner the thief 
cuts down the jack-tree with it. _The very next morning, he 

the morning, however, the latter comes out of the hous se, lo 
and behold his surprise at seeing his hie jack-tree felled 
to the ground and lying prostrate on i 

bring one white hen, one black goat and one buffalo, besides 
rice and the other customary offerings to propitiate the offended 
bhait (demon or evil spirit) with. The uped proprietor, 
taking his directions in all earnestness, duly brings the re- 
quired offerings at the prescribed time. Then the travesty 

ceremony is finished, one of the boy-players catches hold of 
the legs of the boy who poets tet the felled jack-tree ; while 
another player takes hold of him by the re bawling 
out the following rhyme at the am of their voices : 
** Sim darom joma chi ? 
erom darom joma chi ? 
Kera darom joma chi ?’’ 

‘* Will you eat fowl- ssi tt : 
Will you eat goat-sacri 
Will you eat aremssaeer oh Ha 
The boy representing the tree then stands up again. 
Then all the other players join hands and dance round the tree. 

The Miindas and Their Country. By § S. C. Roy. (Calcutta : 1912), 
pp. sean, 

120 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

accompaniments, But in the European games and the North 
Indian one named Ankh Mundaul, which have been described, 
there is no such travesty of demon-worship. The main inci- 

primitive times. So far as our investigations go, the Mandari 

tribal priest of the Dusidhs and Dhan ars—two menial 
tribes living in the Eastern districts of the United Provinces— 


examination, for instance, of the ritual of the 
Chhota Nagpur will bear out the plausibility of the suggestion 

1 An Introduction to the Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern 
India. By W. Crooke, B.A. Allahabad - 1894, pp. 10-J1. 

1916.] Demon-Cultus in Mindari Games. 121 

sprinkled over the figure.! At the celebration of the Phagu 
festival, the Pahan makes joint offerings of three pieces of rice- 
flour bread, one pot of rice-beer, and a black hen which are 
offered to all the Bongis or deities presiding over the woods, 
hills, streams, fields and groves and prays for success in hunt- 
ing.* When the Sohorai festival is celebrated, a black fowl is 
sacrificed at the door of the buffalo-shed; and its meat together 
with rice-beer are offered up to propitiate the Gorea Bonga—the 
deity who presides over cattle. 

Note the anomalous sacrifice, by the Asirs, of a white 
cock to Sing-bongi—the Supreme Deity of the Mindas—in 
their legend of Lutkum Haram and Lutkum Buria.* 

its possession of the curious habit of occasionally shivering, 
which is supposed to be caused by some divine afflatus or essence 

grim goddess Devi—the deity who presides over malevolent 
Spirits and was the patron-saint of their dreadful profession , 
they would select two goats, black and perfect in all their 
limbs, make them stand facing the west and then bathe them 
with water. Ifthey shivered and shook the water from their 
shaggy coats, it was regarded as an omen that the sacrifice 
was acceptable to the goddess. The same procedure was also 
adopted in the sacrifice to the famous hill-demon Airi, who is 

| The Miindas and Their Country, pp. 459-460. 
: 3 Op. cit., p. 481. 

+ Op. cit., p. xxx1 (Appendix 11). 
+ cll “ and en. By M. D. Conway. London: 1879. 

122 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [{N.S., XII, 

believed to be the ghost of some hunter killed while in the pur- 

and may be heard hallooing to his dogs. If the goat to be offered 
up as a sacrifice to this demon, when it is marked with vermilion 
on the forehead and rice and water are sprinkled over it, 
shivers and shakes off the water from its body, it is looked 
upon as an omen that the demon has accepted the offering ; 
and it is forthwith slain.! 

A goat of a perfectly black colour is always preferred for 
sacrificial purposes. If it is ‘‘ without a single spot of white,’’ 

Thags’ selection of it for sacrifice to their demon-goddess Devi, 
and from its requisition for the worship of the demon in the 
Mundari children’s game described herein. This practice is 
prevalent not only in Northern India but also in the Southern 
Presidency of which a marked feature is its demon-worship. 
The most famous festival in honour of a demon is held at 
a a suburb of Trichinopoly, and is based on the following 
egend :— 

Once upon a time, a demoness named Kolomayi had a 
temple in Travancore. She thirsted for human blood and could 
only be propitiated by the sacrifice of children. A large number 
of children were sacrificed to her ; but still she was nut appeased. 
Consequently, the people were afflicted by her with outbreaks of 
epidemics and the sufferings of a great famine; while the holo- 
caust of children threatened to depopulate their land. In this 
strait, the sore-stricken people made up their minds to deport 


Her demand struck terror into their hearts. As their women 

cision. But Kolomayi, remembering the discomforts of the 
voyage on the raft and the long entombment under the ground, 
She Fer AUER e io ORIG yu ad SS NS 29 I 

1 Crooke’s An Introduction to the P. gt — 
| opular Rel: d Folklore of 
Northern India (Allahabad Edition of 1894), pp. 163-4. wa 

1916.] Demon-Cultus in Mindari Games. 123 

relented and said : ‘‘ You may substitute goats for children when 
u offer sacrifice to me. And i 


supply of iron fell short, whereupon the deity is said to have 
provided them with an abundance of this metal.2._ In the same 
legend, two virgins are stated to have, on behalf of the 
Asitrs, worked the furnaces with bellows newly made of white 

ow I come to the subject of the offering of the buffalo. 
The buffaloes are invariably black; while albino ones are 
i black 

buffalo is, therefore, very appropriately requisitioned for offer- 
ing to the demon in the Mindari game referred to above. 

The colours black, white, red and yellow are stated to be 

particularly dreaded by demons and malignant spirits, and are 
sai i i 

deities. This is one among the many anomalies in the popular 
customs and beliefs of India. 

! On the Coromandel Coast. By F. E. Penny. London: Smith 
Elder & Co. 1908. pp. 288-291. : : : 

2 Roy’s The Miindas and Their Country, p. xxxi ( Appendix II). 
8 Op. cit., p. xxxiii (Appendix IT). ae 
4 Cesihas ee pcaenon to the Popular Religion and Folklore of 
Northern India, p- 201. 

8. A New Species of Tephrosia from Sind.—Tephrosia 
Falciformis, Ramaswami. 

By M. S. Ramaswamt, M.A F.L.S., of the Botanical 
Survey of India, Royal Pie Garden, Calcutta 

(Published with the permission of the Director, Botanical Survey 
of India. ) 
[With Plate I.] 

Among the — collections of plants that were frequently 
sent by Mr. R. S. Hole, Forest Botanist, hra Dun 
year 1913 to the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Sibpur, for determination, was a curiously fruiting species of 
Tephrosia, found in the Mohibal dero forests, Nau ahro, in 
the province of Sind. This could not be identified - with any 
Species in the Calcutta Herbarium, and as the specimen con- 
pant no flower, Mr. Hole was requested to collect from the 
ame source some specimens in flower. This he very kindly 
did. and the result was that later in the year a fairly good 
flowering specimen of this species was made available for study. 
A careful examination of this, together with the fruit-material 
already sent, revealed the existence of a hitherto undescribed 
species of Te hrosia. Moreover, there is already a a specimen 

ut which 
previously er roneously identified as Tephrosia purpurea, fee 
The available material thus allowed of a fairly complete des 
cription of the species being drawn up, which is preserited 
elow, with a short Latin diagnosis prefixed to it. One of the 
duplicates of the specimen was sent to Kew, and there the 
writer’s determination was confirmed. 

TEpsRosia (? Szcrio Nova) FauctrorMis, Ramas., sp. nov. 

Species distinctissima, leguminibus falcatis bi prope 

He ba perennis, rigida, 50-60 cm. alta. Folia i imparipin- 
nata, foliolo terminali lateralibus aliquanto majore, rhachi 
ad presse sericea, basi inconspicue pulvinata, 5-08 cm.—10°16 
em. longa; stipulae lineares, kage? tentes, 3 mm. longae; foliola 
5-11, angusta, oblanceolata, basi cuneata, Bacire acuto sed 
distincte mucronato, abraia 2:5 cm.—3°8 cm. longa, 4°2 mm. 
—63 mm. lata, terminalia 3-1 cm.—4°4 cm. ai nga, 63 mm.— 
95 mm. lata, albo-sericea; nervi laterales 11-13, paralleli. 

126 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XI, 

Racemi terminales et foliis oppositi, laxiflori, 9 cm.—22-5 

we Baprr hot: Flores gemini, 7-8 mm. longi; adic 
25 .—10°2 mm. longis, sericeis; bracteis minutis, subulatis, 
ase mm. longis. Calyx extra albo-sericeus; tubus mpa- 

triangulari, 1:9 mm. longi. Vexillum purpureum, extra albo- 
sericeum, orbiculato-cordatum, apice breviter emarginato, 
7-5 mm. longum 10-2 mm. latum; alae 6-3 mm . longae; carina 
5mm. longa. Ovarium albo flavidu um, sericeum; stylus in- 
curvus, glabrescens; stigma penicillatum. Legumen omnino- 
falcatum vel paene circinnatum, mucronatum, 3°17 cm.—8-89 
cm. longum, 6°3 mm. latum, tenuiter reticulatum, puberulum. 
Semina subreniformia, glauca, 5 mm. longa, 2 mm. lata. 

low perennial, about 2 feet high, very i 


imparipinnate, 2- long, the terminal leaflet sinned 
larger than the rest; rachis ip aibesepatceniatnted ad ree is in- 
conspicuous. Stipules linear, persistent, + i Leafle 
11, very narrowly oblanceolate, base cuneate, apex ‘acute and 
mucronate, lateral 1 in.-1} in. long, } in~ in ia 
ina -1} in. long, 4} in. broad, argenteocanescent 
with appressed hairs on both surfaces; secondary n 11-13 

racemes, laxly arranged, geminate, usually 1 long and 1 short- 
pedicelled. Bracts minute, subulate, ;, in. long. Pedicels 

a tipuhntrceee pex emarginate, ;%, in nee 2 in. 
Wings glabrous, } in. long. Keel + in. | sellowiets 
white, sericeous, 4 in. lo Style incurved inca slightly bent, 

glabrous. Stigma penicillate. Pod completely falcate or some- 

times even circinate, thin, flat ; ‘Sa reticulations above, 3-5 

seeded, mucronate, 11 in Bh i in. long, ¢ in. broad, very sparsely 

ae hairy. Seeds no reniform, glaucous, ; in. 

StnD :—Naushahro, collected in fruit in February and in 
flower in Gbtaber, by the local Forest Officer and communi- 
cated by Mr. R. S.H ole. 

Ragpurana: :—Coll. Major Roberts (sheet in the Calcutta 
pepsi end 

ost important peculiarity of this species lies in the 
pod, the wha of which varies from falcate to circinate. Ado opt- 
ing the division into subgenera given in the Flora of British 

regard this as forming the type of a separate subgenus distinct 
from the above. The key for facilitating the recognition of the 

1916.] A New Species of Tephrosia from Sind. 127 

~7 ating as far as India plants are concerned, will then be as 
foll : 
A. Pods straight or very slightly ticurved towards the 
end only; 
(1) Leaves simple, calyx—teeth lanceo- Macronyx. 

(2) Leaves odd pinnate, calyx—teeth Brissonia. 
8 deltoid. 

(3) Leaves odd pinnate or ape Reineria. 

B. (4) Pods completely falcate or aes (The present 
circinate. Calyx—teeth narrow species which 
subulate ; leaves odd pinnate. may form the 
type of ae 

Of the Western India species, Tephrosia jalciformis, 
Ramas., may be taken as near . purpurea, Pers., with 
viene it rorighis agrees in all other characters excepting the 

ot take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to Major 
age, I.M.S., Director of the Botanical Survey, for 
having kindly looked over my Latin diagnosis. 



va at 
> " it 

; ; ¥ nae 
s sagt 

Jour. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XII, 1916 Plate J. 

A.Chowdhary, lith. 



Note.—The numeration of the articles below is continued 
from p. 498 of the “ Journal and Proceedings ”’ for 
[With Plate II.] 

The scarcity of fractions of the silver tanka of the Sultans 
of Delhi is well known. They number possibly not more than 
a score all told from the time of — to the end of the 
Suri dynasty— a period of over 300 year 

f the following six coins, five are ee my own cabinet. 

The sixth, a half tanka of Nasiru- d-din Mahmiad, is in the 
aig ae of Mr. C. S. Delmerick, late of the Opium Depart- 
ent. All six coins are, so far as I know, unique and are pub- 
lished for the first time 

(or Altitmish). 
Wt.: 83 grains. 
Sit. er. 
Obverse.—In double square within circle—three dots in 
ach segmen 
cle 42 os 
pl pained! 

Reverse.— Area enclosed as on obverse, but no dots in 

peed! bala! 
cnolly Woolh Unee 
piblad) (foi) bt! 
This is the earliest half tanka of the Dehli Sultans known. 
It is well executed and in very fair preservation. 

The circle exactly fits the flan of the coin and there is no 
room for a any margin though probably the die contemplated 
one. The coin is of the type of I.M.C. No. 39 struck for issue 
in the cities of Hindustan (biladu-l-Hind) with its tantalisingly 
defective marginal inscription on the reverse. 

130 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (N.S., XII, 


Date.: Nil. 
Wt.: ? 
S.: ‘Or. 
Obverse.—Within double square—dots in segments. 
cyl oge Ss 
we eee 

Reverse. —Within double square. 
pbeYt lel} 
cH ly Lot pels 
dye abel gst 
This is of the usual crude type that one associates with 
the silver coins of this king, and its weight is its main point of 
Date: 686 4.H. 
Wt.: 56 grains. 
~ ie fl 
Obverse.—Within square—three dots in segments. 
wr! ty Wal} ja0 
Reverse.—Within square—four dots in segments. 
(ld wy bey oye 
ailehe y urile » 
This coin besides being the only one of its kind and weight 
known is unique in its design. The mint and date instead of 
being relegated to a usually defective margin occupies with 
commendable clearness the full area of the reverse. It was 

bought by me in a mixed lot at a sale in London of coins belong- 
ing to Mr. S. M. Johnst 


In the introduction to the catalogue of the coins of the 
Sultans of Dehli in the Indian Museum (vol. II, p. 7) I men 
tioned that a single half rupee and two anna piece of this 

1916.] ° Numismatic Supplement No. XXVII. 131 

sovereign were known. The latter which is also in my cabinet 
was published in J.R.A.S., July 1900, p- 484. he former is 
the coin above described I now find I was mistaken in call- 
ing them a half rupee and an eighth of a rupee. Their weights 
are 56 grains and 27°3 grains respectively. Both coins are well 
preserved and appear to have lost but little from their original 
weight. Taking the weight of the full tanka as 175 grains, 
which is the generally accepted weight though specimens ex- 

and the tiny coins of Nasiru-d-din Mahmid, Ghidgu-d-din 
Balban and Jalalu-d-din Firoz which weigh from 13 to 14 grains 
would be twelfths of a tanka, and not sixteenths or one anna 
pieces as hitherto they have been called. 

Wt.: 85 grains. 
Be spiet aet 
Obverse.—Within looped square. 
The Kalima. 
In the margin beginning from the bottom and working to 
the left. : 
gt | whore | soe. | Sn 
Reverse.—Within looped square. 

8 vlbl. 
ls Frc 
asle aly ols 
Margins—bottom 8S) ys 
: left wibl) 
top Jala) 

right Sbiy! 
This exquisite little coin was till recently in the cabinet of 
Mr. H. R. Nevill, 1.C.S., Collector of Etawah, by whom it was 
generously given in exchange to me. Thomas mentions a half 
rupee of Sher Shah of the same date, but records no details or 

132 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

mind no others. Thomas records a half piece of Islam Shah 
without giving details. I have never seen one myself or heard 
of any other. An eight-anna piece of Ibrahim Sar (weight 88 

his 4th Supplement to Thomas’s ‘ Chronicles ”’ (J.A.S.B. 1886). 
The coin belonged to General Cunningham. Half rupees of 
the two other Siri Sultans have yet to be found. 
Mint (Shergarh). 

Date: wanting. 
Wt.: 83:5 grains. 
eg oe 

Obverse.—Within double square. 
The Kalima. 
No margins visible. 

Reverse.—Within double square. 

whl $e 

aShe abit ols 
No margins visible. 
The arrangement and character of the legends on this coin 

and its general appearance leave no doubt that it is of the Sher- 
garh mint—Cf. I.M.C., Vol. II. 645. 


Mint: Nil. 
Date: 949, 
Wt.: 7 grains 
[ * ] 

1916.] Numismatic Supplement No. XXVII. 133 
ale ola 

This tiny coin is much worn, and may well have lost 4 grains. 
This would make it a one-anna piece. I know of no other sil. 
ver Suri coin of this weight. 

In order to make this paper a little more complete I 
append a brief note of the other small silver pieces of the 
Sultans of Dehli which have been published or are otherwise 
known to me. 

(a) Nasiru-d-din Mahmid. 
(1) Wt. 13-2 grs. Obv. pbc d} whl) 
Rev. wp ly Sod) eb 

Ref. C. J. Rodgers’s 4th Supplement to Thomas’s “* Chronicles ’’. 
(J.A.S.B. 1886), No. 15. 

(2) Wt. 13:2 grs. Obv. pad! wlblt} 
Rev as on (1), 
ef. C. J. Rodgers’s 5th Supplement (J.A.S.B. 1894), No. 21. 
(3) Duplicate of (2), in the cabinet of Mr. R. B. White- 
head, L.C.S. Wet. 13 grs., size -4”. 
(b) Ghiasu-d-din Balban. 
Wt. 13:8 Obv. peer wlbL; 
Rev. giddy Woh AUé 
Ref. C. J. Rodgers’s 3rd Supplement (J.A.S.B. 1883) No. 20. 
Mr. Rodgers said of this coin that it was “the only small 
silver coin I have ever seen or heard of, of the early Pathans. 
(c) Mu‘izzu-d-din Kaiqubad, 
Wt. 27-3 grs. Obv. psd) wihle} 
Rev. gpriy poli 50 

Re}. J.R.A.S., July 1900. ‘Coins of the Pathan Sultans of 
Deki. po Ma Pe This is in my own cabinet, and in 1900 was the 
only Pathan silver coin of this weight known. 

(d) Qutbu-d-din M ubarak. 

Wt.: 26. 
S.: °45’. 

134 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [{N.S., XII, 



glbbdt oy 
This is in the cabinet of Mr. R. B. Whitehead, LC.S. 
Bareilly. H. Netson WRIGHT 

167. Tae Bisdrptr Rueees or 1091 a.H. 

I should like to say a few words about the rare Rupees of 
1091 a.w. (24 R.), which were ‘‘ issued in Aurangzeb’s name 
six years prior to the capture of Bijapir’’ by the Mughals. 
(Wright, I.M.C. xxxviii). Dr. G. P. Taylor has shown in Num. 
Supp. XV, art. 92, that there is no reason for questioning the 
reading of the date, and Mr. Whitehead also has accepted the 
fact of the issue from Bijapir in that year of ‘‘ Rupees and 
half Rupees of Aurangzeb’s usual silver type.’’ (P.M.C. lix). 
But our knowledge of the actual circumstances under which 
these curious coins were uttered is still far from being complete 
or free from doubt and surmise. Dr. Taylor has described how 
that city was closely besieged in 1090 4.4. by Aurangzeb’s 

b e IB 

130), though the same events are summarised with his usual 
skill in ‘‘ the despatchlike narrative’’ of Elphinstone also. 
(Cowell’s ed. 1866, pp. 646-7). Now Grant Duff says that 
‘* Diler Khan was compelled to abandon all hope of reducing 
the place,’’ and that, when at the end of the rains, he 
attacked the open country and laid waste. the Carnatic, 
Janardhan Pant ‘‘ completely defeated him, intercepted his 
parties, cut several of them to pieces and compelled him to 
retreat’? (I, p. 130). Butif the result of the siege was really 
so infructuous and abortive as Dr. Taylor’s authority makes it 
out to have been, how can we account for this undoubted 

1916.] Numismatic Supplement No. XX V11. 135 

thinking to anticipate an inevitable surrender,’’ but he also 
believes it to be ‘‘ just possible’’ that they may have been 

conjectures, and which may be fairly said to be the ‘‘ sufficient 
proof, ’’ for want_of which they had to be advanced. _ It occurs 
in the Madasir-i-‘ Alamgiri, wu ar coevranees Saqi Mustaid Khan, 

which was written in 1128 (1710 a.p.), that is, only three 
years after the death of Aurangzeb (Bibliotheca Indica Text, 
lliot and Dowson VII, p. 181). e author was Munshi 

with the relation of an event of this reign, which is not recorded 
in his history.’’ (Stewart, Descriptive Catalogue of Tippoo 
Sultan’s Library, p. 16). This writer says, in the course of his 
narrative of the events of 1091 a.H. 

Sols lar aol xls os ne sls ies at DoW! ayy ptazily 
cle olsybe wlyl ia he sb eases ss! 53 5 ee 

* Ody 97 
[Bibliotheca Indica Text, p. 192.] 

‘*On the fifteenth of Rabi I [1041 a.n.], it maa the 
Imperial ears (lit. ears — which the messengers of g 
tidings were always congregating), from the memorial of Shah 
‘Alam Bahadur Shah that the Khutba had been in the renowned 
name [of the Emperor] in Bijapur, and that the stamping of his 
auspicious coin-legend had added to the lustre of silver and 

The courtiers (Jit. Kissers of the Carpet) of the splendid 
and ‘elotious | audience-hall went through the salutations of 

It is pica necessary to add by way of = a pang aes 
Prince Mu‘azzam or Shah ‘Alam Bahadur Shah had s 
before (11 Sha‘aban, 1089 a.a.) been appointed to the Supreme 
government of the Dakhan (Maasir-i-‘ Alamgiri. Bib. Ind 
p. 169), though ‘‘the command of the pac in on ae aa 
remained si Diler Khan” (Grant Duff, ib., 28). 

ver the circumstances which postpo sae for six years 
the eictitichice of Bijapur as a separate state, there can be now 

136 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

no doubt that Diler Khan had been able in 1091 a.n. to extort 
from its ruler, at the point of the sword, the recognition of 
both these regal privileges—the Khutbah and the Sikkah—to 
which Musulman sovereigns have always attached an impor- 
tance, which may appear to us exaggerated, but which is really 

ed on the fact that in those times ‘‘ Stamped moneys ob. 
truding into every bazar constituted,’’ as Edward Thomas has 

to the comprehension of all classes, the immediate change in 
the Supreme Ruling power’’ (Chronicles, ed. 1871, pp. 1-2). 
. H. Hoptvata. 

168. Tue GuLtKanpA Rupess or SHAHJAHAN. 

t will be seen that the difficulty centres round the figure 

on I.M.C. No, 947. If Abdullah 

in 1067 a.H., what does the ‘5’ mean? It cannot stand for any 

of the four digits of 1067, and it cannot be meant for the 

regnal year either, because the fifth year of Shahjahan was 

1041—1042, and not 1067 a.m. But is 1067 the correct date 
. Ms t 

: erritory and money; to pay a crore of rupees 
{£1,000,000 sterling) as the first instalment of a yearly tribute, 

1916.] Numismatic Supplement No. XX VII. 137 

and promise to make up the arrears of past payments in two. 
years.’’ (Cowell’s ed. 1866, p. 589). ‘*He was com mpelled,’’ 
says Grant Duff, ‘‘ to give his daughter in marriage to Sultan 
Muhammad, and to pay up > arrears of tribute fixed by 
Aurangzeb at the annual sum of one crore of rupees, but 
Shahjahan, in confirming thie! proceedings, remitted twenty 
lacs of the amount. »’ (Bombay Reprint, 1873, p. 69). There 

The fact is 5 that when the Gulkanda ae was brought to 
his knees in 1045 a.n. he agreed not only ‘to pay tribute and 
permit the Khutba to be read in the Emperor’s name,’’ but 
to strike coins also with the Imperial titles. The long and 
minatory rescript addressed to ‘Abdullah by Shahjahan and 
the exceedingly ahr if not abject, reply are quoted with 
evident pride and exultation by the official chronicler, ‘Abdul 
Hamid Lahori, in the Pesce Nameh. (Bibliotheca Indica: 

Ww 57). 
available. Quti-al itu Ik first promises that he will have the 
Khutba read in the Emperor’s name and adds : 
Ba ally ple als ji as sje He ode y gym yy yy aiapy y 
ae ool 335-5 ost goin ys- 
[Bibliotheca Indica Text, Vol. I, Part ii, p. 178.] 
‘“‘ The red money and the white (gold and silver) aed 
been engraved and sent to me from the Court ane is the 
Ahdnameh or ‘Treaty itself is afterwards quoted, and. 
there sas we find Shahjahan saying about Qutb-ul-Mulk. 
dpb aiale aiaegnyy alny fle Slee Air) ploy pls tay» 
23 9 OMSL yailymuc ahd Sle of pled > y seo wre Sot02 af glo 
# BSL aryl SSuc le Slee as. |, 
[Bib. Ind. Text, Vol. I, Part ii, pp. 210-211.] 
** And [Qutb-ul-Mulk] has promised that the faces of 

138 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

‘dirhams and the dinars (silver money and gold money) shall be 
adorned with our auspicious coin-legend and that in all parts 
of his kingdom, the Khutba shall be read in, and money stamped 
with, our auspicious name.’’ 

We may therefore take it for certain that it was in 1045 
A.H. and not in 1067 aun. that Shahjahan obtained from 
‘Abdullah not one, but both of those concessions which are 
regarded by Musulman potentates as the most direct and 
unmistakable proofs of supreme power. But if 1045 is the 
real date, the question arises, may not the ‘5’ of the coin be 

venture to say that the above explanation removes the chrono- 
logical objection he has raised to his own reading, and may help 
to finally solve the question if the reading can be substantiated. 

One thing else is perhaps deserving of notice. It stands out 
clearly from ‘Abdullah’s letter that the dies of the first issues 

they were sent to Gulkanda from the Imperial headquarters 
with the Imperial style and titles inscribed just as in the Akbar- 
a or Dehli mintages. Now it is not likely that new dies 

S. H. Hopivata. 

169. THe MEANING oF Tanki. 

two and four Tanki pieces, of which the only specimens known 

of t : pp: 
49 n. 224n.), and though the. philological affinity of Tanka with 
Tanki may or may not be’a matter of doubt and difficulty, an 
attitude of suspense and reservation as to the meaning of either 
ot hese) forms AB pee. different, thing altogether, and is not 
mecessarily incumbent upon the scholar i te of 
knowledge. ; ee ss sag 4g ‘2 the present aiate 
It is true that a lamentable confusion reigns in the different 

1916.} Numismatic Supplement No. XXVII. 139 

parts and languages of this country in regard to the nomen- 
clature of weights and measures. (ne has only to glance at a 
book like Prinsep’s ‘ Useful Tables ’ to stand bewildered at the 
various equivalents of the seer and the maund, the gaz and the 
Binghé. The Tank or Tank also has several significations 
assigned to it in the Dictionaries.  “ Tanka, 

says H. H. Wilson, ‘‘is a weight of silver equal to four mashas; 
among the Marathis, the Zank or Tank (Za, ata ) is variously 

twenty-four Raktikas, and (2) a stamped coin.’’ (San 
English Dictionary, s.v.). The author of a Gujarati‘ Hagia 
Dictionary says 2ls, Tank, is (1) the seventy-second part of a 
sher and also a stondand of weight used in weighing pearls. 
( Belsire, Gujarati-English Dictionary. s.v.). Now it certainly 
does not make for lucidity or clarity to be told that a Tank 
or Tank is equal to four mashas, and also to nine ee. and 
also to a tola, and also to the seventy-second part 

seer, but all this confusion ee it is still possible 
to state with confidence what Akbar or Akbar’s mint masters 
of Agra, Allahabad, Lahor and “Kabul understood by the 
‘Tanki’ , which they inscribed in his coppers. In other words, 
I submit that there can be no difficulty in pe diy: which of these 
different equivalents of the Tank was adopted by them as the 
Standard. Just as, in spite of all the local variations of the seer 

this we are i indebted to an equation in its aoe 

to which I invite the attention of Numismatists. ‘*‘ The D 
he says. ‘‘ weighs 5 tanks, i.e., 1 tolah,, 8 mashas and 7 pace 
It is the fortieth part of a rupee.” (Blochmann, Ain. I, 31.) 
Now 12 een make - tola, and 8 surkhs or ratis make a 
masha. (Ain. ib. 16 no — na ao was therefore 
u as, a the Tank, its P was ='62 x1 
= ee res nuit on 4 mashas and 12 surkhs = 60 + 31 ers. 

at 15 grains to the masha. 

140 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.) 

a pucca seer, nor a tolah, but 4 mashas and 13 surkhs or 63} 

Dam or rather the tenth part of the Tanka of about 640 grs. 
Of the Dam and the Tanka there were already in existence the 
halves, the quarters and the eighth parts. The idea appears to 

part of the Dam or the tenth of the Tanka, the two-fifths of the: 
Dam or the one-fifth of the Tanka and the four-fifths of the Dam 
or two-fifths of the Tanka. 

S. H. Hopivata. 

ce a aR ail tn is Segeca y g O  e 



Jour., As. Soc. Benc., Voi. XII., 1916. 

5 Ob. 


10, ‘The Seasonal Conditions Governing the Pond 
Life in the Punjab.”’ 

By Baint Parsuap, M.Sc., Alfred Patiala Research Student 
of the Punjab University Government College, Lahore. 

Communicated by Mr. S. W. Kemp. 

ponds and lakes in a tropical plain.’ 

e above passage is quoted from the introduction of Dr. 
Annandale’s volume on the “‘ Sponges, Polyzoa and Hydrozoa’’ 
in the Fauna of British India Series, and it was with a view to 
filling up this gap regarding the pond-life in the Punjab, and also 

undergo a periodical cleansing and are useless for continu 
observations. In Lahore the number of such ponds is not very 

ponds on the banks of the ‘‘ Budha’’ stream is much larger, 
80 also at Ferozpore on the banks of the Suélej and the Beas 
rivers; moreover, these ponds are very much deeper and larger 
in dimensions than the Lahore ones and do not dry up entirely. 
Owing to the lack of rain during the last year (1915), the 
ponds in Lahore this year are very few and in a very poor con- 
dition, but those of Ludhiana and Ferozpore are in a condition 
to good ial. 

a dl a ase seasons in the Punjab, summer 
and winter, which succeed each other quite abruptly, the 

142 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

than in the athens one of the Punjab. This part of the 
year is very cold and aiggais rainless, except for a few 
showers in December and ary. The seh aily leet aor ; 
never rises above 70°F., but eiay o down to 40° ven 

lower. Towards the end of rig the summer wie in, poms the 
shade temperature goes up to 90°F., reaching as high as 
120°F. in June, remaining so till about ge middle of the month 
of June, when the monsoon breaks and the rainy season begins. 
The rainy season lasts throughout August and September, du- 

due to the heavy rainfall, as also an increased evaporation from 

~the surface of the numerous ponds and pools resulting from the 
rains. The shade temperature during these months slightly 
falls, and the nights are rather cool. About the middle of Octo- 
ber the nights become very much cooler, and the shade tem- 
perature during the day also decreases, till about the end of 
the m siee a ht roast fully establis hed. 

Fauna of the Punjab; for it is eat that the severe winter 
would be quite me to such animals as flourish in 4 
tropical climate, while the equally severe summer must be quite 
detrimental to the animals that live in the temperate zones. 

r. Annandale describes the climatic conditions in England 
on p. 3 of the work already quoted. He contrasts those that 
affect an Indian pond and points out that the seasonal crisis 
that takes place annually in the biology of the different species 

oes not occur at the same time of year in the ease of all sp necies. 

It may be stated that for any ge oe pe on periodic ord 
sical change only such animals can be selected as adopt 
special means of resisting the nha faurable conditions of “fe 
for A ebptichbens of the ~~ se 

he forms selected were (1) Hydra oligactis, Pallas: (2) 
Sencael carteri, Carter reac in Litt); (3) Spongilla 

1916.] Pond Life in the Punjab. 143 

lacustris, subsp. retsculata, Annandale; (4) Australella indica, 

Annandale ; (5) Two unidentified species of Daphnia; (6) 

Insect larvae of Chironomus and Anopheles, various ies. 
Hydra oligactis, as was observed, reproduces very actively by 

could be got from the ponds, in which I had found them in 
abundance before, and all the individuals in my aquarium died , 

germinating stray gemmules. 

zoa my observations were made on a new curious 
gelatinoid Polyzoon, Australella indica, Annandale, which I found 
for the first time at ore and later on at Ferozpore. This 

aquatic weeds, was seen to flourish from the beginning of Jul 
to the end of October, when it begins to die after producing free 
Statoblasts (the only kind produced by this form) in lar 

numbers. In November and December some individuals were 

From the above it is clear that special devices like spiny 
€ggs, gemmules and statoblasts are developed on the advent of 
the unfavourable conditions. ae 

t may also be noted that, as long as favourable conditions 
last, the Hydra goes on reproducing asexually by budding; 

144 Journai of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

the Sponges and Polyzoa sexually, to produce new independent 
individuals, and asexually, to form large colonies by prolifera- 
tion, so that during this time the number of individuals ma 

increase as much as possible. With the coming on of unfavour- 

the more favourable weather. on th oach of un- 
favourable conditions the number of individuals for the pro 
duction of the resistent bodies is very large, a large r 

conditions a large number of new individuals will at once 

eggs ; they were probably breeding by means of unfertilized 
parthenogenetic eggs ; but I am not in possession of further ob- 
servations on this head. 

it was found that the period during which a larva would be 
transformed into a pupa, and the latter into the imago, is very 
much increased, owing to the decreased vitality of the larva, 

due directly to the cold weather. To prove this experimentally 

by the adult fly of Chironomus being quite scarce at this time. 

Similar condition was observed in the case of the larvae and 
adults of Anopheles. : 

It may be suggested here that this would really be the time 
to plan a campaign for the destruction of the mosquitoes, its 
larvae and the breeding places, for, owing to the much smaller 
number of breeding places and the inactivity of the mosquito 

1916.] Pond Life in the Punjab. 145 

and its larvae, the cost of destruction would be much less as 
compared with that in the malarial season, when the mosquito 
is breeding with great activity, and practically every small 
pool and puddle serves as its breeding place. 

Summing up, it may be said that the climatic conditions in 
the Punjab are quite different from those in Bengal, and that 
the season most congenial for the lower forms of life is not the 
winter, but the greater part of the summer, when all forms of 
life can flourish, and in this it resembles more the countries of 

11. A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 
By Davasampve, Head Master, State B. B. School. 


of ‘“*Om-mani-padme-hum.’’ It is not only a funeral but also 
chanted on solemn occasions on fast days, and other Chenrezi— 
Holidays—on the 8th, 10th and full moon and new-moon days 
of the Ist, 4th, 6th and 7th months (Tibetan). 

Refuge mine and source of mercy, Teacher, Deity Protecting! 
Whirled am I, yea, every being, on the Wheel of Births and 

Were our bones heaped up, they surely would outweigh the 
Triple Loka. 
Then descend, O Lord, and grant me refuge, Thou my precious 

Save me from Samsara’s whirlpool, highest, noblest Lord, 
Chenrezi ! 

Full nine months, the tenth preparing, in the womb my mother 
ore me, 
Till of heat and cold the working forced me down the bony 

Naked on the naked ground I fell and entered thus existence. 
Then descend, etc., etc. 

Impious though garbed in yellow, I am Prince most hypo- 

Come unto my stature’s fullness, unto manhood’s years 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Still I find from birth and sickness, age and death no full 
salvation. ; 
Then descend, etc., etc. 


Straight and strong was this my body in the days of youth 
and hood, 
Now it stoops and leans all forward, and from side to side it 
From my mouth my teeth have fallen; wish to chew my food 
is bootless 
Then deanna etc., ete. 

My once Sempra face is wrinkled, furrow deep o’erlaid on 
Dimmed the lustre, weak the vision, of mine eyes once bright 
and piercin 

Forms and scenes I see but dimly. In my walk I halt and 

Then descend, etc., etc. 

Hard of hearing am I rendered, laughed at, made a mock by 
My once strong and manly figure, reft of seemly form and 

Now is but a bony framework with a flabby skin o’ercovered. 
Ha ee for Pars to win by labour even the scantiest food and 

ig Tor descend. etc., etc. 

Now grown weak and old and ugly, wretched, woeful my 
mart Li now heeds my counsel, rather do they jeer and 
Grieved ray hurt I utter curses. Dead I wish myself and 
Then descend, etc., etc. 
By decree od Karma’s mandate, piercing pangs of sickness 
ize m 
Asi : lege fniae splendour swallowed up by envious Rahu, 

So brightness of ee — fails and fades to sickly pallor. 
escend, e 

1916.] A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 149 

Now come friends and kinsfolk anxious round the bedside of 
the sufferer. 
Pressing on him food and dainties, which, alas! are left 
unta st 

ae tei v various arts to cure him; fail alike priest and 
And he “bad s filth is voided, where it lies, upon the bed- 
re descend, etc., etc. 
Rich foods only rouse his loathing. Shrinks his upper lip all 
HN ate! Be the nostril corners. All his teeth are full of 
Nothiiy 1 is there that doth please him save a draught of clear, 
Draweth i nigh the hour of parting, and his last requests he 

Then aed” etc., ete. 

Fondly, anxiously he gazes on the face of friend and kinsm 
Seek his ha ara the hands and clothing of all those he 7 
behind h 
cae - more “gives forth his body coming death’s peculiar 
Thea descend, etc., etc. 
All his days and deeds are ended; nearer draw the pangs that 
‘Matter from its comrade Spirit, sure and certain as night’s 
coming. : ; 
Or like to a light that flickers, when, oil spent, it soon must 

_— : hg . ca . 
He can stay no moment longer or withhold the parting spirit. 
Then descend, etc., etc 

Clutch and claw the nerveless fingers. 

appealing. : : 
When has ceased the laboured breathing, then is known that 
ife has parted. 

**O, I die!’’ he cries, 

150 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
Friends and riches left behind him, he must go alone his 
Then descend, etc., etc. 

Sinks inert the earthly portion, and uncoils the nervous spiral 
Situate in the navel region, and the limbs can move no onger. 
Cold and clammy perspirations glaze the eyes, bedew the 
Then descend, etc., etc. 

Then subsides the watery portion, and uncoils the nervous 
In the heart’s recesses seated, and is lost the sense of feeling. 
ose and mouth outside are parched; dry are also both the 
Then descend, etc., etc. 


Sinketh next the fiery portion. This uncoils the nervous spiral 

Tn the throat’s base situated, and departs all heat of body 

No more food or any liquid can adown the throat find passage. 

Both the hearing organs fail him; outward sounds rouse no 

Then descend, etc., etc. 
Next gives way the aery portion; back uncoils the nervous 
Seated in the brain’s recesses. Then doth fail the inward 
And ot rattling and the gurgling, tongue and utterance 

Then descend, etc., etc, 

Down doth fall the spark of Bodhi, white and bright and 
blinding, glarin : 
Up pr the life-spark vital; where they meet it gloweth 
aralysed is central nerve-path ; sight is sealed in gloom and 

Then descend, etc., etc. 

1916.} A Tibetan Funerat Prayer. 15} 

Then the eighty powers of knowing gradually are extinguished. 
Mahamudra’s light refulgent fills the chamber intellectual ; 
Shines that light in its true nature, supersensuous, transcendent. 
Then descend, etc., etc. 


Then approach the Lamas pious, sanctifying rites performing 
Food and drink from friends and kinsmen then receives he 

ody lifeless, 
And the name +t bore is shouted as their breasts with fists 
be ‘ 
Then descend, etc., etc. 


Next a yt are harshly doubled, bound with well-spun 
Loving itends “< Good- bye!’’ now utter, as their bitter tears 

From its caebodiea bed is greg corpse to final place of resting. 
Then descend, etc., 


Either then the form is carried to the top of rock or mountain 
and quartered, flung to vulture, fox or dog or wolf or 

Weloome banquet thus providing bird and beast that live on 
Phe descend, etc., ctc. 


Or adown the stream’tis floated, down some torrent’s rushing 

ie , blood and pus commingling with the element surround- 

Flesh ‘and fat there gnaw and nibbled by the greedy fish and 
one descend, etc., etc. 

Or the bod d, placed upon the pyre funeral, 
Ch : tris tea ar lhe, flesh and skin and bone entirely, 
And they sniff the smell of burning,—the Gandharvas an 

Then descend, etc., etc. 

152 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 


Or below ai earth *tis buried, giving forth a stench most 
Countless worms and hateful insects suck, and creep and crawl 
about it 
In the pe and flesh pei ong on the carcase richly feasting. 
n descend, etc., 

Seized is all the wealth and riches by the person gone up- 

But with Karmic fruit down-weighted of his ways that were of 

He i i er ‘the awful pineal = the Lord of Death conducted. 
Then descend, etc., 
Down the slope so deep and dizzy of the three most wretched 


Aimless, cheerless, all uncertain, like a poor storm-driven 

Karmic winds do drive the spirit whither dangers wait in 

Then descend, etc. , ete. 

Lagermes how, though youth, the better part of life, has 
assed all vainly, 
Henceforth do I firm determine, well to spend my life’s re- 

Stauaeh in aim while life shall last me, thou shalt ever be my 

Then descend, O Lord, and grant me refuge, thou my 
precious Guru 
Save me from Sales 8 whirlpool, highest, noblest 
, Chenrezi! 

1916.| A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 153 



APRA vans’ | Saragargargar 


FRR arg I FAFASA ARTA gaa'5 |] HAaAver 


arr Rg ess || PIPE VRAIS REGS | gaer 
aaa terarkses |] QRS TETACAOSTARTAT 

154 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XU, 

Searle Qyaraga ata ae Sar SANT] agaa Ray 
ameAa ay Hasrrastgersgyay apes 


SAAS Amsrasraat |) TASrayRSrerapergc’ss 
AAS) HAsrarasetgarRgeys] QAR aTASPACAT 

AAA CARAT SES gay ay gS Y WRarara yay 

SAN ray ear REVS || ARR asrScar Gaypaxaysr 

wars’ S |} Nasrardag tgs es | QRS TSS 

1916.] A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 155 


AAS HAsreraqegarkez Sy awe aaarAcar 


q Hs FRAG Fanaa Ss I aq Bary Gar efor 

saAvergrargarsyerd |] AAA Asrscar-qayaqnysy 
Saya sg aT RTINARS |] | SAR QSL 
gasraraa gar saa) QRS aaarQcs TARAS 

156 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 


ATV AIE AS Age AWA NS IY asrSstergar 
ASWTATIAG | RapAysarqsq Heyy 
ARS] HWA GRA Ry apeeaay Scar 




Preerqarsay LATS IAS I gasrer 
sag RS AS | ARS Tar Scer aapacnsralaay 
HFA | 

apawtecerstgReage gy gh 
TAS gaerraagaRyesy  apeean Ser 

1916.] A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 157 


TRINA AGA] RAAT ARI gaers8 5 | 
gaa wagtgaSaH3 | QRRavaargcsrqayaasysr 


gararssetgarkg ers |] QRS Tar Scar AapAREt 


ARR IT VA TACS | | Waray RC pay aNgs 


gx Rargag age say ACgsraaeSrgeaapags 
HAS yosraragtgarsq TS] ARN Tear gear 

158 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 


Sesvisrsaa Serer ds |] Qasr ey Artarasrsxar 
SAAT S I Saran ay math att : I apes 

we aucyeHa Parga I we IMP SIPAG SST 
AVF TASS | QR TSA qapaasysraaey 


SCARS aackaraa gers i gasraras ty 


sora gc NaS | RSH saan SeqaS 1] HAST 

1916. ] A Tibetan Funeral Prayer. 159 


aad ag NI RFS i} Qs q AACA GAYA AAT 


TAS ACaAs |] | GF ER SIS sar Rae 5 85 
AAS HAarsset garSgers |] AAA THarACSr Gay 



SWHARS Ha ATCC | SAS ah arararay 
55°30] SAC GTA GIS} FI yaarer 

Say SiTes 

=) : 
ie nied ye a, : 
A hu Wie 9 man ce | 
Vint 4 oer ae wa aes agar 
ede % =f 


12, Note on the Constituents of the Bark of the 
Hymenodyctyon Excelsum. 

By Cares STanLey Grisson and Jonn Lionen 

[Read at the 3rd Indian Science Congress. | 


principle been saalatadk: It has Phecetere, seem 

authors a matter of considerable interest to cal some of 
these barks to a more careful chemical examination in order to 
clear up many anomalies and contradictions. 

The first bark selected for this purpose was the bark of the 
Hymenodyctyon excelsum, a bark which according to the 
Pharmacographia Indica (Vol: IT, p. 193) is used as a tonic, a 
febrifuge, and also as an astringent. 

This bark was first subjected to a chemical examination by 
Broughton in 1870, and subsequently Naylor (Pharm. Journ. 
1893, 14. 311, 1884, 15. 195) investi gated i t much more thor- 

aesculetin (scopoletin). Naylor, on the other hand, suc 

in isolating a crystalline alkaloid to which he gave the name 
hyme nodyctine and the formula C,,H,N, and also an amor- 
phous neutral substance of the formula C,,H,, 

From the results obtained by Naylor it pee possible to 
us that the alkaloid might be of therapeutic value and further- 
more, since it was one of the few alkaloids which do not con- 
tain oxygen, it should be of considerable <oulaae interest, and 
we decided, — to attempt its isolat 

_For this purpose three different ai pea of the bark were 


the other two specimens were obtained for u 

Henderson, Superintendent of the Madras Museum, and we 
wish to take this oppor rene of expressing our thanks to these 
gentlemen for their assistance 

formula is obviously incorrect, containing as it does an odd 
stil of Severe atoms. 

162 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

n examination of the bark by the methods described in 
the experimental part of this note has confirmed the results 

etin, but we have been unable to find any traces of an 
alkaloid. It would, therefore, appear that Naylor cannot have 
examined the bark of the Hymenodyctyon excelsum, but must 
have been dealing with some other bark. 


A preliminary extraction with Prollius fluid having shown 
the absence of any alkaloid, several methods were tried for the 
extraction of the bark, but as the results obtained were in 
each case practically identical, it will only be necessary to des- 
cribe briefly one of the methods used. 

The finely powdered bark (1 kilo) was thoroughly mixed 

trace of oil passed over (0-5 gram) which possessed a distinctly 

Oraceous smell. The residual oil remaining after the 
distillation was found to consist of a mixture of glycerides 
which were not subjected to a detailed examination. 

which after drying at 100°, melted at 160° and evidently con- 
sisted of aesculin, since when mixed with a specimen of aesculin 
— another source ‘the melting point was found to be unal- 

__ The hydrochloric extract (A) was basified and extracted 
with ether, the ether dried and evaporated when a trace of @ 
resinous substance remained. This substance could not be 
crystallized, but it showed no alkaloidal properties. 

The Strongly fluorescent sodium carbonate solution (B) 
was acidified, when a quantity of a thick brown oil was depo- 
sited. This was ground up with ether when the oil readily dis- 

colourless prismatic needles melting at 203°. The alkaline solu- 
tion showed a beautiful blue fluorescence. 

1916. | The Bark of the Hymenodyctyon Excelsum. 163 

0°1063 gave 0-243 CO, and 0043 H,0: ee it H=4°5. 

C,,H.O, requires C= 62°5, H =4°2 per c 

This substance was scopoletin, 4- paces & ibthoxy cou- 
marin (see Moore, Chem. Soc. Trans. 1911.99.1043). The cor- 
rectness of this view was confirmed by the preparation of 
the acetyl derivative which melted, as stated by Moore, at 177°. 

The ethereal solution from which the scopoletin had been 
separated was found to contain a mixture of fatty thy which 
have not so far been subjected to detailed examina 

The sodium hydroxide solution (C), on Paticaacn yielded 
a further quantity of a cay which had escaped extraction 
with sodium carbonat 

In conclusion we iy mention that Capt. A. C. Ingram, 
M.D., I.M.S., very kindly tried the effect of the extract of the 
bark on two frogs (su cutaneous injection), but was unable to 
detect any physiological action 

. a a IER Se Sa 
Spe Sal Siren Se 


is ROC RE 

Peeae tates 

Be cribs dg 
eo: aes 

13. Notes on a unique History of Herat, discovered in the 
Bahar Collection of MSS. in the Imperial Library, 

By KuAn SAntp Maoctavi ‘Asput Mveranir, Oriental 
Public Library, Bankipur. 

The Bahar collection of MSS., for Orientalists the most 
important section of the Imperial Library, Calcutta, consists 
of more than nine hundred Arabic and Persian MSS. represent- 
ing the various branches of Muhammadan literature. Chance 
directed me to a Persian MS. containing a history of Herat, 
composed in the beginning of the eighth century, between 
A.H. 721 (a4.D. 1321) and 729 (a.p. 1329), by an author who 
himself was an eye-witness of most of the events that he 

I have seen no notice of the existence of this work in any 

more astonishing it seems to have been unknown e cele- 
brated Haji Khalifah as well as to many other bibliographers 

Imperial Library. That it should have remained hidden for 
the last six hundred years is surprising and obviously regret- 

The MS. is of a folio size, measuring 12” x 9", and consists 
of 275 folios with 25 lines to a page. It is written in a beauti- 

fly-leaf in the handwriting of ‘Inayat Khan (d. a.m. 1077=a.0. 
1666), the celebrated historian and Librarian of the — 


and his illustrious father Zafar Khan, Governor of Kabul and 
ashmir (d. a.H. 107 

tion. ‘Ina 

Herat, which belonged to his deceased father, reached Kashmir 

from Lahore at the end of Ramadan, a.H. 1047 (a.p. 1664). The 

note runs thus :-— 

166 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Sloot wren) tee remy wy Jlys! wal Sty wKle rab 
By dyoy6 alsa wayyle JAta 9 dw pred yy 3 bevy dine 
¥ la ek wl walic 

The same fly-leaf bears an illuminated star, now rather 
faded, and several notes, sea s, and signatures of the nobles 
and Amirs of the Timuride sovereigns of India. 

The author does not choose any distinct title for the work 
but calls it in several places simply ab 296 or “ the book of 
history.’’ In ‘Indyat Khan’s note, quoted above, it is called 
¥ty2 YKLo ere ‘the history of the Maliks of Herat ’’; while 
the author of the Raudat-ul-Jannat, who freely borrows his 
account from this work, designates it as 5 SpLo 8 and also 
ys JT & ys. 

The scanty time at my disposal has not permitted me to 
collect materials from external sources for a biographical 
notice of the author, and the following information has been 
gathered exclusively from the work itself. 

In the preface the author designates himself Sayf ibn 
Muhammad bin Ya‘ qiib-ul-Harawi sae Sahay Ey dosLe Gy! re, 
but later on in the course of his narrative, he always calls him- 
self by the simple name of Sayfi Harawi (69,2 (fw, the first 
part of which he adopted as his poetical nom-de-plume. 
recording the events of the year 4.H. 687 (4.D. 1288) he tells 
us that he was then six years old. He must have been born 
then in a.H. 681 (a.p. 1282). He says that before composing 
this work he wrote a treatise on ethics called Majmi‘ah-i- 

(a.p. 1306). This he wrote for the aforesaid Jamil-ud-Din SAm 
after whose name he called it Sam Namah acl pie. Sayfi was 
also a panegyrist of Mailk Fakhr-ud-Din, the third King of the 
Kurt race (4-H. 684-708 = 4.p. 1285-1308) in whose praise he 
composed eighty Qasidahs and one hundred and fifty Qit‘ahs - 
aakhs BEL y de y yor03 sine 4! co" 98 ty Bel ff) cont fous eer 
% want 

- On one occasion, we are told, Sayfi was arrested as 4 
traitor by the order of Bajai and very narrowly escaped death. 

1916. A unique History of Herat, . 167 

This happened in a.H. 706=a.D. 1306, when Bajai, son of 
Danishmand, attacked Herat. a seems that some of his ene- 
mies brought to the ears of Bujai that there lived in Herat a 

poet called Sayfi, who had been a panegyrist of Malik Fakhr- 
ud-Din Kurt and had composed a book called Sim Namah for 
Jamal-ud-Din Muhammad Sam, the murderer of Bijai’s 
father Danishmand. Bahadur. It was full of the praise of the 

and then taken before Bajai. Bajai sent for the Sam Nama 

and examined it. He saw that it consisted of fifty juz and 
dideained beautiful paintings and illustrations. At the place 
too where he opened the book he saw Sayfi had described the 
glory and grandeur of Bajai’s father and his followers. This 
created a favourable impression upon Bijai’s mind and he took 
it for granted that the book was devoted to the praise of his 
father. Nevertheless Bajai ordered the execution of the author 
on the ground that he was a sh thea of his (Bajai’s) enemies. 
Sayfi was then placed in the r of the criminals who were to 
be beheaded for joining the Viet against Bajai’s father, but 
happily he and another man, out of seventy-eight persons, 
were released after they had signed bonds of servitude to 


wha gyre didgito F byic pols Oded ly ls Aaa Fes » ty ¥ou 
aa: ol she Gye amd y sol od aha, alike alee i! oy dt 
JiBs 1, dL obISL plld oils Gy WS, Sou bd Clay OT 51 
* wlyey!t Keon yt paste ddsile, 
He further states that after the arrest of his patron Jamal 
ud-Din Sim by Bajai, he (Sayfi) happened to meet one night 
the unhappy avisatee ‘at Fari riya 
of twelve maunds on his left leg fastened tightly to his right 
We learn further that our author’s teacher was Maulana 
Malik-ul-Hukama Sa‘d-ud-Din Hakim Munajjim Gari Slo LYy0 

* Coysc daw — who was at first a a at 

of the events that had taken place in Herat from the time of 

168 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Chingiz Khan down to his own, he (Sayfi) should write a his- 
tory of that period basing his accounts exclusively on reliable 

and a half vears. In the beginning as well as towards the end 
of the work we find the name of his patron associated with 
such words as * Gels - clsJdt wlble etc., from which it is 
_ reasonable to infer that the author began to write after the 
king’s return from the pilgrimage he had undertaken in A.H. 
721=a.p. 1321, that is, in, or shortly after a.n. 721, and that 
he completed it before the death of his patron Malik Giyds-ud- 
Din in a.H. 729=a.p. 1329. 

We are not in a position to form a definite idea of the real 
extent of Sayfi’s history of Herat. The present volume ending 
with a.H. 721 (a.D. 1321) comprises about 140 chapters, 
while in the preface we are told that the author divided the 
work into 400 chapters. 

the grace of God, and that he hopes to write the second 
volume within a very short time :— 

se) SEI JUSL ahd 5p ons Soto abut wy gt gids 8 pled 
Gt ele osjé rls pile Jole the pase aye canal Sly owl 
b tyes Bou we & Hor JM Goi We ably nod , able old wwat, 
22h GE 59 LoS y) GILG oyto jgbic {ble aula cylie bi 
ape salt allt clS51 psf culls 

iB 5 (9 GNA a Eslede y phe LS aise y 545 itty B17 ye ey 

SE oa 6 wld Ss slesb Mee 5 camel a9? Slo wo pote ww) 
* gil on Gooey Gime anil, gids 4 4 4 4 4 + abe 
I am inclined to hold that when Sayfi commenced the 

work he had planned to divide it into four hundred chapters 

and to bring the history down to a later period than a.x. 721 

(1321) with which the present volume closes. The a cased 

1916. ] A unique History of Herat. 169 

seems to have been intentionally left blank by him. When he 
commenced the history he could not as a matter of fact posi- 
tively say to what date he would be able to reach, and conse- 

narrating the events of the year A.H. 721=a.p. 1321 (with 

Raudat) had not up to that time (a.H. 897=a.p. 1492) suc- 
ceeded in tracing its existence, and that in his opinion Sayfi 
did not live to fulfil his promise. The passage in the Raudat 
runs thus :— 

sy Uso oy! U aie, cso? daw a ub he oy Sebo Sd 

BaF pags zidor allga ygSdo haw ty ey Sole Jat A, cus 

us ee ys ST ee prise 80 5! ell Cyd y StS o81,5 ) be as 
* Sosy) 952 9 Boy 80, BOL, LJle slas wis 

Since the dawn of Islim there has hardly been a great 
civil war, or dynastic revolution, or foreign invasion in Central 

wilderness after levelling all its buildings, palaces, etc., to the 
ground. In a.H. 618=a.D. 1221 Chingiz Khan sent two succes- 

our author names sixteen persons one surviv 
m cre and who were subsequently joined by another party 
of twenty-four survivors. T ity began ly to recover 

under the Ghorid kings (a.H. 634-642=4.D. 1236-1244) and 
rose to distinction duntg the time of the Kurt Maliks until it 

170 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

was once more laid waste by Timitr in a.H. 783=a.p. 1381 and 
A.H. 791=4.D. 1389. It was 

man and Uzbeks, and consequently it never in these days 
attained to any thing like its former importance 

which refer to this city. The history proper begins with the 
third chapter and ends with the one hundred and thirty-eighth, 
covering a period of rather more than a century (4.4. 618-721= 
A-D. 1221-1321). Chapters III and IV give an account of Tali 
Khan’s expedition against Merv led by the order of Chingiz 
Khan in the middle of Rabi ‘I., a.a, 618=a.p. 1221. . 

Chapter V treats of Tili’s expedition against Nishapar 
and the general massacre of its people. 

In Chapters VI and VII we read of the destruction of the 
fortresses called whsy»5 5 55 and assusS 9 Cosi respectively. 

In Chapters VIII and 1X Sayfi gives a detailed account of 
the two most sanguinary expeditions against Herat, the first 
of which was led by Tili, while the second was sent under 
Ilchikdai NG@’in wats (cloSambi who reached Herat in 


The following quotations from Chapter IX will give an 
idea of the author’s narrative style : — 

a'H2 wise 1) 6 gt Sle, 4S slam Col yo 1 aimd (.litio 

phe cheb sya se2 GIS y uel ged 3! tees Ubyd obit 
sie 5 Spt Slo rds pita i! diongt yy (gad) Sai ples 9951 
Ny Coylasee coll pyle ley sboile, id oil af ty ord 5° 
2s ays BaF oes eles ag: san Btye X95 jay? bem 3! 


1916.} A unique History of Herat. 171 

Se Boo yS ploy ole ayo af thee Wear! oe Guollyes aalysy 
a eW cphe Cost) s old ei Jd ere Si Fey oovto S Csphe 
Bd lwy WIE fakio slosh @ems ColiGie y Sy! She yoru Lid pd wee 
cstSeedat S20 yy) oo... (pr) af 8S coi po ty 8, re yo 
O75 HEU Hyay WALde Sieey? Qe 5! Sie oye y)@ olde lb ty Qafyi 
WEY jT ge by paye AF duly Guy) Epo Oi Bas yas; GL aiSS GIA was, 
Blsls WSs CotoSemlst opley Ji U1) S1y® Glitle yogis ton 
OT agy5 Hy® AA gy Alin y phe wled aie Jlyd 0 wld jabie 
ads) E59) (Sic) woe 5 Ny E sleS eyo af Wb ale af op0y5 y 
Saale op she 4 s00 ag) wll pakke Sm yo 8S cgardige jy oias 
we re 9 yboS,3 Jha alr , ylals 5 detoae is )F 39) Sol 
I 9 9 MoWT yas ytymw 9 Solag jh ayo jhe sim OF Uke) U 
ee dake Si 4 wil sho » wit 9 BalyS 5 G0} phe cle 
SU 5ST enh oltat jf te gree aS odie Gline , age pal, ood 
Shinty < odo. Pid 

aslg ertigtielt tpi ss Cage ps yg diylid dla le , gt 5! is cleat 
s&) 50 Js! gS eye 9 MHS Ortd Oo? S555 5 wreile 80; L ots yle & 
colytl yt ty Uajtyd BLS 51 Om eras) cloSrelyt OS al Sin gs 
AF ayes? Sm y slivshs yo y1@ cow a ile 58 54 y <e oe oo 
Ho sF toys clo Ory y 90d g lel, i? Heof , Sin yo af 
esyshe ule 9 OTs pitas yr ot aed wee & pas 
oytsrc Le one Bay iss Uo jis cio esi®® yo 9 dul 
wie Lb stoSemlut S10 59) eee So Syrape csilpdiny wld, 4 29,8 
os Spa mes ona yd Bia p22 Spb lee jt apd ahS slaw 
wilina y etre sig atrlee s lays So et py Sagedy ols 
WoyS alee ale . Sael wy le jy b lBjIy)0 5! ole 5 whbs ym , 
sy 520 Gyb 90 oil's waigt 0 wprhe 95 yt cuoig b sbSe , 
anid Bilin Gale y bse p29 cr? ghd » OF ws #45 0 
Db aidgS ILS i WL 4 a5 oS lebee jt land, eel at, lamnid 

172 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
sph 9 eT citys Lea yo tye 9 AS ayo) Leas adao wyd 3}! ley y 
oy 979 0 I ery lS YE ove nel ayer pa OS 7! OV? po If 
pals jay Boley slo (gid crm Sh aS Gish 1dr Guy 99 9A 
ARS 4 tga? 9 pRbo coyhso 3 SR ges Sox crelio y cuylsve yo 
SIS Aled y phe Ent die ype 59 pide slo ys ose jg) & y 
CE 9! Sane 51 or RLY Gy Bie 2 0 Ble of me cole 
Late ty 8b plaza 9 Sols eet Bed 2 af Gal yaar Gd ody 
0 eS 9 of US ys oly» a lo 53 say lode By 5 soi 0) Wdyy 

cet OSL! logy 9 4 iby Gl 1 JyV Ccolem slo yo abot jy) 
eS er bla (nila as yey SE oy! wile 5 on ott 
ale, retcy) d3* 9 wv) SH hy gla G D7 yR y wah ly stya Po Spee 
oes 9 J or Clee ok SY ow oily CloSelt pis 
gta dele, Si pS 9 hey gy oleae jl ty GE 5 ob,5 oly 
ay? ty rt® Coltty~ g WL: cules, OBIS pL Coorg wh yt by Coy” 
Bl oS yd ly gl y gis bye y wishin 1, Goid , oiheyf 
oye) wlsS fro 1 hry yd 9 WNT Gidgo  WILS Ge iy 
j08 3 cade Same. a (read Xaze ) 
% SOS dapd Hye GIS 51 wor’ 9 BIGD one Umm 9 le 

thus making the number saved forty. He describes how this 
handful of survivors managed to subsist by plundering cara- 

abd cad otis) sliSembl oye of ithe oly 1 pdt ote 

slic , eb} csleyS 5 phn! slele y yas! plaal y ae 3! as ty 31 ye Se 

' I think it isa clerical mistake for le yp 

1916.] A unique History of Herat. 173 
BS 1) elie} 9 SIO! 9) ySe0 bine Sas yey ag) olf sas oye el 
hola I® dia Ged jf S740 glo (A5 Shel st oad pic GI 
ws oils zat utdes raly as 1) galiagi , Satay abisf wus sl 
shy? 9 lio Wye apye diab Ipedd OniS O51) SIS 9 let wyoys 
Baty p> skys wi 9 Uti Glas af 1) GSI to 4 9% wlingl 
# Sle Bly) 9 555 Bila y sly aS ity SF gt wyoley 355 yo 

wii 9 lies Yulia of oy af ile 
wey!) Und 5 oda ob wie 1, ayy GS at 

wt A—theald wh B50 cle » Ub ce » 
we} 9 cmely shh Gi Sie » Sl cle » 

r—tS hep a pe ole ct 
wt gle fae ae Hat 
SBS Be wll pS Sty oy crtplll Grr SO) 5) cde jt ow 
mk ae pide Ble ot iSo 158 ede bgp WIS Ge slash HY as 
Pes BF AKT g dpitoyS 3L slew sI5e 99 tery Sig! Amer Cpe ole shy 
hlgre wT dele, ids duly a5 t) S wlyiake 4 yKiSayS 5! y Oy, 3 2 
JHE: ty shes ook 138 92 sd 9 dhol ple ye* y2 59 99 9 OT Hy, 
sW3y) ty af O48 ctle cos!) apes caste pe jay 9 dloyyT 
Joxe Uwe} y stom yt 9 WU Ars orbs 2 Gy Ye ei y is 
GRisy Sem y gee re » sty os) 9 yy Batys pS oh » 
dgle Aid pol wig Bile seme, tle alee y jlas ome, 
SHS yt Spb yodt pla » ma Mog Cry wll» eiky 
Sp she y sho utils Cae (5S 5 Be 0 Bly copS HF aS yo |) 
ty ig UT yllelic j1 diye yeh yo OF wit Om... diag? shal. 

174 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XII, 

(8 8S ecle hey oie eebd Codi ye 455 als 5) ols ke 
( dem ) # Samy) 1B oli! 
p> ity? pig Lb aye cigs BEL ae 
pe Kaw Lace ame hla Lo 208 
ala y® yo 9 ahES Modus une gros ra Nox0of pe ye 
stay’ 9 ronble oy y “IS 55 whl ty aa - tayo oisl Sivle 
by Eye} 5 tore, Ui: lois 1, SLL, sod vires gly ob) | 
OS E19 Corl 9 aM Gm jy) Sema BREE fae LS mds hal 
Tah # D5 Hye 9 O99 yoo iT Wyle} yy Sage 
nF Gh vr oyna LL: 
wet, A— SI} p> ty—if 
re a I, aay 
slyly 2—~Iy 5 —oll 
ee Le EGS gee ene 
wry aR, 0fly 
Pd p> Nye 20 SFA Sob we 523 wap 2 jy) ees jw 
see Som oS dhe we 9 abe yy USwe ty whos Gyr elem 
aly 72) Ey GR Slee ype Lalo oriS 59 acla ome yy Worf 50 
wr 9 ole hy islas bs » Lee 'g poolead ruc y om oSle  _ keyy 
4 SAtOLY fate 9 the yo dle Gui! gym 35 5% Sh) S> > 9 orl} 2 
Sey 9 dy lia Silee Ghee jt U3 sob SAT yas Ko jy) 2. 
HBS elt Gy > wrpilll Gyby Jone net y 96 Giles Gey 
NaSro Sly |) Leite BS 35) py ad ele @ola ome yo Gh come ¥ 
Bt lls! jt gery CdLve G55 aSve dale ails of jt 2 
9 poy poet a! lero! y cubs walt Gyo Ugh yo a aiughe 
eb Phe idly Slat) pol dald ymye siYye j1y oissKre Sy 
Jay vlaets on 6 ade O90e HF EBT gt aS podrid Cnr ancy allt 

1916.] A unique History of Herat. 175 

oils pm &> 25d) ps0 &3 75 9 KKavy ref tog als Biaw gas 
* Odes BS gue I le, Lit alee 

Sayfi then tells us —— after these expeditions the city 
of Herat remained a mere heap of ruins for sixteen years (A.H 
618-634=a.p. 1221- 1236) aur which no king or governor 
attempted to build it again, till in a.H. 634=a.p. 1236 Sultan 
Uktai of the great Khans directed his paee gy to restoring it. 
So, the author says, he has given but a account of these 
sixteen years and has written a detailed tors: from the 34th 
year (i.e. A.H. 634=4.D. 1236) down to his own time in a regu- 
lar and systematic manner, recording the events of each year 
in chronological order :— 
cuylons csesle 5 pshle 5 Og? yd Bye ye® Sle syle ym y 
# pole mais) She Cell 5 ayl die yee i! ols! 41 eo,lol , 
After the account of the reconstruction of Herat by Uktai 
in A.H. 634=.D. 1236 (Ch. XI) follows the history of its rulers 
and governors before the Kurt Maliks of Ghore from a.H. 63 
to 642=a.p. 1236—1244. The history of these nine years com- 
prises Chapters XII—XX. 
e remaining portion of the work, Chapters XXI- 
CXXXVIII, comprising a period of seventy years, a.H. 642- 
721=a.p. 1241- 1321, treats in detail of the reigns of the first 

chiefs and nobles who governed the city during that period. 

The volume closes with an account of the page ge airy by 

Shams-ud-Din against Furah in Rabi‘ I, a.n. 721=a.p. 1321, 

the year in which his father, the King Giyas-ud-Din, we sat on a 

pilgrimage to Mecca, leaving Shams-ud- Din in charge of the 

government. The history of Malik Giyas-ud-Din, which is the 

main theme of the last ‘portion of the book and which alone 

comprises foll. 187¢-275°, is full and exhaustive. In nar- 

rating the events bsg enters into minute details and shows ex- 

traordinary precisi For instance, in mentioning the time 

when Baktit aatelred against Malik Giyas-ud-Din, he says (fol. 

- 243%) :— 

cc Aha pa Qe pheled daze sySty abet T she b esis y [ble 

i) SAG oil (an. 718). p90 Bie Soil Qty cncld ance 5) 

# 2007 59 Hy® pe Clye 
Again on fol. 247° 

Sle O gy Sie aie Soll ary pyr me Bred jy) Seyi, 

BalpOlss sySd0 dine Jy¥l Ary eDH g Sora dre> Sy 9 sae oy53 ipa 
# oF Jo? wl phere yo yy 

176 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Now it seems to me impossible to overestimate the value of 

this ‘‘ history of Herat’? for two reasons. First] , it supplies 

opportunity for getting the best information at first hand. 

1 the preface as well as several times in the course of his 
narrative, the author draws our attention particularly to the 
aforesaid facts. Thus he observes in one place :-— 

Bygone SES SF oy Slay WL SHI het Wks Vit ow 
oth wheel jt as ail wlaldt we all) kile ite buoy so Sol y 
thigh ae He. csihelwwe sloay gsi Saas SL aed Lael 
Spay alas, gus ha yd rey ajtos Loli es vs 2S> 
mt bait y Solel isp Ble 2h lel dS Last y tol 
wt ybt 5 stly3 yo prt Slane Kine dx Bin y a on tas aso Kewl ys 
stew alle oF giylel 32 9 Bi,fo5 pd satya ye socks coy yo OF Spal 
tteees BONO Fy 9 I) dyd Bye Uy Sieg ble) Lele ule, Gye y 
BH AS pm 5 ralyey tet y syle els pres coelet del) day 
Ot 309) GY yo curen ty SbA 5 jy 0p vid pSa slash oy 
# 997 CHS yy toyey gf wULSe y 
The above statement is confirmed thus in another place :— 
(pilin) Sot ot Ble as 9 Yr) GI oye ous! 0 
oy% hh) x yes at, eer of 
ae ° . 9 . 
pS gles aby ylis D2 hema) yp! 
205 BI) jt came as PE jold ps of 
Jr? y glyd 52 REL y aisle yt ose 

1916.] A unique History of Herat. 177 

S29 519 AS cay® pill lb yo dle syle ya el 
She ... whet she Ile aS ae mtg Sl sod Sola aif Gre 
Cryo AF GABE 9 Head af Comyn SLL ahsdT yy oo. Qualls Gaul 
dy cle! y Chto Gly G aah tye g tyne ost aidyi GAS yale 
SRO aly rol ey Gite oy ble whe ou! Uibs y wailyae 
cay) Bry 9 DHHS Odty Wot Sioa eo’ cyl BIG yo ast far 
8 aheiet lt) oF 5 pli» of Kilby ip yd lorie s uty y 
ley Sree) cso lS y5 Kp} aS ohing SLiL, Sad oy wert oy 
PWS Go sori 545 o9d stort y LI jh y Slat Gale y pil BOz0 Gyte 
Hold OES y ols ail 5! 1) de® gd ald (abl, Pree ay 
# lpyt aelsvel 9 add aT, oemre atyts 36 Las 
His love of truth and his correctness of information are 
apparent on every page, and he is scrupulously honest in quoting 
the sources from which he derives his statements. It is also 
remarkable that the author does not blindly follow his prede- 
cessors, but makes a critical use of them. Indeed he exposes 
and refutes the opinions of some of the best authorities whose 
credit and high reputation remain unquestioned even to the 
present day. For ae in narrating the events of so early 
a ag as ete 618=a.D. 1221 with which he opens the 
history, he more than once contradicts the statements of the 
pee bara Minhaj- i-Siraj, the eae of the well-known histori- 
cal work Tabqat-i-Nasiri (c. a.H. 658=4.D. 1259) whom as an 
almost contemporary chicnidsk ‘of the said events, we might 
have looked upon as an indisputable authority :— 
LS yb 2 92 aS nme rpms y pySd0 aia lero ge~ ron > 
adloo Bre sido ye ovo wy 9 W oilaey Jit ty ot pie wwe 7m 
Botpale GOS jl) ff ow oS (BSS WIS GLO Gy) UT, 5 cael 
5pht Bye GIR yf atilo ds Ui 1 oS ty F yee wles ole GJ, 
Bly pi whys jt SF oni] aa Le} . Hoy yoile Pea be rm igd ary) 
rf rely Gide Quoll yl sels cA¥t ex” peers sUYpe oye 

178 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (N.S , XIT, 
pork bid Sit eater » cole ol) wall p> wrt DS oy spose 
9 IE obo? Bolpalh ody 09 AF Bud yor jf le af oils la! af 
SMfiypt Blo Cnlie 8 WA by5 aabsald af guia plow unio. oi! Bay) flys 
venpty BY om io) oye yh 51 a jy) cen 3! on gy) rod he 
Oye, Gd Gls yo y By ty cmigs gow & gle Sp) sytpale 
Sd Sy fe pio as Owtov why > cs! AS y IS os yas 5! vo) ylang 
tin Sb abe Just gl bays Syed id jake hy pS skye 
Sh yom 5 led colt whe Lyord y aul ole! Wyler asa af dsalyeae yt 
2 31M nl Jie 4 wiyyre hiss abe y appt le GAS Euf wlif 
Ur! yl HT ly dusts 5h culere y omy oile Byamo Jlasint , 
i! Si~ 5% ami) Cindy 0,7 SUB 4 cyto ele Cops Coyy g Onis 
Le alylt oul soilegee yall Jie ylble Jha cut, Gul weg 
cso y? be prlesh axwso , ggtlinrals, Says if ty Le G agile) 
HS oye 955 ob cee claaisgn ait as asf yy oT cla 9590 
ee sly y ile aoe Hogits gly oT ole s)5 Bolpale BO) 5) He ot 
eur Hot ila vible pis as «say poke Gall 50 el gt nds 
soljale (hey Lad ele GB Bye Gh acle ool oy glib ale 
ware! oe® 1 BA hey y whet cals oy f owy 5) old ols) 
oy wilt Jie lbL. wllaic Sty od hye Bojtga BotjalS aids, 
tayo Spt Sle y dst y 85 ple estes ete ty Gla sil s Sle, i 
cB sSie alye 9S Gs lise jy ositaS ual Ha 29 |b 
Crit esis UW yyaiie 4 She 5 ot0 51 any ay0)5 pol (Sint 
# ope arly 
Again, in recounting the events which led to the second 
devastation of Herat, he refutes the same historian and others, 
basing his own account on a more reliable authority :— 
LE (99 gb Bye oe thal, apy aif cube moat ysis 
se oct GUE I, Hye BS gine Gyo vile) ids 1, g) GIy 20095 
BIO! gt Eds 9 ike , 75 1) B® sed aye Gym af oiySee Gihe 
siisie 5 Sap! fle  auidts IG Giod iy G6) Gla ob dela 

1916.] A unique History of Herat. 179 
SF ewe! Bf cleo cy gy yo 9 sole, Lid gola omwe yo 1) 
Het Ste ylble Gye af oy of P92 eh Be eh oily rw 
PoP* AD 9 Week Ge oly o90 2 1) WE JaSie slab Ss) 
SSA Somes 5} AS gh yf 9 dtm) wlolyr 53 Got HIT ye onitayS 
85 dye} wor Dariley UTR: 1) aod oy glele y Sims , dle Wild 
eat lel - oS wig blac wot Ja glble b Gib pSiea slab oo» 
- zit as CABS 9} BS pasdd ERS yS5s1 datgd sf aS Cunif 
He is constantly at pains to show us that his assertions 
are vouched for by the oral evidence of contemporaries 
phe lesdic eul ee es ae Wdrmd Fas duySso ale 
# PO y ghie y Gy re Wd WIA 5! y OLD y9SdO 4 
In another place he observes thus :— 
it ya By pore gym oly jhy wyldo syyh wast) 31 cap Gale 
# Oyeey ylyety Neyer ofS she L GIS glyi aaljale vga af 

And where evidence is conflicting, no matter how insignifi- 
cant the fact, he takes the precaution of enumerating all the 
sources of his ‘informa tion. For instance, in his account of the 
murder of Malik ‘Ali bin Mas‘td of Sijistan in a.n. 656=a.D. 
1258 he writes thus :— 

a9 plo Cdl wad She 5: 9 OF p29 y9 jf syne gle Sle ue 

Pay by byw Sle yo af Ong! Sle wd gS) uw as awl gm 9 
a AS 9) a poy nia A Gy! Gt edtoiy Gog! gow & 
Sod ai 5} 1) ogt—< sl the pw patios Pa SY cnr! pot tle 
BS opin ale dt lt clam or GS ret oy seme ae! y 
Spano cgle the (oy 96 Sil) oome y gle ad 5 syn}: gle Sie as 
95S gf wl oS eno! rag esle af 28 gf Lb, oRBS 1, 

The style is flowing and elegant, graceful but free from super- 
a ornament, and he can narrate facts in a plain, straight- 
forward manner ‘which induces a confidence in the truth of his 

statement and the accuracy of his knowl 
He introduces with extreme felicity quotations from not 

180 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

less than twenty-five poets, some famous, some hardly known. 
Here are some of their names: Firdausi, Anwari, Sa‘di, Rabi‘i 
Fashanji, Khaqani, Sana’i, Zahir, Safir Azhar, Fayyad Harawi, 
Shah Haydari, Qabis, As’ad Kirmani, Sa‘idi, Raihani, Labibi, 
Rdahi, Shihab Bagdadi, etc. 
ayfi himself was a poet of no mean order. We have al- 
ready seen that he wrote a Sim Namah of 20,000 lines and 
composed eighty Qasidahs and one hundred and fifty Qit‘ahs 
in praise of Malik Fakhr-ud-Din Kurt. It will not be out of 
place to quote here as specimens some of his poetical composi- 
tions found in this text. 
In praise of the wine (fol. 166a) :— 

\aSlve mens bon ) Bob My yy 

Lydles cme} lf 5 cybo hy) jypel 

UN io0 oly? ple plow 89 50 

LiSloe amo Jove ale ws, 2} 25 

> Spd yo af by ot sf Cty 

LiSlvo crmolsi glo eed sol 


3 gl (ays odd UY OS £50 of 

Slo cmols > iy ch en 

at gh cleo 5p a5 S poe Wf 

3! Slee jay? Une LBA, F 290 

LSbeo olen, 9 G2 Gly 

at ptm) 9 lad 5 55) 5 pmb at 590 wo! 

Lele camden sty ped  aiile 

tab) 9d, os Bi 1 af £0 wl 

Lusk. wwe wT 3 SgasJ! slo 

ot DM 9 fo 9 ed's Coy af 8 50 wl 

Milas lye a9) 9 (ole rep) 

Sanity, ay beg g af 50! 

LiSLn crmotpm pee JU (fre 
.. The following poem of Sayfi is quoted in connection with 
Fig bn aig brother Malik ‘Al4-ud-Din’s death in a.n. 713= 
A.D. — 

1916.] A unique History of Herat. 181 

stt 5 cbel—s 55 Gotzyy 5 9 (cp 28 5S 
bool 55 (oy p—w 9S egtyS cstldsl__s 5S 
w—Has —S gle F som Scout SF 
lle IS srk Ff WP es cate ys 
Ws F ceo F ces 20S 9 (oy—2 98 
cert oley rts olRe co9® why po Sy 3! 
wlis , el WIS SF na os* wlaSs 8 sla b 
In praise of God, fol. 175b :— 
pied 5 egl 5 yo—He yal—F (oI 
psas Gil lg omer cle oly 
Se 9 hl 9 Gr 9 wl 
pray 9 ela) 9 csr 2 cabin 
Gy 3 alls 4 eet! 2 cg t—-Be 
pi 9 lity a gle y lr 
Blog pilio , (Sl —sulss » ae 
pues elle sr 2 ea—Y 
sh 9 Ge—* 9 eMoy—S 5 2) 
cle ig bl, ould ssh Jas 
ps psig whey cle 153 gre 
plo 93 Jas} 9 stret Pp ely 
pee si ela ¢ Gt > ohn! 
These passages so rich in poetical subtleties and beauties 

are ample testimony ¢o a rare genius. Arabic verses and 
Sayings quoted from the best authors are another proof of his 

Sayfi mentions (fol. 219a) that the only person from whom 

182 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

he received any assistance in writing his history was Khwajah 
Shihab-ud-Din, the great scholar and Munshi of the ‘Ulama of 
Giyas-ud-Din’s court, and that without his ungrudging help 
he could never have completed so lengthy a work, or collected 
so much authentic information within the short space of two 
and a half years :— 

amnd 9 ono af et wl cooe g! Galyie clat aia, yy) 

siine ils w= 9! yds y ey ee 5 istueyay elsul Lables crmat dolf U 
Hoot US aatyr prbac yoo ye godin SL ati le 99 59 
Bou ob yo owt vse , olyl 3 wis crt wdloy wyodo » Wit » 

# oaits,S wuld aa ase 
Besides the help received from Minhaj, Sayfi says that he 
ew i A j A-i 

quoted in the account of the reconstruction of Herat on fol. 
36). Sayfi also refers to two other works, viz. cite 26 and 
whew | de 5, both in connection with the devastation of Merv 
by Tali Khan. 

In the earlier part of the work Sayfi refers to two histories 
of Herat. The first by Siqat-ud-Din ‘Abd-ur-Rahman Fami, a 
panegyrist of ‘Izz-ud-Din ‘Umar, the ancestor of the Kurts, 

Namah about a.H. 700=a.p. 1300, and dedicated his book to 
Malik Fakhr-ud-Din of the Kurt race. it i 
how either can 

A third history of Herat and of later date, entitled Rau- 
dat-ul-Jannat fi Ausaf-i-Harat B® les! (45 wlisd) whey, was 
written by Mu‘in Zamchi F*) wits in an. 897=a.D. 1492. 
Manuscript copies of this work are fairly common in the libra- 

ries of Europe and India. The Asiatic Society of Bengal alone 
possesses two. : 

| Dr. Rieu, in his Catalogue of the Persian MSS. in the Brit. Mus., 
vol. I, p. 74, Haji Khalifah, vol. IT, p. 509, and several others call this 
author Rashid-ud-Din, but here his name is given as Rashid-ud-Daulah 
in conformity with the names of his father and grandfather, who were 
respectively called ‘Im&d-ud-Daulah and Muwaffiq-ud-Daulah. 

1916.| A unique History of Herat. 183 

This Raudat of Mu‘in enjoys a wide popularity as a valu- 
able history of Herat, and Barbier de Meynard has given an 

the history of the years a.H. 618-721 =a.D. 1221- 1321, Mu‘in’s 
work is of no value whatever, for he was obliged to depend 
almost exclusively upon Sayfi. That Sayfi’s work was the 
only available source of Mu‘in’s history for the aforesaid period 
seems Ora iat clear from this fact :— 

s history closes with the year a.4. 721=a.p. 1321, 
in ehiok Malik Giyas-ud-Din went ona naires In Mu‘in’s 
history the next eight years suffer a total ecli 

He does not even tell us when this king fined to Herat, 
although according to the Mujmal-i-Fasihi, he did so in the 
same year, but suddenly jumps to 4.H. 729=4a.D. 1328 and the 
death of the said Giyas-ud- Din and other events connect 
with the king’s successors and descendants. The substance 
of Sayfi’s history for the period a.H. 61 8-721=a. D. 1221-1321 
has simply been bodily transferred to Mu‘in’s Raudat. In bor- 
rowing Mu‘in has abridged some portions and copied others 
verbatim. In bie former case he is apt to be extremely brief, 
thus omittin ood many important facts of which, but for 

tory of the first four kings of the Kurt race, which is the largest 
section of Sayfi’s work, it fills 225 large folios, each containing 
25 lines to the page. In the Asiatic Society’s copy of the Rau- 
dat it fills but 57 folios, each with 17 lines to a page. The 
writing of both is of the same size. Again and again, Mu‘in 
copies passages and even entire pages porns from Sayfi with 
ardly a new word. For instance, the passage relating to the 
murder of Manktai and Aba Bakr, and the destruction of the city 
of Herat for the second time, which I have quoted from Sayfi 
earlier in this report (p. 6.), runs thus in Mu‘in’s Raudat : 

SITES YL less 1) Spt efle, jee pols |) cglisive 

(sliSie y Sgt Sle clait'y im jt oalby eS jt Lege tye > 
cole will le cfley siasitos &yrw BE ot af ty nS 2 
Slee gmat 5 BaF cnad chlo: a9) BOF Sta? B98 jay jem jf a fy 
Bed 9 WSS dy? BOLD IW gy glo 25 Sint coal OS Goll pRE aalyse 
Si Roms Seat crit Cabs ye Lr Sole phys war Ue pe A 
dp? spe olde by Eady) gloSesbt So jy) 9 OF rae po Obey ys 
eriys 05} ABS 40s; ahbS prye HS y oF pol UAH csaly’ jt he 

184 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.] 
Sine Sty yo ColoSamlt 3,186 4055 ty Cos tym wlSlww fh aS ol cry 
Grd 8S auld slo aF og BS yh) S12 Bly HlLio y phe ls 
WIE ROS pSa yo oF crdtgno jy oes Cai) arylere lglg ile slG 
Ey Re 9 JUS 9 WllyS og2> 5! silos Soil onlb Cra wil ove ey 
Ble 38 9 SOT Hg slow 5 sole it oye he shar Kray) Vailas} y 
Hye biel» ISI 5S0 4 wees! ore Qual gad aad y owl phe 
# HG = Bldve af diasst Ules GUise y oe pal ale Gyo stoned 

Till the discovery of this work the Raudat-ul-Jannat of 
Mu ‘in ranked very high both in Europe and Asia, but now— 

1221-1321 is concerned—it must take its place as a me 

I trust I have been able to convey some idea of the 
immense value and deep interest attaching to this rare manu- 
script, which has remained too long forgotten. Its publication 
would, I am sure, be welcomed by every Persian scholar and 
by every student of Asiatic history.! 

‘I am much indebted to Mr. Scholfield who read through this 
paper and offered many helpful suggestions. 

14, Some more Quatrains of Abti Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair, 

Edited with a Translation and Notes by 
H RAVES Law, I.C.S. 

§1. On the Sources of the Text. 

tion of Aba Sa‘id’s Rubd‘iydt is that of Dr. Hermann Ethé, 
who in 1875 and 1878 published in a philological and literary 

i i i ich he had found in various 
anthologies and memoirs, such as the nae Iglim, the Nafa- 

from embarrassing us by their richness, are meagre and scanty. 
ers no easi we have no really 

old and genuine collection of Abi Sa‘id’s writings to rely on, the 

oldest MS. having been written in the XVII century ‘.p., 

greater the suspicion that attaches to it as an authentic collec- 
tion of a poet’s works. Not entirely, I venture to think 
because the bulk of his utterances are forgotten, or their author- 
ship lost sight of in the years that follow. On the contrary, 
when there is no old and authentic Diwdn, the number of verses 
attributed by posterity to a great poet, instead of diminishing, 
seems to grow with the centuries as steadily as his ame. Th 
earliest MS. of ‘Umar Khayyam, for example, dating from the 
end of the XV century 4.D., contains but 158 quatrains; the 
most recent has 801. 

But a large proportion of the verses thus added by later 
ages are, we may be sure, the work of other hands. It is quite 

1 ; No. cember 1909) and Vol. VIII, No. 10 (Nov. 1911 

2 Mania tye . a eae 5: ae had been inadvertently repeated 

5 Of these 92 quatrains, 46 are also in Abd-ul Wali’s collection. 

+ See Introduction to ‘‘ The Quatrains of Omar Khayyam ”’ edited by 
E. H. Whinfield Xiv. 


186 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

possible that ‘Umar Khayy4m or Abt Sa‘id composed a far 
greater number of verses than will ever be known. But it is 
difficult to imagine how their authorship, once it has been for- 
gotten, can be re-discovered with any hope of certainty. We 
cannot say for certain that a really old text of Abi Sa‘id’s would 
give us much fewer than the 400 quatrains we now have. But it 
is at least very probable; and the fact remains that a consider- 


If, then, we must guard ourselves against too readily ac- 
cepting as genuinean authoritative collection like that of ‘Abd-ul 
Wali, what is to be said about the quatrains now published ? 

to proclaim. Indeed, I must confess that it is with considerable 
diffidence that I have thus publicly announced them as the quat- 
rains of Abii Sa‘id. 

Their source is two-fold :-— 

(1) A small volume in the State Library at Hyderabad 

can), which was lithographed at Bombay 80 

recently as 1297 a.u. by Mirzi Muhammad 

Shirézi, and which contains along with some ruba- 

‘lyat of ‘Umar Khayyam, Ansari, and Babé Tahir, 

Khair, which have been proved efficacious for 
certain purposes.’ 

(2) A MS. copy containing 161 quatrains of Aba Sa‘id 

which I found a year or two ago among the débris 

The author of the Ridz-ul- Arifi izé hae 14 ives no 
fewer than thirty. rifin, Riza Quli Khan Hidayat, gives 

1916.} Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 187 

somewhat slovenly manner of transcribing him 
What and where the MS. was from which he copied, 
he does not tell us; and we shall never know 
ese two texts then, between them, give us as many as 
183 quatrains of Abia Sa‘id (for two are common to both); and 
as the lithographed volume is probably int econ rare, and the 
MS. unique; and as they are both, practically speaking, i inacces- 
sible to orientalists, I think that the publication in the J.A.S.B. 
of such of them as have not already appeared in ‘Abd-ul 
Wali’s collection, may be not without inter 
I have omitted therefore 83 quatrains ! which are among the 
400 ruba‘iyaét previously printed in this journal; as well as two 
which are foreign to all that we know of Abt Sa‘ id and his work, 
and which have no literary value. Of the 98* quatrains which 
are now printed not all are ‘‘new’’ by any means. As ma 
as 44 I have found rape he either to Abu Sa‘id or to pred 
writers in various memoirs, and elsewhere. But the remaining 
54 I have not been able tis Aneet to their source.* It is certain 

tadhkiras, or in Diwa f quatrain writers, such a- 
qani, Sarmad, or Farid-ud-Din ‘Attar with his reputed 10,000 
ruba‘iyat ; a: d e an indefatigable and systematic search to 

‘Whe ther we should be much wiser or happier for the labour, 
I am doubtful. It is not at all likely that we should be an 
more certain than we are now of the authorship of — quat- 
rains. But after all does that matter very much ? 
has said, if the words are worthy why should we ask a author's 
name? We do not know so much of Abi Sa‘id’s life, that we 
could feel great regret at learning that some quatrains we had 
imagined to be his are the work of another poet. Nor would the 
quatrains themselves lose interest or value thereby. I think it 

they might have been. 

The truth is that at this distant date, the name of Abia 
Sa‘id belongs not only to the individual but to a = of 
thought and experience, sombre, austere, and devout, which 
oe? its character to a certain "period of Persian Eleatiee: 

1g Ges the smaller collection aig hs from the MS. 
2 These 98 are made up as follow 

84 from the Hyderabad MS. 

12 from the lithographed volume. 

w. — 
the 44 are attributed to Aba Sa‘id; and 7 to other oe 
The commas for each quatrain is indicated in the notes to the 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

I am fully conscious that the two collections which we 
owe to their efforts, are of doubtful value!; that in parti- 
cular the MS. copy of Qédiri, from which the bulk of the 

texts are supported by the authority of the only two MSS. 
i ell 

It will be allowed, I think, that they are not unworthy of the 
honour of being numbered among the works of the Shaikh, 

pain and evil, the nature of the soul, and the much-disputed 
question of free will and determinism. Nevertheless in some of 
the essentials of the classic Siafiism of Jaldl-ud-din Rumi or 

and of the Sufi’s path to « Union,’’ he anticipates to a remark- 
able extent the language and ideas of those masters.” : 
e facts of his life may be briefly told. He was born in 

1 A large number of the quatrains collected and published by Dr. 
Ethé have as a matter of fact no better credentials ; as many as 65 out of 
the 92 being extracted from an y aniholas: ge : 

An attempt has been made in the notes to illustrate, however 

uately, some of these parallels. But it must be added that the 
q a ains In this collection do not by any contain the best of Abi 
Sa‘id either as poet or philosopher; of his philosophy, indeed, it gives 
but a small part. 


1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 189 

A.D. 967 in Maihana, a little village of Khorasan in the north- 

east corner of Persia; and he died there in 1049. Practically 

acquire in his own land. 

This is a bald enough picture; but if we seek to fill in the 
details, we must do so with a certain amount of caution. 
Abi Sa‘id has his biographers in plenty? But the records of 

moreover leave a great deal to the imagination, A picture 
made up of these fragments would be something very like the 
patched garment the Shaikh himself must have worn, a thing 
of strange colours, with many gaps. ; 

But authentic or not, these stories give us a clear enough 
picture of the man. Leaving aside the prodigies of his infancy 
—those early signs of greatness which are the usual tribute of 

1 The home of Avicenna the great philosopher who was born there in 
987 A.D. (when Abt Sa‘id was 20 years old), and lived there at any rate for 
the first part of his life. But he and Abd Sa‘id first met in Nishdpar, not 
in Bokhara. : ahig 

2 A somewhat unconvincing story is related by one of his biographers 
of how Abdu Sa‘id once came across a party of Turkoman robbers in the 
desert, fresh from a successful raid; and of how, having converted them 
by a little opportune clairvoyance, Spats them with him to sit at his 
feet i Afi at Nishépur ! ; 

"3 aca ‘Culenite and the oldest of the biographies of the poet are 
the Asrér ut Tauhid fi Maqémat-i-Shaikh Abi Sa‘id written by a descen- 
dant in the second half of the 12th yagi goto and the Hdldt % Sukhu 
, b Ne 


he latter is ve uch shorter. They : 
edited by Professor Valentine Zhukovski. For the rest there en motiges 
of him in Many memoirs and anthologies, such as the Safinat-u wliyd. 
the Tadhkirat-ul-Auliyd, and others. 7 

190 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [{N.S., XIL 

posterity—we know that from an early age he enjoyed a wide 
reputation for learning and piety. It is beyond doubt that he 

between man and his Creator. « Revelation ’’ he said ‘‘is the 
handmaid of Austerity.’’ 

By virtue of this self-imposed discipline he gained, it is said, 
an unusual power of working miracles, as the following story 
will testify. A merchant was once travelling from Nishapur 
with a caravan bound for Bokharé. On the way, between 

a a i BS a 8 ype eo 

' But in one of the quatrains which follow (22) he distinctly depre- 
cates such spiritual “ intoxication.” He would at an Es 
with horror the excesses to which the state of ‘‘ ecstasy’ sometimes leads : 
and on the whole it seems certain that he strongly favoured ‘‘ sobriety 
as @ line of conduct for the dervish. 


1916.} Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 191 

Bokhara all the time! The result, of course, is another convert 
to Sifiism.! 

The story of this adventure was, by the express wish of 
Abi Sa‘id, not given to the world until after his death. 
Though the sceptic sees in this fact a convenient method of 
accounting for the posthumous origin of such tales, the believer 
may infer therefrom that- Abi Sa‘id was anxious not to adver- 
tise such powers as he possessed. We certainly have authority 
for saying that he had no inclination to practise them idly. 

one who asked him for a miracle, by way of proof, he 

questioner that there were miracles everywhere around him, if 
he only chose to look; and that perhaps the greatest miracle of 
all was that he was allowed to be alive! 

t may be questioned whether it is at all possible that a 
life lived on the lofty plane of thought of the average Persian 
mystic can escape violent inconsistencies ; whether the end is 
not inevitably ‘self-delusion and imposture.’’®? It must be 
admitted at once that Aba Sa‘id was by no means always the 

whose criticism, however, Abi Sa‘id sharply rebuked. 
Pleasant food and convivial dinners he was no stranger. Nor 
did he scorn human love; though he had qualms of conscience 

when he saw his family grow up round him; and, we are told, 

' 1 This version of the ‘‘ miracle”’ is taken from the Hdldt-i-Sukhundn. 
A fuller, and more sober account, is given in the Asrdr ut tauhid accord- 
ing to which Aba Sa‘id was not in Bokharé when the merchant arri at 
that city. The latter did not in fact d r wh nefactor was until 
three y rage hi hing in the Safi monastery at Nish4- 

1 1 
SQUCL WO 110 Saw RP 


character on the quatrains which appear solely in the Hyderaba on. 
3 See Whinficid’s introduction the Masnavi of Jalal-ud-din Rami. 


192 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XI, 

felt he had to satisfy his scruples on that score by the grotesque 
feat of reading the Quran head-downwards, suspended from a 
beam in the roof: a penance which, we are not surprised to 
learn, nearly caused his death -by apoplexy. 

On the other hand he had a very healthy view of man’s 
duties and obligations in this world.’ ‘* No man is perfect,’’ he 
said, ‘‘ does not mix with other men.’’ He was not above 
helping the temple servants in their menial work, and did not 


e€ was genuinely in search of 
knowledge of the Truth, and of spiritual perfection. Whether 
in the market-place or in the pulpit, whether in the monastery 

or in the desert, he was seeking that union with God which 

verses are purely ‘‘ occasional,’’ composed in response to a pass- 
ing mood, or the need of a fugitive moment, it is remarkable 

should reach, on the whole, such a high degree of literary 

the variety of characters in which it reveals our Saint. He 18 
victi a sympathetic 
friend; a contrite sinner, a moraliser on life an age. But 
above all he is the mystic, eloquent of his devotion to the divine 
Friend. As we read him we forget that he lived 900 years ago, 
and that he is of alien race. Rather we realize that, like every 
true mystic, he belongs to no time and no place. As Baha-’ud- 
Din-i-Amili says :— 
This land is not Egypt, nor ‘Ird , nor Syria; 
_ It is a City that iu no name. : ‘ 
It is a curious irony that the name of Abi Sa‘id should 
have come to be associa’ 
whole spirit of his beliefs and teaching. Magic had no place in 
the creed of the Sifi—teast of all in the Safiism of Aba Sa‘id, 


1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa'id bin Abi?l Khair. 193 

whose prayers are imbued with religious fervour and sincerity. 
It is impossible to believe that a poet whose whole doctrine 
of faith rested on the desire to achieve union with the 


e introduction to the Hyderabad MS. describes the 

verses as a ‘‘ Philosopher’s stone (gugird-i-ahmar) for the attain- 
ment of desires, for procuring daily bread, for vanquishing hearts, 

for driving away murrain, and for other purposes’’: and it goes 

ing in detail its object, and the particular method by which 
that object can be attained. To quote these instructions at 
any length would be tedious, and is foreign to my present pur- 
pose. One, however, is so curious that it may be given in full. 

(No. 17 in ‘Abd-ul Wali’s collection). It runs as follows :— 

** For the use of one whose sweetheart is refractory or who 
is suffering from love, and burning in the fires of separation. 
He should have recourse to this quatrain for two days, reciting 
it seven times in one breath. He will attain his object in the 

If she still persists in her coldness, he must repeat 
dure with extreme care, when he will gain his desire. 
It is hardly necessary to say that such senseless rigmarole 

as this could not have been written by Aba Sa‘id. There can 

the proce- 

represent the cloud of myth and romance that so often in the 
East trails after the name of any man distinguished in his life 
for great piety and austerity. : 

I feel I owe a word of explanation for the notes to the 
Translation. They are the very of Sifiism, and will be 
perfectly familiar to every student of that phase of Islamic 
thought. But there may be some who will chance to read these 
pages to whom the terminology may be strange, and the mean- 


194 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XII, 

ing dark. Por Pst that the notes will throw a little light on 
these thin 

n conclusion as to the text. The MS. of Qaédiri 
presented some difficu pid It has been so carelessly copied 
and contains so many obvious mistakes that I have had to 
take the liberty of emending it wherever that was necessary. 
Variations in the readings, where I have considered them 
worthy of record, and a few of the emendations in the text of 
the Hyderabad MS. and the source of each quatrain, are given 
in the Notes to Text 

1 To those who are curious to learn some Ais about Siafiism, and its 
ester in the history of the world’s thought, there are ample opportunities. 
Dr. E. H. Whi Quatra r Kha: 

: Rioleok* 8 translation of the Paes 
Sh s-i-Tabriz om his re Satin of Islam,” in the Quest Series,—form 

o these oe Shaikhs of our own day every hela in the path of 
Sifiism owes—it goes without saying ~-profound obligation: 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi. Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 195 


Come back to Me; come back to Me, whoever thou art, come 

back to Me ; 
Unbeliever, or magian or worshipper of idols; come back 

This Court of Mine is not the Court of Despair ; 
Though hgids hast broken thy vows a hundred times, come 
back t 
me all religious forms the Sdfi, like every mys- 
tic, was indifferent. Sincerity of worship Abi 
S4‘id held to be of more value than adherence to 
d,’’ he 

of eee orthodoxy were indeed regarded as a posi- 
tive snare. The author of the Majdlis-ul-Ushshdq 
(The Asabies of Lovers) a book of memoirs of 
famous ‘‘lovers’’ written in a.D. 1502 quotes ss 
‘Ain-ul-Qaz& of Hamadan as declaring that 
will gud his religion, and take love in ite 

ure 9 wrive wil rie 9 3 pt 
Lm yo wado woh pen wins ; 

I’ll set my creed afire, my faith Ill burn 
And, quit of them, to love for Thee will turn. 


Pass, O morning breeze, becceta Her garden, 
And tell that cones Marjor. 

To guide Her steps towards ri i a space, 
And honour this desolate abode of my heart. 


Said I: ‘ O Beloved, tulip-faced One, eageaceng of my heart, 

Show Thy face to me in my dreams, but on 
Said He: ‘ Thou goest to sleep without and then 

Thinkest thou mayest see Me in thy dream 

pare the a. Tabriz xxvi. 5, where the Beloved is 
iene to as a ‘ cyprus 

196 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XU, 


O God, turn aside this calamity 
Preserve us from this disaster. 
By the locks of Muhammad 
Confound thou our oppressors. 

I cry dius for help from this lov 
I have dealings with a strange sisothik rt. 
lf He hath done justice to my broken heart, I am content ; 
And if not, I will follow Love’s course whatever the price. 
‘**Love,’’ says Dr. R. A. Nicholson, ‘‘ implying 
loss of self-hood and by that means perfect union 
+t Di ‘ 3 

If Sifiism can be 
said to have a definite creed, that creed is love. 

‘* Love is all that exists, 

Without the dealing of love there is no En- 

trance to the Beloved.’ 

Divén-i-Shams-i-Tabriz, xxiii, 2.) 

There is much pain, and little bliss in this love. 
ti h 

pois caper it is his daily life : ‘* My bed is 

my pillow love’’ says Abi Sa‘id ; and 

Meachri ot Hallaj tells how this martyrdom i is not 

oe with patience, but eagerly wel- 
omed : 

C8 pe pds pile dye | 
2% 9 581 HEE a9 5! p5yh 
My soul is cauterized by fierce desire, 
Yet still I long for love’s relentless fire. 
i — Thee, O Lord, by Muhammad, by ‘Ali, and by 
ra ; 
By Hasan and Husain, by the family of the Mantle 
0: thy, bounty fulfil my desires in this peed. and the 

But Pa me not beholden to other men, O Highest of the high. 

Fatima, the daughter of Muhammed, was called 
Patimat-uzZahré, Fatima the shin ning. The 

‘family of the mantle’? are Fatima herself, ‘Ali 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 197 

her husband, and their two sons Hasan and 
Husein, who on one occasion were E oorered aby the 
Prophet? s mantle in obedience to a Div om- 

mand which signified that they were specialty aeke 
to God, and that whosoever invoked their names 
in prayer should obtain his wish. 

Live not O heart without that Beloved of ours 
He is better; I ween, than a hundred sweethearts 
The Beloved is not with me, and no sweetheart is in my 

arms ; 
O send me the Beloved, or take away my heart.! 

Thanks ied a God that thy body hath become a garden of 

That 1 Health h bath poured flowers of delight into thy lap. 
It was an ill-chance that led the fever to thee: 
God be thanked that it turned to sweat, and came dripping 
from thy limbs. 

There is fat on the cow—but the cow is in os highlands. 
Isinglass in the fish—but the fish is in the ocean. 
The goat is on the hill, the sesavele in Bulvhar, 
Hard, hard it is to draw this 
The ‘meaning of this ieee seems to be that 
union is very hard to attain; and the poet com- 
pares the difficulty with which the ‘‘ traveller ’’ 
reaches his goal to that experienced in worldly 
matters. Compare the coupleé 
lacy Layo Sal plo Sarge sat 
et SES g Sl EAS yo cM Sls 

which might be a thus: 
‘**T am longing oe te sweetheart, but bet ween 
us rolls the m 
And the boatman is in China, and his boat’s 
rien in Spain 
ar’’ in the third line is probably the 
suatent country of that name situated on the 

i The 
There are several possible ways of reading this quatrain. 
seas of the original roe on a play of words which I have not even 
attempted to reproduce 

198 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

eastern banks of the river Volga. The city of 
Bulghar is said to have perished in the 15th cen- 
tury 4.D. when the modern Kazan took its place.! 


My love who broke her vows of friendship to me 

Went ; and as she passed I caught her skirt in my hands. 

Said she: “ After this thou wilt see me in thy dreams.”’ 

Did she think, forsooth, that after that I could sleep ! 

The subject, of this verse may be the Divine 

Friend; but it is difficult to read such a refer- 
ence into every one of Abii Sé‘id’s quatrains. Nor 
is it necessary. uman, or ‘‘ profane’’ love 
( coils (te ) had a place even in the Sufi’s 

cy wi 

austere faith. It could not very well be ignored ; 
so it was justified, on logical grounds, by the 
argument that poor though it was it might kindle 
the true flame. ‘‘The false,’’ says a hadith, ‘is 
the bridge which leads to the true.’? One of the 
lessons of Jémi’s poem Yusuf and Zuleikhd is 
that just as Zuleikha’s beauty was ‘‘a single bud 
from the garden of His beauty,’’ so her love for 

An arrow sped from the curved bow of Thy eyebrow 
My heart fancied it saw a ray of union; 
Gladly, cape A through my heart it passed, that arrow, 

coyly sai 
1 cannot stay with one as unworthy as thee. 


He whom destiny hath numbered among the lovers 
Is free of mosque and house of worship. 

To him who is mad with love what is union or separation ? 
To him who hath left Self, what is Heaven—what is Hell ? 

1 See Bretschneider’s ‘‘ Medieval Researches” (‘Treubner’s Oriental 

Series), pages 81 to 99, 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’?l Khair. 199 

In the creed of the Sufi there wasno place for 
either Heaven or Hell. Thoughts of the other 
world must be abjured as eiailyoan the distrac- 
tions of this, by the truly disinterested ‘‘ lover.’’ 
To the gee Smienig aradise may have been 
held out by Muhammed—on the authority of 
Allah—as an aad = in itself. To the Safi 
it was ‘‘ not worth a stra 


O heart, turn wholly to blood; why hast thou sion 2 
Away with thee, O life; what profits all ess 
O eye, what is that pupil 'of thine? Sham Soak 
Thou that cans’t not see the State of the aval, ve what 
avail is thy sig 

My heart acquired thy habit of fighting and striving; 
My soul found the jewel of eager desire for So street. 
I said to the down on thy chee ‘ 
But it too fighteth on the side of thy sal face. 
The meaning of lines 1 and 2 is that his heart 
and soul have rebelled against him, and deserted 


At the hour of Union from the fear of banishment deliver us; 
In the time of Separation, from its intolerable pain deliver us. 
Alas, for this severance from my Beloved, alas! 
From this unendurable pain deliver us. 
The ultimate goal of the Safi’s journey was 
‘*Union,’’ absorption into the world-soul of 
which his own soul was a part, or (to use a 
favourite metaphor) immersion in the Absolute, 
a drop of water in the ocean. 
This is simply another way of expressing their 
pantheism. For ‘‘in the world of ete poe *? as 

all one. 
was when they felt they had reached this 
sented’: state of ‘‘union’’ that Bayazid and 
Mansur uttered their splendid blasphemies. ‘‘ As 
a snake from its skin I came forth from Bayazid- 

ness I am no more, for He owes with my 

* sore in the = misra means ‘‘ manhood,” ‘‘ courage” as well 
as « pupil of the eye.” 

200 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. .[N.S., XII, 

tongue, and - ee: vanished. ... verily, I am 
God: There o God except 1 me, so worshi 
me! Glory bo How great is my Majesty.’’ ! 

Regarded more re soberly, it demanded freedom 
from all ‘‘ taint of self 

il wlio ustly Bl xdab os 5! G 

** Till you die to self, you will not live in Union.’’ 


Thy glance doth immortalize the heart 

The pain of thy love turneth sorrow into gladne 

Were the wind to carry the dust of thy street is: Hell, 
Its fires would become the water of life. 

Compare HA4fidh :— 
Gee oF 4, Sly asif Spo 35,0 

‘‘ He will never die whose heart is quickened by 


To sell happiness is the desire of my destiny ; : 
To wear coarse wool is my ambition’s aim 
Here one request will give you the two worlds; 
But my proud spirit bids me keep silence. 


Whence hath he come this mischievous Gabr 2 
Whence hath this image of the grave appeared ? 
He has hidden my Sun from mine eyes. 

Whence has stperst this patch of cloud ? 

a Sa‘id seems here to be abusing his lower 
and sinful seli. Like a cloud his passions ob- 
scure the ‘‘sun of trut 5 and hide it from his eye. 
The earthly part of man’s nature must, of course, 
be sternly suppressed. ‘Ain-ul-Qaza puts the posi- 
tion vigorously enough :—*< Uproot the founda 
tions of your earthly life, even as a courtezan who 
fleeth from her city.”’ 

. = Rh go by De R. A. Nicholson in an article on Safiism in the 

1916.) Quatrains of Abi: Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 201 


He Whom thou fanciest to be thy enemy is thy friend, sawest 
thou what He did ? 

Dids’t thou plumb His depths and see that which He did ? 
aid He: ‘‘ All that thy heart desires will I do. 

Bawess thou what He did? Didst thou hear what He said ? 


Thou art too good for any man to ame of Thee, 

Or for such as I to ponder on thy st 

But God, thy Creator, glories in His ps perchance, 
And delights i in gazing upon thy beauty. 

What can the lover do who humbleth not himself ? 
How shall he spend the nights, when he goes not to thy street ? 
If he kiss thy locks, be not angry ; 
What can the madman do but search for a chain ? 
compare curled locks to a chain which 
binds the lover to his beloved is a common simile 
in Oriental poetry. Compare ‘Iraq 

dnF270 tp 8), py o 
abs ise les a2 G pry o* 9! Es219 
The Friend is drawing me by the chain of His 

And I follow Him whithersoever He draws me. 

The men of His path have no i pees of existence. 
Self- d they practise not, nor self-worshi 
Lu ok a r f God drink the Wine af Detachment, 
They drain the tavern ; yot fall not aor excess 

aks of ‘‘ 
sins mea with the wine of illumination from self.” 
the words ‘‘ commit no drunken excess’”’ 
(in line 4) he means that ay are not blinded to: 
the Truth by loss of self-control. The composure 
of ‘“‘sobriety’’ is, as a mental state, contrasted 
by the Safis with the rapture of ‘‘ intoxication.’ 

202 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

This life of ours passes like an April cloud; 
The tears of these eyes are like unto a mountain-torrent. 
Live in such wise, good Sir, that after thy death 
Thy friends may bitterly regret thy loss. 
Compare the lines quoted by Elizabeth Barrett 
in a letter to Robert Browning (Browning’s Let- 
ters, Vol. I, page 372). 
Like to the cloud upon the hill 
€ are &@ moment seen. 
As Thomas & Kempis says: ‘‘'The end of all is 

death, and man’s life passes away suddenly like a 

Line 4.—Abi Sa‘id once said: ‘Thou camest 
into the world weeping, and men laughed at 

thee. Strive to die laughing, that men may 
ever weep for thee.’’! 


The men of God belong to a different world from ours, 
Those birds of the air come from a different nest 

than ours. 

These men of God are the dervishes, the ‘‘ men 
of alchemy ”’ as he calls them in another quatrain, 
who ‘‘turn the copper of existence into es 

(line 842). 

O wind, I adjure thee by the sacred earth of the Prophet ; 
And thee, O rain, by ‘Ali the chosen. 

The people are fallen to weeping—Stay, stay, 

O sea, I conjure thee by the martyr of Kerbela. 


When the love of my Idol first stole my heart, 
My neighbours could not sleep because of my cries. 
Now when I lament less, m in has increased; 
en a thing is wholly on fire, the smoke diminishes. 
1 Asrdr-ut-tauhid, page 317. 

1916. } Quatrains of Abit Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 203 


They say there will be much debate on Resurrection day, 
And stern will that dear Friend be. 
From The Worker of good, naught but good can come. 

e glad: for in the end it will be well. 

Thou should’st not have shown thy face to me first. 
So the fires of my grief might have smouldered elsewhere. 
Now that thou hast appeared and snatched my heart from me, 
Thou art compelled to become the thief of my heart. 


My heart can never cease to remember thee 

Though my life pass—yet will the memory of thee remain. 
The image of thy face has fallen on the mirror of my heart: 
An image that can never be erased. 

Old am I; but when Love comes as a friend, 
The time of revelry and joy and blandishment returns. 

I shall throw a noose made of her long tresses 
Over the neck of my departed years, that I may bring them 


Vedantist, as to the Sdfi, all nature is God; the 
world is simply a mirror in which God is reflected. 

204 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII 


If mine enemies array themselves against me, I will prevail; 
’Tis as if a handful of straw had slapped the sea 

I am like to a naked sword in Destiny’s hand; 

He is killed who dashes himself against me. 


The Beloved wants the gift of my weary heart ; 
Let me send it to Him—if so He will. 

Then shall my eyes be fixed upon the road, 

Waiting for the glad news that my life, too, is wanted. 

Junayd, the great mystic of Baghdad, who lived 
in the second half of the 9th century a.D., discovered 
one day that he had lost his heart. He asked God 
to give it back to him. But an unseen voice 
answered: ‘‘ Q Junayd, I stole from thee thy heart 
that thou mightest stay with Me. Dost thou wish 
it back so that thou mayest remain with other 
than Me?’ 

The ‘‘ Law of Sacrifice,’’ one of the great rules 
of the mystic path, demands not only abstinence 
and willing service but, in its esoteric sense, the 

*“ passing away ’’ (lis) of self; death that life may 

Dy 2 pe Ed ir x Ge 
dye wh SA sem ow) af oy} 
When you are a lover you must bow your head 
to the swor 

You must drink the poison Shak is offered you 
as though it were sherbet. 

Thou should’st sorrow, my sponte _ the thought of the grave, 
Thy heart should burn, thy eyes acl aia 
Thou hast a hundred soiltirweri tien pon worldly affairs 
Once, at least, thou should’st take thought of the grave. 

Compare the Qur‘dn Sura 102 :—‘ The emulous 
Sean se! ee apiying riches employeth you until ye 
€ grav 

means should ye thus 
senses your time.”’ 

aaa Been eon a 
! Aba Sa‘id, quatrain 278 in ‘Abd-ul-Wali’s Collection. 

1916,] Quatrains of Abii Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 



When the Huris were drawn up in their ranks to see the 

Rizvan clapped his hands in amazement. 
But when that Dark Mole veiled their faces, 
The Abdal clutched the Book in terror. 

dise—clapped his hands in joy and amazement at 
the marvel of creation. But on the last day 
when the world is blotted out by the ‘‘ mole,” 
which is the ‘‘ point of unity’? on the face of 
God’s majesty, the men of God (AbdAl) will clasp 
in terror the Book of the Prophet’s existence for 

whose sake God created the world. 


On the day when I shall behold my Beloved’s beauty , 

I shall be all eyes—from head to foot, 
So that I may gaze on Him with a thousand eyes: 

For how can the Friend be seen with but two eyes? 


Where Thou art, there can be no trace of grief. 
Where Thou art not, no heart can be glad 

He who knows not a moment’s separation from Thee,— 

His joy is greater than Heaven and Earth 


Said I ‘Here are my eyes.’ Said He ‘Fix their gaze on the 

Said I c Here is my heart.’ Said He ‘ Let it burn with thy 
si ‘ 

8. 2 
Said I ‘Here is my soul.’ Said He ‘ What hast thou in thy 
soul ? ” 

‘My passion, for thee’ said I. ‘ Hold fast to that ’ He said. 

206 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

‘*The beginning of the Path is the journey to 

first attempt of the Sufis to reduce their vague 
beliefs to a definite shape. 

Of its philosophical side something has alread 
been said. On its ethical, it meant asceticism, 
scorn of wealth, charity and similar virtues. To 
one who asked him what the path was, Abt Sa‘id 
answered: ‘‘Sincerity and friendship; sincerity 
towards God, and friendship towards man.’’ 



By the two lights of the Prophet’s eyes, O Lord, 
By the two lamps of Haidar’s house, 

Look on me with the eye of favour, O Lord. 

Let me not fall away from Thy sight. 

At thy feast, O my delight, I am wretched and a prisoner. 
In slaying me thou dost no crime. 
Speak with my rivals and bid me burn with envy ; 
Look not towards me, and bid me die of rage. 


the desert places of my heart a salt-marsh 
ve but Thine may grow. 

Wherein no other lo 

The heart of every Mystic hides Thy secret. 
The door of Thy : i npn eal 

Whosoever cometh to Thy Court, a suppliant, 
Shall he ever return disappointed therefrom ? 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 207 


My poor heart is’ full of sorrow ; forgive it and ask n 
A hundred disasters wait in ambush for me ; forgive me and 

Were Thou to ask me what I have done, I were ashamed. 
O Thou most merciful of the merciful, forgive me and ask not: 


O Thou who art a Friend to the friendless of the world, 

Whose bounty, though it be a grain’s weight, sufficeth the 
whole wor 

I am friendless ; and Thou art the helper of the friondless: 

Hearken, O Lord, to my lonely cry. 


O Thou who knowest the secrets of all men’s 3 hearts, 
Who art the help of all men in their distress 

O Lord, grant me repentance and accept my excuses, 
Thou who dost grant repentance and forgiveness to all. 


Join thou the ranks of My friends, and fear not 

Be thou dust at the door of My threshold, and ae not. 
If all the world seek thy life, 

Be not anxious ; come unto Me, and fear not. 


Thou art in my eyes: else would I flood them with tears ; 
Thou art in my heart, else would I drown it in blood. 
My soul hath only the hope of Union with — were it not so, 
By a thousand devices I should drive it o 
Line 1: literally, ‘I would dane an Oxus of 
e The “ occasion’ of this quatrain is stated 
by the author of the Majdlis-ul-ushshég—pro- 
bably without the least foundation—to be as 
follows :—‘“There was once an elegant youth waa: 

208 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

1030, it is obvious either that the story is non- 
sense, or the hero of it is some other Saint—it ma 
have been Abii Satid who lived during the reign 
of Mahmid of Ghazni. 


My heart looked long in the volume of love, 

And saw nothing worthy of love save thy comely face ; 
Even as thy face is a mole that adorns Beaut ; 

So the love of my tortured heart enriches Love itself. 


All Thy creatures are suppliant at Thy Court, O pure Creator, 
Waiting in anxious grief for one drop of water. 

Send down, of Thy clemency, the Water-carrier of the clouds 
That he may pour rain over this patch of earth. 


Almighty God, who is the Lord of the world, 
n the whole world there is none beside Him. 

He uniteth us one to the other, 

For He hath power to do that. 


O Thou of whom my need is, in whose hands is my Soul ; 
I have left all alien thoughts, and turn me toward Thee. 
y works are all evil, and shall nowise profit me, 
So I come to Thee with my hope, and place my trust in Thee. 


The hand which amorously grasped thy locks, 

In thy absence, beat stones against my breast 

The eye that saw thee and drave sorrow 

from ; heart, 
Without thee, bathed my face in bl ig 


No trace of the Musulman bear I on my face, 
Feringhi’s dog has more honour than AB 

So black am I with sin that my presence there 

Would bring disgrace on Hell and on Hell’s denizens. 


Though I injure others less, the more afflicted am I. 
The greater is my loyalty, the fewer are my friends. 

1946.) Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 209 

he more I keep faith with men, and suffer them, 
Praise be to God, the more despicable am I in their sight. 
The true test of a man’s worth is the world’s 
abuse. There is a ‘‘ tradition ’’ which says that ‘“‘a 
man’s faith is te foun till 40 men have milled 
him an unbelieve 

Look Thou upon me for I am in sore plight. 

Entrust me not to any man, for I have none save Thee. 
Since Thou art the Lord of Bounty, my need is of Thee. 
Since Thou overcomest all, I yield myself to Thee. 


If I raise my hands aloft in prayer, 
can move mountains from their very roots. 
Yet because of the favours of the one 
I bear in mind the words—‘‘ Endure with a ‘ beautiful patience.’’ 

I am like an anpienk treasure, the world knows of me, but 
knows me no 
My light shines, yet is veiled ; as a candle within its shade. 
Yea, [ am like the weoping-willow erwin’ in the garden ; 
As I grow I Leics low to the gro 
Daqidnis was an ancient cakieat king of Persia. 

The adjective ‘belonging to the days of Dagiants ” 

is commonly used in the sense of ‘* sauerctinpaat ‘ 

‘‘antiquated.’’ Line 4: that is, in humility 


Think not that I am afraid of the world that is to come, 
That I fear death, or the uprooting - = ife. 
Since death is sure, why should I fea 
I worship mys self—and it is that which 1 ecu, 
This quatrain may have been uttered by the 
Shaikh on his death-bed. The sentiments are ex- 
actly paralleled by several of the reported sayings 
of his last days. While he felt a passing regret at 
having to ‘‘ set his face to the journey, and fold up 
the carpet of love, »» yet in death he found true 
tion ; it was but ‘‘ a curtain hiding the com- 
munion of Paradise.” ! And he asked his disciples 
to recite over his grave the — lines :— 

1 1 Dinvdin-é-Shame-i-Tabriz XXV. 

210 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XIU, 

4 ys phe ey) Saw I- Awd 
NM whe 9 od et wil jf pit yd 

Can there be anything better in life than its 

When lover is joined to beloved, and friend to 
Line sac ae his death he called one 
Hassan i-Muaddab to his bedside, and said to 
him :—‘‘ Remember thie. I called B beg not to self; 
I called you to the denial of self, 


Heartless She is, I know, and seeks excuses 
Though I do not suffer, yet I know Her rue ways. 
yranny and injustice are Her only trade. 
Well, well do I know the ways of my Beloved. 
Compare the Masnavi (page 30. Whinfield’s 
Let me then, I say, make complaint 
Of dis severity of that Fickle Fair One. 
I cry, and my cries sound sweet in His e 
He requires from the two worlds cries a 

(The famous at ty treatise called the Mas- 
navi was composed b alal-ud-din Rimi, the 

greatest of all the Site who lived from a.p. 1207 
to 1273). 


Nor garden, nor pleasaunce, nor a do I want; 
Nor cypress, nor rose, nor jasmin 

I only ask from my God for a a ratecds 

Where I may be alone with Him whom I love. 


I had a fever, and I slew it in fire and water. 
I killed it oy @ moment by writing and i by spell. 

Sar Marea ee ate AST Mc Ue EG a? ee ge ee aes 

' See Halat-v oars pp. 62-70. 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 211 


Last night when I was passing through the street of my love, 
Knowest thou what business I was after ? 

I was led astray, a victim of her broken epi 

I was wandering round the hill of my desire 


Between my friend’s two eyes—from nin to mim 

Thou seest an alif drawn on the silvern page of his face.! 
No-No—I am wrong: by a wonderful miracle 

*Tis the Prophet’s finger which has split the moon in two. 


For a long time we have been drunk with the wine of Unity 
bat meyde leds the glass of Plurality that these people held 

They hic falsely who say there is ‘ Annihilat 
ong as there i is God, we, too, ‘exist ’ in Gay battle-field of 

A ekels treatise might be written round this 
quatrain which deals with some of the fundamental 
conceptions of Sufiism. The first hemistich of 
another of Abi Sa‘id’s ruba‘iyat bal in mF ria 
Wali’s collection) has the same ‘‘ argument ’”’ 

Till “A leave Plurality, you salhot sail 

nivy ; 
Till you leave your Self, you will never become 

That is, till you cease from regarding the diverse 
creations of the world as having each a separate 
identity, you cannot reach the stage when you 
will be able to realise the essential oneness of all 

‘* passing away,’ 
Bhat zaman,” 2 ses Abi Sa’ id mean by this denial 

of that very ‘‘annihilation’’ ? He cannot 

sibly have meant to reject the universal doctrine of 

1 Nan, Mim, and mee are letters of the Arabic 2 og the first 
two dhachcen rs are like circles, the third is a straight lin 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, [N.S., XII, 

‘‘Fané.’’ That conception which embraces the 
idea o passing away”’ of all passions and 

longer regarded himself, but became entirely 
devoted to, and conscious of nothing save, God. | 

Line 4.—That is, liberate me from thoughts of 
other than Thee. ** His Service”’ then ‘‘is pertect 

A dervish once asked Abii Sa‘id the meaning of 
service. He answered: ‘(Cod created you free; 
free you should remain ’’; which he explained by 

/ine 3.— Reason is no guide to the truths after 
which Abi Sa‘id was seeking. God is inappre- 

whereby he perceives hidden mysteries. This 
faculty is evoked by love of the Truth, and end 
+. in Divine illumination.’ 
_this is the ‘inner light,’’ or ‘intellectual 
vision ’’ of the Platonists. 

well-known story relates how after the great 

1 See Dr. R. A. Nicholson on Fand in the J.R.A.S. for 1913. 
* olf gt and wyle 5) y, (Manstir-ul-Hall4j) 

1916.]} Quatrains of Abi: Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 213 

Avicenna had first met Abt Sa‘id at Nishapur, he 

told his disciples ‘‘Abai Sa‘id sees all that I 
eae: And Abi Sas id said of Avicenna ‘‘ All 
that he knows, I see 


Turn my thoughts, O Lord, from this world and the next; 
Exalt me with the crown of pover 
Reveal unto me the mysteries in the way of the Quest. 
Turn my steps from the road that leads not to Thee. 
Mansir-ul-Hall4j was once asked : ‘‘ What is the 
way to God?’’ He answered : ‘‘ Two paces, and 
you have arrived there ; one takes you out of this 
world ; and the other out of the world to come. 
Then you are with God.’ 
We are reminded, too, of a passage in che 
Gulshan-i-Rdz which says that the world to com 
is of no account beside the ‘‘ quitting of self, 
when man will be ‘most rich in uttermost 


Send me, O Lord, to the friend who has noma 
Bring the sound of my grief to his echoing he 

Tam eat because of this separation, 

Send him to me—and send me to him 

A curse upon their impudent — 
Their black eyes, and negro forms 
From early evening till the last io of the night 
They are all a-dancing; and I am the harp they twang ! 

Hide Thou my evil deeds from the sight of men ; 
Smooth for me life’s difficulties. 
Grant me happiness To-day ; and To-morrow 
Do unto me that which befits Thy clemency. 

O Lament, if thou hast a sap declare thyself ; 
Inform that heedless dru 
O hand of Love and Saintship, come forth: 
Help me, O heart of ee law 

| The object of the verse is said to be ‘‘ to drive away insects and 
other pests.” 

214 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [NS., XII, 

The sorrows of the world have fallen upon this house of mourn- 

They have become intimate dwellers therein. 
O Lord of Thy bou 

Forgive these teeth He mine, by the soul of Uwais- i-Qarani. 


O Lord, enrich me with contentmen 
Tllumine my heart with the light of suuthinty, 
am burnt; Iam perplexed. Fulfil Thou my desires: 
But render me not beholden to other men. 
Line 4. It is curious how often we comé across 
the same idea in Abii Sa‘id. Compare Nos. 6, 17 
se 96 in this collection. God is the ‘‘ dihanda-yt- bé 
nat’’—the giver who, unlike ee claims no 
cacjied for every service He render 


Thy face is an ocean of beauty. Thy lips are the coral : 
Thy locks are amber; thy mouth a shell; thy teeth are pearls. 
Thine eyebrow is a boat which rides on the waves of thy fore- 

head ; 
Thy chin is a whirlpool ; and thine eyes a storm. 


pe my heart is rejoiced by the mele of thy lip 

I shall do naught but sigh and burn wi ef. 
Thou said’st ‘I shall come to iy spbetee one day.’ 
When, when will that day be? 

oO oriafia de Creator, O Lord o 

accomplishest i pute of the destitute ; 
ake Thou mine enemies subject to me, 
And those that know not mercy, to show mercy. 

This quatrain is said to 
it should be written out on a poe 
into a small wad and 

charm for toothache. For this purpose 
ece of paper ee ust then be folded 
and packed into the offending ca 

1916.) Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 215 
Alas for the long nights, without Thee! 
Alas for the pain of separation from Thee 
Thou art asleep in Thy disdain, and I am ithoat Thee, 
I lie alone, fevered and in anguish. 
The melancholy of the destitute, 
The ruthlessness of this revolving ea arth, 
The anxious cares of the troubled in s 
These are all naught—the pain of Love alone matters, 
O heart, that art banished from the Friend, weep tears of 
O eyes, do ye likewise let an Oxus flow from you. 
O life, thou art not dearer to me than my Friend. 
Without Him I desire thee not—leave m 

Who am I? One who hath set his heart Pert 
Whose gaze is fixed on the harvest of lov 
In the street of Constancy I go round Tike a millstone, restless ~ 

Ever seeking the companionship of a perfect saint.! 


The light of Thee is the source of light of men’s eyes ; 
Without Thy light no man’s whi hath power to see. 

All men’s eyes are turned t 
Because of Thy light there a ra fousitenk of light in men’s eyes, 
ne 2. ‘Send out thy light : for I am 

idle earth and void till thou illumine me.’ (Imita- 
tion of Christ III. xxvii.) 


Thou art pure and sinless, and without equal ; 

No man hath possessions prvi — fair world of Thine ; 
ll men are asleep; Thou a 

O Lord, —— the door of Thy merey to us. 

1 Line 4 &is lneraity: means ‘‘ one ve is bien te that is, in the 
fire of love; or one whose passions are burnt ou 

216 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. (N.S., XII, 


O Lord, my God, mighty Creator, 
How long shall I journey from door to door, from place to 

ace ? 
Rither shut Thou against me once and for ever the dwelling of 

Or unlock for me now the door of my endeavours. 

O Thou who beatest down the enemy’s pride, 

y heart is oppressed, O Lord, by these miscreants. 
Confound them, and plunge them in tumult and disaster. 

Thou gavest me a dwelling in Thy street, and a refuge, 
A place at the feast of union with Thee 
In short—with a hundred sweet endearments 
Thou didst make me love Thee; Thou dravest me into the 

to thy lovers is unspeakable. . . _ . Whe 

not, thou madest me, and when I erred from thee, 

thou leddest me again . . . and thou commandest 
hee.’’ . 

me 4. That is to the “secret places ’’’ in 
which, says & Kempis, ‘the great holy men, 
where they might, fled men’s fellowship and 
chose to live in God.’ (I. xx). 


O Sovereign of the two worlds, help us, 
Give aid to our weakness and distress. 
O Lion of God come quickly to our appeal ; 

To whom shall I cry save to thee who art our helper ? 


Poverty and Need Thou hast made m 
Thou hast made 
This is the rank of those who are near 
Why hast Th 

Thy door. 
Thee, O Lord 

so dealt with me ? What service have I done 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 

is My’ need is that I should need nothing,” said 

Abi Sa‘ 
Junayd of Baghdad thus explains why he adopt- 
ed Stfiism:—‘‘T have not taken up this Saffism 

for Sabato’: nor for strife and contention; but it is 
hunger we seek and sleeplessness; we would re. 
nounce the world, and sever ourselves from that 
which we have loved, and which has seemed plea- 
sant in our eyes 

etl Le ol pe whople 5 jaisy 

‘*To the sovereigns of the world bear this mes- 
sage, O morning breeze, 

‘To you belong empire and riches; mine is the 
kingdom of Destitution.’ ”’ (1 Tré qi.) 

A chain for the neck of this generation! 

Destruction for this stiff-necked people ! 
These crows have flown high enough in their pride. 

Sticks for ¢ earemy and stones; the knife and gun and arrow! 


Knowest thou gee at the first pale streak of dawn 
The cock so so sadly cr 
Why, the mirror of the aes telleth thee 


That one more night of thy life hath passed, and thou art stilk 

Compare Jalal-ud-din Rami in the Masnavi 
(p. 294). 

. ‘* Whosoever passes away from the world 

Does not grieve and lament over his 

death, 7 eae 

4 Vvyeoutl Pt 


Hurt not my heart that lives only for thee, 
Thou art its open and its pines ye love. 

I am afraid lest by reason of thy oppres 

My heart should iain to blood, while hoe ‘ait within it. 

218 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

ot. . 

O Lion of God, prince Haidar, give me victory. 
O opens of forts, open the gate of our Khaibar. 
The doors of hope were shut in my face ; 

O Lord of Zulfiqg4r and Qambar give me ‘victory. 

Haidar (the lion) : a name given to ‘Ali because 
he slew a snake when an infant in swaddling 

Khaibar: a fort near Medina which Muhammed 
captured from the Jews in a.H. 

Zulfigar: the name of a sword taken by Muham- 
med at the victory of Badr, and given by him to 


Qambar : a freedman of ‘Ali’s. 


O Thou who knowest the sorrows of the sorrowful, 

And canst give ease and balm to those in anguish : 

Why should I tell Thee of the state of my heart 

co esate though no word is uttered, of a myriad such as 

‘Weta the Masnavi :— 
*¢ ‘The ° mniscient God needs not to be informed 
of men’s case for He knows all; nor to be 
reminded of it, for He forgets nothing. aa 


Thou knowest the burden of the weary in spiri 

Full well thou knowest the sorrow of the iiokceac nated 

If from my burning heart I call to Thee, Thou hearest, 

And if I keep silent—Thou knowest the words of the dumb. 

Though thou art in Yemen, if thy heart be with me, thou art 


If vos mc igi know me not, though thou art with me, thou art 

Such is oe nearness to thee, O dear one of Yem 

That I am myself in —— whether Tam thou—or ‘thou A 

The poet, 
of his living i in Mess men, uses words believed to vet 
: spoken by Mohammed concerni rning a fam 
saint, Uwais-i-Qarani, whom the Prophet is aaid to 
have called the ‘ best of his disci iples. 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 219 

Let me not lean for succour, O Lord, against any man’s door, 
Make me not beholden to King or beggar. 
My black hairs have turned white in Thy. beneficence, 
Now that my head is white, make me not black with sin. 


Simple am I, and humble and poor; 

If thou bid me sit on the fire, ‘ 
If I humble myself before thee, thou wilt spurn me. 


O God, had I the wings of a bird 

Every day I would get tidings of thee a hundred times. 
But for this misfortune which constrains me, 

How could I have torn my eyes from the sight of thee ? 


I am in pain; my breast is torn with suffering 
A love I have, and an eye wet with tears. 
A love—but what a love? one which burns the world: 
What is my pain ?—a pain that has no remedy. 
Compare the lines quoted by Dr. R. A. Nicholson 
in his edition of the Diwdén-i-Shams-i-Tabriz :— 

Bolo gto oo Corte Glad 
Igd 3 os? dile awlgsad ane O)o 3 
‘*God hath given a physic for every pain 

Since the pain of love is old (eternal), for it 
no remedy hath been found.’’ 

Hey Pps e 


Hyderabad MS. of Qédiri-i-JilAni. 

Small Lithographed Collection. 

The Atishkada of Mirzé Latif ‘Ali Azar. 

The Ridz-ul-Arifin of Riza Quli Khan Hidayat. 

The Tadhkira-yi-Husseini of Mirz4 Hussein-i-Dist 

The Riz-i-Raushan of Muzafiar Husein-i-Saba. 

Ethé’s Extracts. 

oo er 
sul F Stee age * 
al gf Oy oe 

T 5b ghey My arty Ie Fil gine a_i 8 156 15h 

T 54 hase ayy) SI yt owe rm gsoty) 855 lo ays ppt 


DO geeraragn green ait ot cc var 
be ort Sate Li lp—S yf y Ly a Lie pia 

2 pitt lyse pS AF Alp Sa Lily bod lpi (oy) af Lids 

be ss eo ESF yt Se tay ——-& fotos 
; eo . 
y De wl—iwoy 3 wlarS op} meme par S yy ot Game 

- T. E. This is metrically not a ruba‘i. 

bt ba ot 

222 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
fyl_is} ss a9 y—b —— ns tohy——s ' @-s—s 3 toy—s 'y 

lols ol Siew He y Ly ab yy , lols lols Kha Se oye ats » 

a ad a re we 


be po se go jf a be wos, bo pay Uslre lo po Go 

le oY cmp le pas ly ley jolt Ws ad le pow 

wl wry » way fue IS oso asd eae la epidS as ye aro 

Oy iF OSS 9 oF Gye af cio 1S “glist chi yo bla t,o) 
[a ) 

ane! gebyoy gsm tle ane} sos » 5 ane} 3s 3 Cond 

Sm bes csr lef Cyl WS 85 ne} labs Jo byt g rmbt yo 

Sms ys wt ais 6 U6 9 SS 0 rmbity (yf diineys oye a yk me 

Sanit silo® Iyer} Om Sepa, iy mises Gysjt om aS cay 

Metrically incorrect, This, like No. 3, is in the hazaj metre. 


33 4 


ad ik 
. A. R. In the second and third misras I adopt the reading 

aP eens 

The original text was 
© Cmte (sity | 0 we! Oa AF cawsldas - tay atl ys 

hans is meaningless, I am indebted to a Persian friend for the emen- 

1916,] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 223 

Sn 59 sll |) ey corin Jo me 3 Coy! BE Glo 5 Gop 
amid ables) o93 woe Cogls le jlinnRyo Sis Syd GtyS 

DES 5 Es ew} ommo 5 ofiT att) Gl— Se Us 5 LAS as 17 

ede gig0 Ae t EES yd 3} ley ae lyme ag I) Ge Kips 

ome cgilic dot extTyos wl> Cos ene ISO ooh yg Bee Jo Col 

amt cline cavega fly Boys U fol) rep crwrye ae BOYD Gol 

S55 93 69S pus oer eS vle S555 Cope Bracoyd y wale Jo 

29,5 93 wr 5% Syb p® wl ” ty be ile 3 ba AG 

su esx —teb O92) y—F 50 sles? ose & S95} 5 Sey yo 

sby—s spe dyd .) skys Ap glee war 2 urs! 

dy —F Gieslid gS pti bao oF giol—= y3 ,bi 51 Jo 
Say oi, LT ae ST SLA 5} co5 51 a7 pigoy ols 

‘thera = 3 

aes hs ; 

13. H. The text has b in line 4; b is obviously the correct read- 

14. H. 

16S oH 

16. Ai, 

224 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

> e—*ae Cod Coy oid ergy? Haile y—~ alle 

So Aye pe alsin wy9S 9d SAEs Sipe Sy af bail! 


oe fons URS if yy ey! oo tony bet pF coed Gn! 

oe tory Las 3) ppt S—9 opt ay ley We ede 5 Lye ogdyys 


OS BE AS corery g! yoy aS! Gg 3S de AF 5049 09) Cmegd etd vl 
OS eq aS oda yeihrcae as os 3 Jo oatlyd a5 iS wlet —alye 
OMS 95 Jia 5S che sem ly ois 45 JS CoS aS Co shred wh} 

os 53 Ji— > cotta) as 5a! S10 oy Ur iayd b as oules 

ONS Bp oul 3 (og aS Le iS ae ULL dig a Gale 

O85 Be diya pry as ails pve aml, g) iy ote dug of 

( te.) 

RECS) csi? witiyd y gst or BUS hea Une Coty loy” 

faite i 

fo A hy 


H.T.R. T. gives the reading (,i.» Une which is, I think, 
preferable to the wire Ure of H. - 
R. ascribes this quatrain to one Sanjar-i-Khafi (ob. A.D. 1592). 

916.) Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 225 


dulk wyly ant g 5 Ure toro cpl wile whyton » pb ar wl 

die Ghlw (Jos3F ay way? 51 Oe BS oo la cms Co! 
ad Sa ol—ast 3 {92 wley— wi, wlasl—a 3 JO—A wlorw 

BSo Ko yo 9 wy 0528 gl wldyor pbs wyj! 93 phic 

56 Bites us aif ey. 
WSS yu aryl —aaiye sls a wll ye el Shaw sly ob (oI 

Sy dys aig & bys oF Ht OS Ht GS ayhs split 

S9—SY_ (90 UG , w* &1__no8 Soy! oS— (e—e ps as op! 
D9o da78 ah es S dat oe RT ag od 0 AU 52 03 6S Wy is! 

Sy) dlp —S 9S oi 252 LU wly oy Oalyd SiRF |_ dey suf 

S92 OBlgR 9G canile aS Ctl Ghd UL egy SS pe Lane pd 3 

dgd say8 eo Co\> le ait it) ope) cc hgeomeree| OX BARE doe ro) Js! 

oy ol le yas be Ske Gb Le de ssid iois—e as en 

a H. R. RB. ascribes the quatrain to Adé-yi-Vardi. 

26. H. This quatrain has to be amended pretty considerably. 

In misra (1) H. has . ae a Jot; in (2) opis > and in (3) we, 
all of which are clearly in 

a oe Identical with No. 193 i in Whinfield’s Omar Khayyém. 

226 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XI, 

Say) JS hod ye? a? wl—e x s9— 45 le 5 oh jt p—Jo 550 
art Un!) day ere ay 8 enh) Jy LAST yy 3 oy 5 solish 

of 55 , yk 9 £L—aAs eS—ia oT jley oe GH oy Piste 
wf jbG a—is, ae wot p—ae corded gf ile, 8); 3 

wT ob el > Es9— wo 08 so” pa — aks s*d sy oy Bile yo 

3 ys » &—eb) SSIS sive d} [det pic» as ey aI pe w* 
a5 be hy tug ait a abeS outs Led mes yo pi! &—Ady @—) le 

Palmas lig Ho yf plesds — oaly ro wl a—i-S Yo wo 

Oalyeyo le af oy3f as dso G pe By py Bors g lei, 4 kT, 

MMe gt ph a Som B10 9 Jo soil tly ge pod yh 5 5 Raye Gol 

ab us* r* yy _ySR3 25y cpoyls—asy »s usly— Sy we 


0} BS pp od VHS SRA 5 why) 3d) Whe o$—3 SLB ty —e 

3} i_suac )5 Sin ee Slot 3 Uyheo wb) wl » dao JIS wt 
29.. Hi. om HH, F 
30, AL. 33. H 
SL. A. 34. H 

1916. ] Quatrains of Abi. Satid bin Abi’l Khair. 227 

oes Bus eo G er cay? 3 dy—* B549 ave J\— += a s59) 

dy BoQI5 a wlameg Bx er wot ey—& U9) BOI9 )b— we? G 

apes A bef ops ee pt Sb} aie 
ap pS wlewT 5 ue) 3 Gucle ag po ue gh ads 5 af Tl 
jlo el wn ey—So pias ploxe Hal? ons poe ibs 
oxo — al a8 yi oc pias Jo 92 Gayle Ae eat aly aS pid 

JK ase yo pjale GE 5S en) Herr} StS techs oy 

y hart cl eS oy wr)! ey sro ear se» as ae 

(ee ) 
- ae 
pose ylergo B—e4 90) —) \ ee Foy9 yy ge ey & 

* Pt . . ae = ion \ : 

yeas a3 o> ert v2 oS yo eel ah ee eae cl? Ay ye 
ye aad y as y—b) wet ota i Ke) 5 aS IS ere yas 

37. a This is also quoted in the Asrdr-ut-Tauhid among a number 
of miscellaneous sites 3 of Abt Sa‘id’s. 

228 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

[N.S., XII, 

( er) 

BSP oy gh p99 cine So 
SP Oty) $82 ge 
3b B— ed py gh remy yo Atopy 

SL vay—$ 65 33 8G 5 eyy—mre 

Shete ad ote yas 
S75 thay gd 93 Bide plo gl sve 


By abe pt Fim yo gh I 

jl—ae of ,i sGor a ~—S 


nyt 9 jy Ered oS Ba5ly ao 

OF eee eee eet © 


ur ly lls pl—a3 mos yas, 

wm) Se ye oby—& 5 Sb 

urs det fics sme ole yo 

ces eet yee yes 9 8S dds) cs! 


apie g th be of if 52 Jo pyle 

celebrated Sufi, who died in 
Oriental Lib 

La? a jyele tee GSIo @yle 

Co ee oe 


us ty pie wom Sle cs! 

m4 ) 

ceed B— at prod Iya! LDS}, cs! 

FY mE 9 83 By 1y—* 93 mY 

ev ) 

Lryl® y wk le vege wre oI! 

dS 43 yley O03 le alee f 

H. E. R. 
43. H. But this aoe more prepebly. a Saif-ud-din-i-Bakhar 
259 a.D 

It is the first of 51 eakiceien 5 con- 

tained in the old and Snide copy of his scanerat in the Bankipore 


ie oe with No. 276 in Whinfield’s mag Khayyam. 
H. R. 

47. : ribes this to Muhammad Nas: 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi?l Khair. 229 

(A ) 
FAS ed yh Sy sigh Bdrw y0 tei wysae ai Sy Jy} sous yo 
PAS yy Shia he os) jf & yy tpl end Jl_—ney ost 
BAL 9S 05) BON ny C9) FO BES y—BS 9 1G (guy 37-5 Jo 
ee For oFu- a om ” 
Mic gc LI 68 ps eet Hat Mie af al Ga 
ps PL al ip a “ , 
6 csle pi Kessel 1, Le y—Sa—S—) oilwy—ae 
oo” Furr - Sore + ut oe of i ee Mee og ra Pe 
OS! ohsp y cescl Spe we Sow 9) a geal> - wy by 

ue a a Pe c 
Sle Sen Gal, Sitka 33 & bi es 14 wie 

.E. This quatrain which Ethé found in an anonymous and 
cident on collection of ruba‘iyat of ancient and a oer (the most 

modern quoted is Maulana Sahabi-i-Astarabadi who died in 1601 4.D.) in 
the India Office ties is attributed ce! Sag e Maya Ushshaq aaa 

in 1502 a.p.) to Hakim-i-Sanai note to the trans 

49. H.E. This quatrain has been taken by Ethé from the same 
collection as No. 48, the India Office MS. (1.0. ene Tt is also found in 
the Majdlis-ul-Ushshdq where it is descri as on **Some strange 
quatrains expressing the extremity of devotion”’ contained in the Imami 

Ghazali’s ‘* Sawdnih-ul-Ushshaq.” Ghaoait died in 1111 a 

51. This is not a correct quatrain. The first misra — not 
thyme vax ‘ii 2nd jak 4th; and it is not in any of the rubd‘i metres. 
B20 LT. 

230 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

[N.S., XII, 


ek <ear| Brew els is? as gh aay yal 

Sis Jat Se G53 Ge oss 
Ki ty e399 a! 3 Ae <t) ty en 

qr ely ae So hg 
ey yto® 5! eae aly; wlsr~ 

PIS Sy) Sr AS alga Se nal: 

arc? Hyd oh Sop) ole 95 90 

ploy a 3 Lp oy > 

. 2 a 
cls y 3! 5 ave tial gard 

pF yo GF oe old y lay 

ar PP 5 llc 

Fie 935 D5 yo jl Co; aSpieny 

WI Bee ot gig omivede of 

ds | 

By gilidme j ayfod t,—¢2 9! 

OW wow OBL aS ot ares of 

dd ) 

sae amallng 2 ell vas 5 

pos Rhy piney Uy as 2 b 

ds ) 

yes, awd } aS pila. wh? cers 
Pmt ole, jhe ale se 9? 

dv ) 

te p bors 2 ya cay 8 

X—a! g9_ rnc dh .293 3 esa 

da ) 

p—~zilade Pd 5e PS 9 ot? 

ARO oO 52 Yer nye Mail 

Sipaameicasaacamcancnmn ee FRETS 

53... HW. EE: 
54. H. 
55. HH. 

56. H. Metrically incorrect. 
Si... TD 

5S. 3, 

An example of the San‘at-i-qalb. 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 231 

( 6Y) 
por os VIS GS 59 wot hs pep ot wlt> ol 55 Coy! (bl 

orice of sla phe hyd Ue oil ery bere Sula Sre oye 


Plo—ae 9 gd yl p28 We sig & wh ole ay) pe jo 

( i ) 

Pat yre Cy BS oS lg BUG hyd AS GEIS phty® (clo 5 ply 

ahs (Lenl—ss y Oy gh ons, as wt Bs | y coy? ty es) 
PRES BT yo ged y— SH) we By POS Gy 99 482 UL 

p2—2ay— hve I de gz AS sts POH — Ka lt gg y®t BS Se 
pdtoy—fy0e yl Bi! y— of alitikye USI tory GIS OLS 

( 1 ) 
pe Amic rods lll gity wre © wy 5! OU wre 99 on 
pe 90 a 1) de Boyd Hoel eae jal Jos 3 — ray 

59. H. Very similar to No. 319 in Whinfield’s Omar Khayyam. 
ee HT. 7. gives what must in the main be the correct reading. 
H. ie pire (2) has (sil, which makes no sense. 


232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

(42 ) 
painSay ty aaLb ont woh kind pee? edad p> jlo as rt cove 

padent pale aS ,a0 Wyo mt faa GU dirgS «s? ble wie Wis di 95 aSin} 

why potgd Gila, ai}, wis p—eld ib) JS 3 oy bs 

vlog awd 5 ws o> Bless coe jist Je > l_tae Jas 3s 

C49 ) 
lays Cilys ye ys tl 5! vias eik—e er wh 90 3 Gy 4 

wl—~) jtef p——_a U0 yo §3)57 vy Hsats yh—» Le oy by 

any SU gt Nyy ret yt t upaher 1 Gis i! We SF PST 

w 53 aye 5 she pPHt 39 TS SB) 9 (69) Hin} ols? 
wl ghigede yak, saat a gS po US Jot}! 

Se yl aol we» D> slyas w—e wl—#y Hs 5 pe * ge 
wySs0 wt d>— ano 3 oy 3 it He ee & lgy—s , glo 9 tgy*! 

65. H. Metrically incorrect. 
This is quoted by Jami in his Lawiaih bedsores trans- 
lation, be 15). without ky atinaies: as to its authorship 

The — of misra (1) is whe GS) yt cua Rew 5 ob? 

which don not scan 
70. Le 7, 


Quatrains of Abi Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khair. 233 


eS ey Aeawe gy whl cols 

ee capt Bt ere) wo sS asi cl 

T yoo edgy Cymre Swe cal 

(vr ) 

we Eile ply 

wy—3 urls yee on (ote 

wee sleet 

epee eae SEL pe sols 

tye lo cetyS Seas 5 Gy b 


Ph gd F m ‘ 
wldap— DN eae ate ee w® Has 

Siig tigcys (ayo re as 


Ses : : “ 
WIM jo wes Gow ,—He HH 

wrk Soe 5 ne i elas 


wy OBlyd jy— y af dot oy 
ws oly —S jy plO—S Sy of 

tos Sotp e—bl—i5 yo 
wld $ we LFS ye Sips! 
wla wie) y “ee eshye 29) 
ex" ght OAS 9 FAS gy! 
wax ald jyy—Hs 53 -—wIb 
csi pit 23 Silay af ia 


y yieles sy ot) 

\¢ = wlole 

wher) coy JAId HE GI 

Bolo we Erbe lye vlead 

(vv ) 
Oat et ee 8 sO oe 
ast yo esl 9 ae kee Ror ! eae 

Tle B.D. ces in line | comes from To i. has ade 
fy ee Sad Ws 

yp Sige Oe 

74) Tis 

Tb. Fe 

16.. FL F: 

Ti. Et. 

234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

[N.S., XII, 


gm SL lo 98 Boe Gor? & 

2 SL ble p08 yor Sy dot Yet 

~~ S1" .ola a” wy” csles~ 

P eae ‘ . 
:~ x < wl—ayys bls &__ yout 


FP yPPA® WH HRIly0 Bd Gy 

Soy Ej retlye LG 

Bidys apd pe GEE Gye yd 5, 

<iy. CIA wy aS ould 

F* ve os yk Gt 92 Jo Ul 

aoe 3! et pe od yl GI 

Ae ) 

&__is y931 J RT pe (yr 
co AST y Bin ge Uy at ye 


Bold petite 99 md yy) 93 wre og! 
» Raped passe crwlpetia 95 pa 5! 

aot elie Fate aie J tg GI 

89) 9 Cog yb |, dot psig 

( ar ) 

est—x3 enh Sle oy 1) (»S 
hts LN SG, & 

cl fee tg pth y ESL 

AST od of aiQe ase Yylald 


ol ws 2 OM 90 Ag) Me G 

oo Ate 
es! —SS ya tye wl—epo Jai L 

clo yb ol JU-shs HE Gl 

ate - pe 
ou y yo ty—0 d—241 é—jlae & 

( Ae ) 

sinl—e ty aile, dy ld | 

15.) Ee 
ide Ed, 
80. L. 

1916.) Quatrains of Ab% Sa‘id bin Abi’l Khasr. 235 

( Ae) 
cette (& tye aye ley pw 50 solo Igo g Se dy Cog’ y0 

soto |; yy? 9 dy Gel lye 38 9 3285 o—-ay aan! 

qeso* ala ls ts 235 x weer pls » my yl_a cst 

pscoe ab SF ty epda se Wy poly ——Bs a9) IOS a Cc 

(Av ) 
eso pipe QU Sy Lim soyS printer Rs y asls 
sos pide Gul wood au oy Had 0 Wye E30 wy! 
cers ly sles ggfS pe gr th by iy way 
cst ois oa! wI-e i ots osduyy et wit 5 ws! 

csrten Bg ctl ot ye JF gt LAST 0 dig) SF ay 

url Usle 9 Oy 55,—Sa< gl Qik 5 a& ty» Jy 4 Lt 

rl Gdilkkeys 9h y 29% U2 JP DP egls! Ja jh AS p—ap—ee wt 

85." FE: RoE. 
87. H. E._ I have also found this quatrain in a collection of Ansari’s 
rubda‘iydt. me : : 
88. H. Line 2 has gg me. ese is an obvious emendation. 
89. L.T. This is No. 463 of Whinfield’s Omar Khayyam. It is 
bi oe so-called ‘‘ Wandering Seggrinens tha mao! to og y, the _qoatrains 
ich Zh ke ki found ‘* wan ering vari 
n number, which ukovski inde ae oe 
es. The readings differ. I have adopted that of the 

Atis aa 

236 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 


pests pad Cb (glo aald oC, ss yee yet fod prs Cot 
weiss aid yRt,§ wale ws! Bar hey a—Sy pp ol coltye 

ws Meine ot t) wleys wile wlrheays dye Pe aot cs! 
ld gle se oe gi at8 5b aS ae ty Bue Jo Ji—> 
ile wb aiacs Js ig—a! wie wlan thn fla aS 93 sf 

: ag Aig ‘ £. ‘ atc 
"2 DIT Oj PB 0999 Gogl Nge Bae 3) creilyd yy 

(46 ) 
wt 59 ik ws? S> wie eo) s a Pt si? ly ce us- Ses py 
he PU ot 3 Lye aS able 9 yd rie I ot pie ib Ye 
(90 ) 
ot ptlaol y tod ee ro) e—aF &—S5 ais ype) i) 

SS p—tlrwsy, O—hee uss” b ay wsuS D—ARwe el Bam er" 

oo ws 9S y cs J jy isto 9 nthe » pole 3 

CP PORE FH is ail ecalhi 8 AN 

nets iy Ube 3 5, bt ete Ce 

seh dys 93 shove j} Bx ost cs » wor sl el badly cr! 

oi eT. 

| Aa 


Me a a 

86. HH. 

96. .H. Metrically incorrect, 
Of. A. 

1916.] Quatrains of Abi Said bin Abi’l Khair. 237 

as frog pyto Be phipy Ries plo (oye 
phos ost 999 39 8] gd wie ple pie Gare ag (gic 


( &dS1E> Cynryd upto Eoamiht acgbe ) 

eae ate Sener 

meta ns bie 


Society in London, Mr. eo ernard Quaritch, 11, Ton ot Street, 
New Bond Street. 


Les Sociétés étrangéres qui honorent la seni Asiatique de 
cn de ses publications, sont pri ées de les envoyer ou directe- 
ment & l’adresse de la Société, 1, Park Street, Calcutta, ou a 
Regent de la Société a Londres Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 11, 
Grafton Street, New Bond Street 

casi Gesellschaften welche die Asiatische Gesell- 
len mit ihren Publicationen beehren, werden 
hierdurch pone © dieselben entweder direkt an die Adresse der 
Gesellschaft, 1, Park Street, Calcutta, oder an den Agenten in 
London, Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond 
Street, zu senden. 

15. Notes on the Pollination of Flowers in India,— 
ote No, 8, Miscellanea. 

By I. H. Burgi, 

Into my Indian diary many unpublished observations on 
flower ian have been written, which I Propose now to 
set out by way of concluding this series of notes.' The dates 
of the observations and the place will be given in every case 
that others may test seasonal and climatic departures in the 
behaviour of both flowers and visitors. 

Birds visiting flowers. 

The late D. D. Cunningham in "ae ‘** Some Indian Friends 
and Acquaintances’’ (London. 1903), p. 129, records that the 
common Honeysucker—Arachnechthra zeylonica—is a frequent 
visitor in Calcutta to the flower of Hamelia patens, Jacq., 
going from blossom to blossom, its long bill dusted with the 

pollen. He repeated this mnsgne an in his ‘‘ Plagues and Pleasures 

of Life in Bengal ’’ (London, 1907), pp. 23 and 275. In the first 
book (p. 130), he adds that’ the birds also visit Jl asngee ene 
Hodgsoni, meaning Calliandra haematocephala, 0. .»” Hibiscus 

rosa-sinensis, Lina. ., and Erythrina, in the oad) book (p. 275) 
that they visit anta. 

This same little ee wal ee seen by me also on the 
flowers of Hibiscus rosa-si nn., and on those of Rus 
selia juncea, Jacq., at ri gine (3- ‘viii-07). To the latter 
it paid particular attention. 

Again I have a pork (dated Cawnpur, |-x-07) from Mr. 
Martin. Leake, in which he writes that he had frequently seen 
it on cotton lowers Gossypium—visitng flower after flower, 

| No. The iis poRinatioa of ce poet grandiflora, Roxb. in Cal- 
cutt Journal, ii, 1906, 511 
N ome pollination oe dukes in Bengal and Assam. Journal, 
1 6, 51 
so 3 Th 2 mechanism of six flowers of the North-West Himalaya. 
J ety int ‘Tp08, 5. 
No. 4. On enue in Bioline: Journal, iii, 1907, pp. -526. 
No. 5. Some comaaen observations in the "Sikkim Himalaya, Journal, 
Iv, a 179-19 
in aie flora of the Simla Hills. Journal, iv, 1908, pp. 
197-231. ; 
| 2 7. A few observations made in the Central Provinces and Berar. 
Journal, vi, 1910, pp. 101-107. = ‘ ue 
2 Knut aka eee oney-bird visiting this fl wer in Java, as well as 
several sree bee and a put beefy (Handbuch hs Bliitenbi ologie, iil, 
Part 1, p. 352). 

240 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

hanging on to the stem if the flower faced laterally or was 
pendent, but never resting its whole weight, its wings all the 
time in motion. 

Another bird, the Purple Honeysucker, Arachnechthra — 
asiatica, is the more common species in drier parts of India, 
d has been seen by me on the flowers of the orange,—Citrus 
Aurantium, Linn.,—and the Hollyhock— Althaea rosea, Cav.— 

in Lahore (16-iv-07). 
ree of the above plants—EHrythrina, Russelia, and the 

orange—may be stated to have in common one special adapta- 

will be referred to again. 

An obvious bird-flower, but to which no bird-visits have been 
recorded, is Mezoneurum cucullatum, W. and A. Its blossoms 

G. 1.—Flower of Mezoneurum cucullatum x 2, two sepals and one 
petal having been removed to show the wide nectary which extends 

from n to n. figure also shows the absence of a landing stage for 

by the similar humming birds of America. The annexed figure 
shows the extensive nectary and the small size of the lower 
parts of the flower. Many flowers are mature together; an 
when open the bees, Apis indica, F. (Pursua, Nepal terai, 26- 
xi-07; Bhainsa Duhan, Nepal, 1-xii-07) and Apis florea, ¥- 
(Kobo, Upper Assam, 5-xii-11) flock to them, the latter collecting 
pollen as well as taking accessible honey. 

_ _Momordica cochinchinensis, Spreng, also appears to be a 
bird-flower. The sexes are se arated, so that an external 
agent is required to bring about fertilisation. The visitors find 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 241 

nectary. The same orange colour marks the position of the 
box on the outside, the other parts of the base of the flower 
being grey. At Dinajpur (14-viii-09) where these observations 
were made, there had been formed an abundance of fruit. Two 
Calliphora flies were seen in the flowers. 


Datura fastuosa, Linn., is certainly a Sphingid-flower ; but, 
_ as it persists through the day, other insects may visit it. Its 

2.—Flower of Datura fastuosa, reduced to } nat. size, with sec- 
ee foilioa ties the nature of the deep pits containing the hone 

large flowers open at nightfall, and last for 20—24 hours. When 
they open, he nthers have already dehisced; these and the 

The figures on the preceding page show their nature and size. 

242 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

The smell of the flowers is peculiar. In Calcutta (3-ix-01) 
an individual Anthophora zonata, L., was seen to settle on the 

Datura Stramonium, Linn., opens at the same time as D. 
fastuosa Te eng 13-xi-08). 

vel 3.—Flower of Cle- 
from above. 5 bi a Fie. 4.—Nos. 1-4 indicate successive stages 
i : in the movement of the sty oy in the just- 
opening bud it is as in No. hen it moves 

through Nos. 2 and 3 to 4. In se just-open- 
ing bud, the stamens are as No. 5; then they 
move to stand asin No.4. Nat. size. 

Clerodendron infortunatum, Gaertn., — to open its 
flowers at 7 p.m.; and the process continues into the night. 
It too has flowers open by day, for their divatiod | is 36 hours 
or more. Before the socal s part, the filaments and as 

1 The American Datura arborea , Linn., seems to obtain no suitable 
be gree oe the Pacific: Crosby recorded ome Linn. Soc, Bot. 
XXXV, p. ype t it never fruits in the Friendly Islands, and Hillebrand 

(Flora of the ropa waiian Islands, 1888, p. 311) that it back fruits in the 
Sandwich Islands. 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 243 

lie curved: but no sooner does liberation occur than the 
commence slowly to uncurve, and to move the anthers or 
stigma to their appropriate places. The process of the uncurving 
of the stigma is represented in Figure 4 and the resulting posi- 
tion in relation to the anthers, vertically as well as latera ave is 
indicated if it be considered together with Figure 3, which i 
the flower from above. 

Towards the twenty-fourth hour the style carries the stigma 
ight in front of the corolla, at the 

mouth by 35—45 mm. in specimens observed at Moulinein (22-ii 
to 3-iii- 04) 

The stigma at opening is thrust out beyond the anthers in 
Clerodendron serratum, Spreng. (Belgaum, 14-xi-(02). 

Differing from the above three flowers in not persisting 
at all by day is Trichosanthes ee: Roxb. ; for its corollas 
fall shit soon after dawn; but on the other hand those of its 
congener—T. cucume rina, Kieth apeceiot through the day 
(Nattor, 26-viii-O7 ; Asirgarh, 26-ix-09). Like J. palmata, 
Gymnopetalum cochinchinense, Kurz, drops its corolla soon 
after dawn (Maynaguri, N. Bengal, 27-viii-08): its flowers 
are very fragrant: but as its corolla is constructed so as to 
afford a good foothold, and its tube is relatively short, it is 

are visited by Anthophora zonata diligently and also by another 
Apiid for tho sake of honey (Calcutta, 18-viii-O1 and 15-ix-01) 
are rather too small for the large Xylocopas 

Butterfly Flowers. 

Narrow-tubed, upright flowers which afford to their visitors 
platforms facing the sky are usually suited for the visits of 

b e common aNenCie d Lantana Camara, Linn., 
is a particularly good instance of this for though many rather 
sm owers stand together, they make an even platform 

wings find ample space. Knuth (Handbuch der Bliitenbiologie, 
TIT, part 2, p. 71) has observed that in Java butterflies are 

Two Lycaenids, three Papilios, a Terias and a Hesperid 
have been recorded by meas visitors to the flowers on 21-vii and 
2-viii-O1 near Calcutta. 

x Drummondii, Hook., and Verbena hybrida, a garden 
ce ea are two cultivated plants on the flowers of which Plusia 

244 ~~ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

chrysitis, L., was seen in great numbers (Lahore, 26-iv-07), 
and a butterfly was also seen on the first named. 

Plumbago capensis, Thanb., was visited in a garden in 
Calcutta (25-x-07) by Sphingids. 

In the sixth of this series of papers, I classed Calotropis 
procera, R. Br., as a butterfly-flower on account of its flat 
corymbiform inflorescence: but further evidence shows it to be 

Mussaendas are truly butterfly-flowers and have an appro- 
priate name in Burmese exactly meaning this; but a Bombus 
and a Bombylid fly happen to be the only insect visitors record- 
ed in my notes to Mussaenda Roxburghii, Hook. f. Both were 
visiting for honey (Pedong, Sikkim Himalaya, 6-vi-09, and 
Dentam 23-v-09). 

Compositae and some other massed flowers with hidden honey, 
whose upright heads are suited for butterflies, etc. 

The Compositae vary as regards visitors through wide 

limits, some even being bird-fertilised, e.g. the Mutisias of South 
America, but most of the plains’ species of India are little 
specialised. Some Dipsaceae are best classified with the Com- 
The reader will find lists of visitors to species in the Simla 
Hills in Note No. 6, to species in the Sikkim Hills in Note No. 
5, and to one further species in Note No. 7. The following are 
additional observations. 

Ageratum conyzoides, Linn. DIPTERA. Syrpaipas. (1) 
Syrphus balteatus, Deg. Naxalbari, Darjeeling terai, 24-i-!1, 
and Bagdogra, 15-ii-11. LEPIDOPTERA. Gzomerres. (2) one 
species, Natran, N. Arakan, 7-i-07. 

Anaphalis cinnamomea, Clarke. DIPTERA. SyRPHIDAE. 
aig eM ae of two or three species, Sinchul, Darjeeling, 
1X- ‘ 

Dipsacus inermis, Wall. LEPIDOPTERA. RHOPALOCERA. 
Vanessa urticae, L., twice sucking honey, Sisagarhi, Nepal, 

Tridax procumbens, Linn. LEPIDOPTERA. RHoPALo- 
ates Many individuals of several species, Chalsa, Duars, 25- 

Vernonia cinerea, Less, LEPIDOPTERA. RHOPALOCERA. 
Lycaena sp. Jainagar, Nepal border, 29-xi-07. 

_ Vicoa cernua, Dalz. HYMENOPTERA. Acutzata. Tetra- 
tonia Duvaucelii, Lep. Chanseli pass, W. Ghats, 2 and 7-x-09. 

1916. ] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 245 

Bee-flowers of considerable specialisation. 

In the first of these notes it was shown that Thunbergia 
grandiflora, Roxb., is very specially fitted for receiving the 
visits of the largest of the Indian boring bees—Xylocopa latipes, 
F., and is pollinated by it in Calcutta. Since that note was 

are as follows:—HYMENOPTERA. Acunzara. X. aestuans, 
Lep., Calcutta, 9-ix-07, and X. flavonigrescens, Sm., Calcutta, 
(12-ix-07). LEPIDOPTERA. Ruopatocera. One species, Dam- 
dim, 21-viii-07. DIPTERA. Muscrpar. Calliphora sp. feeding 
on pollen, Gauhati, 12-viii-09, and Goalpara, 3-ix-06. 

Cureuma Amada, Roxb., has a flower into which Xylocopa 
creeps, as into those of Thunbergia grandiflora: and a species 

entry into the throat of the flowers and came out of each 
copiously dusted with pollen. 

Of very different appearance to the last two flowers are 
those of the genera Cassia and Melastoma, but the larger 

F. (Nattor, 26-viii-07), X. aestuans (Calcutta, 30-ix.01; Nattor, 
26-viii-07: and Anthophora zonata (Calcutta, 30-ix-01). On the 
flowers of Cassia Tora, Linn., have been seen Xylocopa latipes 
(Maynaguri, N. Bengal, 23-viii-08), X. aestuans (Gauhati, 
9- viii-O7 ; Dipu, Duars, 15-viii-06) and unrecognised species of 
the genus (Pachuria, Central Bengal, 30-viii-07 ; Kothar under 

Melastoma malabathricum, Linn., has been seen visited by 
Xylocopa ? latipes. (Korokpi, south of Amherst, Fl and 12-iii- 
08) and X. aestuans (Moulmein, 93.ii-08 ; Jalpaiguri, 5-viii-08). 
X. latipes is an insect which visits it also in Singapore. 

Osbeckia crinita, Benth., has been seen visited by Xylocopa 
latipes at Sadiya, Upper Assam ( 25-viii-09). 

In settling on Cassias and Melastomas the insects use the 


246 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Indies. All unite in recognising the genera as containing 
specialised bee-flowers. Knuth, who particularly studied them 
(vide his Handbuch der Bliitenbiologie, the posthumous volume 
iii, compiled by E. Loew, part 1, pp. 369-386) recorded that, in 
the Buitenzorg Gardens, Xylocopas are the fertilising agents of 

F iG. 5.—Flower of Melastoma malabathricum, Nat. size, showing the 
two kinds of stamens, the longer five of which serve as a landing place. 

various Cassias, other insects attracted being the bees Podali- 
mus zonatus and Megachile opposita. Burck (Annales du 


Forbes in 1888 (Nature, XXVI, p. 536, quoted from Kunth, 

l. c., p. 538), named Xylocopa as a visitor to a Melastoma in 

Sumatra and in his NV aturalist’ s Wanderings in the Eastern Archi- 

pelago (London, 1885, p. 228) says that Bombus senex was 

a on a pink Melastoma in the Mountains of Palem- 

Melipona bees are common on the flower of Melastoma 
malabathricum in Tenasserim, collecting pollen (Moulmein, 27- 
0-04 ; 23-11-08 ; Amherst, 11 and 16-11-08) and once another 
Apiid was seen (Moulmein, 8-iii-08), The flowers open at about 
7 a.m. and close about 4 p-m. 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 247 

Passiflora foetida, Linn., which is freely visited by Xylo- 
copa aestuans, has its flowers open for still shorter hours than 
the preceding species; they expand before dawn and may wither 

early as 9 a.m., all the stigmas having been pollinated (Cal- 
cutta, 13-viii-01). Anthophora zonata (Calcutta, 13-ix-01) and a 
skipper, Theckla sp. (Calcutta, 11-viii-O1) were observed also 
to suck honey, but not to move all round the flower as X 
aestuans does. 

been seen to be visited by Papilio polytes, L., (Jamo 
But visitors more efficient than butterflies should be 

Xylocopas visit some of the larger Crotalarias well. They 
have been seen in great numbers on the flowers of Crotalaria 
juncea, Linn., thus—Xylocopa latipes at Kyauktaw, Arakan 
(7-i-07); X. aestuans at Barnes junction (6-viii-07); X. ? fenes- 
tie at the same place (6-viii-07); and X. spp. near Calcutta 
Crotalaria striata, DC., has been seen X. westuans 
at Barnes junction, X. ? fenestrata, F., at Barnes junction (6- 
X. sp. at Poradaha, Central Bengal (11-viii-07). 
: wans has been seen also on the flowers near Tampin 
in the Malay Peninsula (23-viii-14). 

Petch says (l.c.) that Xylocopa visits Crotalaria Walkeri, 
Arn., at Hakgala, Ceylon. 
her visitors also go to the flowers, and I have recorded 
a Bombylid on those of C. juncea (Calcutta, 1-ix-01), and a 
oo on those of Crotalaria hirta, Willd. (Kasod, Berar, 17- 

248 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

The flowers of Crotalaria medicaginea, Lamk., open after 
6.30 a.m. and close at nightfall (Kasod, 17 to 18-ix-09), and 
those of Crotalaria calycina, Schrank, close at sunset (Chitowni, 
Tirhut-Nepal Border, 19-xi-07) 

nt ealcaratus, Roxb., was seen visited by Xylocopa 

aestuans for hon a pe oe Sarai “ah 29-v-07), and 

Phasseiud trilobu , by a undetermined Xylocopa and 
also by another Apiid reren beady onan: 15-ix-02). 

An insect like Xylocopa would seem the most probable 

strength as butterflies do not possess, is necessary to force a 
keel. but 

way a, the keel. A butterfly was seen at the flowers 
(Calcutta, 22-ix-01). 

Caesalpinia Pie eshertanre Fleming, bg Bae Wt Mymen- 
sing (9-viii 07), Connarus panic Roxb. on Bilu- 
gyan, ahi ye were noticed freely ‘visited by Xyloco- 
pa ae 

Fic. 6.—Flower of Anisomeles ovata. 

Anisomeles ovata, R. Br., one of the Labiatae which is 
widely spread over the plains of India, seems largely to depend 
on this same insect. owers have a fair supply of honey 
protected from unwelcome visitors by a ring of hairs 3 mm. 
from the base of the flower-tube at the point where the stamens 
are inserted. The tube is about 5—6 mm. long; and the 

two species of sper —a Papilio and a = peat erid—have 
been seen on the flowers in ey nities, (26—27-x-01). The second 
of the bees always carries abundant pollen as it visits. 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 249 

Xylocopa visits the flowers of Luffa acutangula, Roxb., in 
Behar (Barh, 6-vi-07); and a Sphingid was seen on them at 
Anand, Gujerat (1-xi-02). 

Ipomoea rubroccerulea, Hook., has fairly plentiful honey 
in a tube 9 mm. deep, for which Anthophora zonata visits in 
Calcutta (8—15-ix-01). One of the five stamens equals the 
style; so that its anther may possibly pollinate the stigma. 
Anthophora zonata, in visiting the flower, settles on the sexual 
organs and scatters the pollen so that it may be found on the 
corolla after a visit. 

Ipomoea paniculata, R. Br., was seen visited by Xylocopa 
aestuans persistently for honey (Calcutta, 29-vii-07, and near 
Bombay, 19-ix-08). _Xylocopas are recorded as biting through 
Ipomoea flowers in Singapore and Java (Ridley in Journ. Roy. 
. Soc., Straits Branch, No. 34, p. 229, and Kunth, Hand- 
buch d. Bliitenbiobgie, III. part 2, p.53); but ina general way 
hese members of the genus appear suited better for 
their visits than for those of other insects. 

X. latipes has been observed to rob Torenia Fournieri, 
Linden., of its honey by biting through the corolla-tube just 
above the calyx (Calcutta, 13-ix-01). 

It will be useful, before proceeding, to enumerate the 
flowers upon which Xylocopas have been seen: they are :— 

Dillenia indica, Linn. See below. 
Gynandropsis pentaphylla, DC. See below. 
Gossypium neglectum, Tod ; and 

; J 77 Ne 

Corchorus capsularis, Linn. See Note No. 2. 

Crotalaria striata, DC. See above. 
Crotalaria albida, Heyne. See Note No. 7. 

Cassia Sophera, Linn. See above. 
: eo 

Melastoma malabathricum, Linn. See above. 
Osbeckia crinita, Benth. See above. 

250 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. |N.S., XII, 

Cnicus argyracanthus, C.B. Clarke. See Note No. 6. 
Calotropis procera, R. Br. See Note No. 6 and above. 
Ipomoea paniculata, R. Br. See above. 

Solanum «anthocarpum, Schrad. and Wendl. See Note 6. 
Sopubia delphinifolia, G. Don. See Note No. 7 

Justicia Gendarussa, Linn., F. See below. 

Adhatoda Vasica, Nees. See Notes Nos. 3 and 6. 
Thunbergia grandiflora, Roxb. See Note No. 1 and above. 
Caryopteris Wallichiana, Schau. See Note No. 6. 

Leucas linifolia, Spreng. See below. 

Anisomeles ovata, R. Br. See Note No. 7 and above. 
Celosia cristata, Linn. See Note No. 7. 

Antigonum leptopus, Endl. See below. 

Curcuma Amada, Roxb. See above. 

in Burma which work on moonlight nights In the lower parts 
of the Himalaya their distribution overlaps that of some 
species of Bombus, e.g. B. haemorrhoidalis (vide Note No. 6, 
p- 230) ; upwards they gradually give place to them. 

Ihave observed and recorded the visits of Bombi in the 
Simla-Himalaya to the following plants :— 
Papaver somniferum, Linn. 
Viola serpens, Wall 
Sarothamnus scoparius, Koch. 
Rosa moschata, Mill, 
Pyrus Pashia, Buch.-Ham. 
Punica Granatum, Linn. 

Lactuca Heyneana, DC. 
Pieris ovalifolia, D. Don. 
Carissa spinarum, A. DC. 
Buddleia paniculata, Wall. 
Gentiana argentea, Royle, 
Evolwulus alsinoides, W all. 
Viburnum foetens, Decane. Celsia coromandeliana, Vahl. 
Lonicera angustifolia, Wall. Salvia lanata, Roxb. 
Bree argyracanthus, C. B. Scutellaria linearis, Benth. 

Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. Roylea elegans, Wall. 
Launaea nudicaulis, Hook.f.  Durania Plumieri, Jacq. 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in Indta. 251 

To these I have now to add Aesculus Hippocastanum, 
Linn. (Simla, 12-v-09). 

s was pointed out on p. 236 of Note No 6, Punica 
Granatum, Rosa moschata, and the Labiates such as Roylea 
elegans are visited by Bombus haemorrhoidalis ; while at higher 
levels Lonicera angustifolia and Viburnum foetens, and per- 
haps other horizontal or pendulous flowers, depend for fertili- 
sation on Bombus tunicatus. Under date of 17-vi-O7, Mr. 
C. BE. C. Fischer was so good as to communicate to me a state- 
ment that the latter Bombus particularly affects Salvia lanata, 
Roxb., in Jaunsar. 

honey by a Bombus which there constantly bites through the 

x-04 ix: z me Bombus goes the flowers of 
Tropaeolum j inn., in great numbers (14-x-04 ; 25- 
ix-09). On Digitalis p , Linn., also in gardens, Bombus 

In Note No.5, I recorded further visits of Bombi in the 
Sikkim Himalaya thus, to :— 

Aconitum spicatum, Stapf. Saussurea uniflora, Wall. 
Aconitum  heterophylloides, Senecio diversifolvus, Wall. 
Stapf. Cnicus involucratus, DC. 
Corydalis chaerophytla, DC. Strobilanthes pentstemonoides, 

Impatiens bicornuta, Wall. . Anders. 
Impatiens asymmetrica, Crawfurdia speciosa, C. B. 
Hook. f. arke. 
Impatiens Gagei, Hook. f. Elscholizia strobilifera, Benth. 
Polygonum amplexicaule, D. Don, 

Unidentified Bombi have been observed since that Note 
was published to visit the following wild flowers, in the same 
mountains :— 

Saurauja nepaulensis, DC. 
Piptanthus nep aulensis, 
D. Don oe 

Pedong, 6-vi-09 

oe Chiabanjan, 22-v-09. 
Mussaenda _  Roxburghii, : 
Hook. f. ne _. Pedong, 6-vi-09. 
Rhododendron cinnabarinum, 
Hook. f. ore 

: 4 Chiabanjan, 22-v-09. 
Ellettaria Cardamomum, 
Maton “a ae 
1 have seen the visits of Bombi in the Nepal Himalaya 
to :— 

Pedong, 6-vi-09. 

Clematis grewiaefolia. DC. 
Prunus Puddum, Roxb. 

Mee hea grandi flo ra, 

ea latifolia, Linn. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

(N.S. , ET; 

Sisagarhi, 2-xii-07. 
Chitlong, 3-xii-07. 

Bhainsa Duhan, 14-xii-07. 
Patan, 15-xii-07: 

on the last named with particular diligence and in considerable 


y no means are all these specially Bombus-flowers, 
though arent of them have a considerable specialisation. 

Rhododendron Falconeri, 
bitten through at the base of the coro 

Hook. f., was found to be 
llas by some insect not 

detected, but probably a Bombus (Tonglu, 10-vi-09). 

eaving the Bombi, 
specially considered. It 

is to those of the hills. 

yin sal zonata, 
is a comm 
In size it differs but little from the 

L., may be 

lains’ insect, and a 

ars to be partial to the plains’ Labiates just as Bombus 

ave recorded its visits to :— 

Corchorus capsularis, Linn. 

whi tee neglectum, Tod., or 
in edium, Tod. 

Trichode indicum, R 

Dicliptera bupleuroides, es. 

Roylea elegans, Wall 
Leucas ae ate 

(in the C 
Leucas Nisclolin’ R. B 
Teucrium Royleanum, Wall. 

_ Spreng 

and now add the following as visited also by it :— 

Impatiens tripetala, Roxb. 

Cephalandra indica, Naud. . 

Datura fastuosa, Linn. 

Ipomoea rubro- coerulea, 

Ipomoea Batatas, Lamk. 
Martynia diandra, Glox. 
Ruellia prostrata, Lamk. f 
Sie nepetaefolia, im Br. 
Leucas ifolia, R. 
Leucas linifolis, "a 

Scutellaria linearis, Benth. 

Costus speciosus, Sm. 

Patgram, N. Bengal, 26-viii- 
07, trying to rob the flowers 
from the side. 

Calcutta, 18-viii-O01. 

Calcutta, 8-ix-01. 

Calcutta, 8 15-ix-01. 

Calcutta, 1x01. 
Arrah, 8-vi-0 
Kutupur, Dalsing Sarai and 
ehar, 1 to 5-vi-07; 
Natran, Northern Arakan, 

Dhasioual: ag Himalaya, 
2-v-09, failing to get. honey. 

Calcutta, 2ix-1 abundantly, 
Narayanganj, 2-ix-04. 

1916.] The Pollination oj Flowers in India. 253 

With Anthophora eget all through the forenoon, was seen 
on Martynia diandra at Bardwan Anthophora violacea, Lep. ; 
and at one time the boeteeae Telchinia violae, F., visited but 
failed to reach the honey (10-ix-04). 

Impatiens tripetala also received visits from a Parnara 

vill-O9) : Leonotis nepetaefolia those of a bee of the genus 
Crocisa and of a Bombylid fly (Calcutta, 1-ix-01) ; Leuc 
linifolia those of Xylocopa fenestrata (Dalsing Sarai, 29-i-07) ; 
Apis dorsata (Dacca, 7-v-11; Thakurganj an ulsea, Nor. . 
=e Bengal, 31-i-11 and 3-ii-11); Natran, Northern Arakan, 
7-i-07) ; Elis (Barnes Junction, 18-vi-09 ) ; a Lycanid butterfly 
( Pusa, “ihe 07) and re tas and a Parnara (Barnes Junction, 
18 8-vi-09), Sphingid (Dacca, 7-v-11), a Syrphus, probably 8. 
balteatus, Nesalbat N. Bengal (24-i-11) and as above record- 
ed of 
Costus flowers open between 7 and 9 a.m. 

Strobilanthes Mastersii, T. Anders., is certainly well 
suited for the visits of the larger bees; but Apis dorsata only 
has been seen onit. This insect visited persistently at Kobo, 
Upper Assam (30-xiel1 and 4-xii-11). 

Irregular flowers suited for Apis and other small bees. 

Capparis tener, Dalz., is sie ete for the visits 
of the more intelligent insects, as the , ON account of 
the neat way in which its nee} is s hidden in a “little lenticular 
cavity made by the apposition of nectaries on the bases of the 
upper petals. The accompanying figure shows the appearance 

7.—Flower of Capparis tener. The lens-shaped cavity contain- 
ing the honey i is deatiiiatied by the letter n. 

of the flower, the letter n indicating where this double nectary 

Indigofera glandulosa, Willd., was seen to be visited by 
the butterfly Papilio polytes, L., at J as Berar (26-ix-09). 
Sesbania aculeata, Pers., ived visits from Xylocopa 
aestuans and from a butterfly at J laaod: Berar (24-ix-09). 

254 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Aeschynomene indica, Linn, was seen to be visited by a 
Tervas butterfly at Calcutta, (12- ix-09). 

Centranthera hispida, R. Br., has been seen to be visited 
by a butterfly of the genus Terias at Gauripur, Mymensingh 
(6-ix- 06). 

Rungia repens, Nees, has flowers which persist ie three 
days. During the first and part of the second they are ina 
male condition with the two anthers side by side oc ompy ing 
under the narrow hood such a position Shake a visitor is likely 
to touch them with its head. At the end of the second day, 

anthers outside the flower, as shown in the annexed figure. 
Then the stigma occupies ‘alone the place where the head of 

Fic. §.—Flowers of Rungia repens, that seen from in front in the 
first or male position, “thats seen from the side in the second or female 
position. § indicates a stam 

from a younger flower. The f now isi 
g visitors have been 
observed: :—HYMENOPTERA. evened on sp. Ageinonn 

Ody spp., ve 

Vespid ( (Mira, near Kolhapur, 12-xi-02). LEPIDOPTERA, 

Sure 6 pages (Miraj, 12-xi-02) DIPTERA. SyrpHipak 
us sp Iraj, 12-xi-02). Sarco S a 

sp. (Miraj, 12-xi-02). All at a ee 

: Justica Gendarussa, Linn. f., has the same mechanism as 
the last. The tube is 12 —13 mm. long, and affords abundant 
ey. The two anthers stand under the upper lip side by side, 


a line 
heaa? the tine febraces outside and above ihe spur. The spur 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 255 

the flower is over the filaments carry the anthers outside the 
flower as in Rungia repens. At the close of the female stage of 
flowering, the corolla falls, but there is still much honey on the 

Fre. 9.—Stamens of Justicia Gendarussa showing how the anthers 
are constructed. 
remaining parts to which visiting insects continue to go. Apis 
dorsata was seen visiting in considerable numbers and appears 
to be of the right kind of insect to effect fertilisation. 

HYMENOPTERA. Acoxeata. Xylocopa aestuans, Lep., 
Apis dorsata, F., and several similar bees. LEPID DOPTERA. 
RHOPALOCERA. Leveiak eeetiens (Padoung, south of Prome, 
24-11-04). All at honey. 

Peristrophe bicalyculata, Nees. The but terfly Terias 
has been seen visiting the flowers at Simulbasa in the Nepal 
terai (27-xi-07) 

Vitex trifolia, Linn. f., has been seen to be visited by the 
butterfly, Papilio polytes, for honey at Jamod, Berar (25- 
ix-09). At Tampin in the Malay Peninsula, a Xylocopa 
visits it. 

nta Plumieri, Jacq. HYMENOPTERA. ACULEATA. 
4 species LEPID DOPTERA. Ruopotocera. 2 species (Dam- 
dim, Duars, 21-viii-07). 

um gratissimum, Linn., is fitted for the visits of bees, 
but Bas Taleichats self-pollination, for the stamens, which a 
first diverge somewhat, aging close together, and the oN 
is raised by the style to the anthers. The flowers were 
to be visited by Apis indica ei Tuas in the Nepal sad for 
honey (28-xi-07). 

Plectranthus ternifolius, ees has its stamens quite 
hidden in the boat-shaped keel which visiting insects are 
intended to depress. Although it is suited for the visits of 
small bees, butterflies only have been seen on it (Parsua, Nepal 
terai, 22-xi-07). 

Plectranthus gerardianus, Bent th., was seen to be visited 

y a Bombus, Apis indica and several butterflies at Bhimpedi, 
Nepal (1 and 14-xii-07). 
Elsholtzia strobilifera, Benth., is visited by Apis mellifica, 
L., in | Dahon (20-ix-09). 

256 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

ommelyna benghalensis, Linn., as is well known, has 
cleistogamic flowers underground. Its half horizontal above- 

Shih directed, projecting 1°5 mm. beyond the lower 
anthers, and 4 mm. from the unpaired upper anther (Calcutta, 
—1901 ; Parlakimedi, Circars, ix-1903). 

The flowers of Commelyna Forskalii, Vahl, open at 7-30 
a.m, (Sangli, near Miraj, 9-x-02). 

- 6, the constancy with which the spur of 
Delphinium denudatum, Wall., is bitten through, was remar 
Another opportunity of observing t the flowers occurred at 
Kasauli (9-v-11); but though bitten spurs were again found, 
the robber was not detected. 
e spur of Utricularia Wallichiana, Wight, was observed 
bitten through in the Dawna hills (4-iii-08). 

Various flowers with many stamens. 

The large pendulous flowers of Dillenia indica, Linn., open 
in the night, apparently towards dawn, and last until the 

occasion a single individual of Xylocopa aestuans was seen first 
to seek honey, and not finding any, to collect pollen. One fly 
of the genus Ualliphora was seen on the flowers (Calcutta, end 
June, 1911). 

he flowers of Dillenia pulcherrima, Kurz, fall at midday- 
Before that a Melapona visits them (Moulmein, 2-iii-02). 

On the rather smaller, but similar, pore of the tea plant— 
Camellia Thea, Link—a Hesperid moth was seen sucking 
honey at Thansing, aa (11- ch 

Mesua fi 
are very fragrant, and ’ Apis indica is attracted to ges in 
considerable numbers (Moulmein and Korokpi, south of 
Amherst, 2-ii-04 and 12-iii-08). 

Barringtonia pterocarpa, Kurz, opens its horizontal 
flowers in the late afternoon, from which time they last only 
until dawn. Honey is abundant, and no sooner are they open 

apicalis, Dall., commences to visit in large 
numbers (Dawna hills near Kawkareik, Tenasserim, 1-iii-02). 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 257 

Callistemon speciosus, DC., obtains the persistent visits of 
Apis indica in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta; but this 
bee can pass between the stamens without touching the anthers 

Opuntia flowers are dissimilar to the foregoing in that they 
face upwards. Those of Opuntia elatior, Mill., have self- 

unlikely in Opuntia Dillenii, — because the style carries 
the stigma well above the anther 

Apis was seen collecting pollen in the flowers of Opuntia 
monacantha at Dharmpur in the Simla Hills (16-v-11). Halictus 
senescens, Smith, was observed pushing a way down among the 
stamens of QO. elatior (Bankipur, 2-vi-07), a also of O. 
Dillenii (Barh, Behar, 5-vi-07), being abundant on the flowers. 
Ceratina viridissima, Dall., was doing the same at Barh (4 to 
osa damascena, Mill., the race which is grown for the 
manufacture of Attar, Apis florea, was seen collecting pollen 
(Patiala, 22-iv-07). 
The small downwardly directed flowers of Eury 
minata, DC., get the visits of species of Andrena and Syrphus 
(Chitlong, Nepal, 7-xil-07). 
Rubus rosaefolius, Smith, has downwardly directed flowers, 
which receive the visits of Apis at Shillong (16-vi-11). The 
wer ubus ellipti 

Hopea odorata, Roxb., has been,seen to be visited y's 
soe sibgad # Moulmein rather freely. Its slightly fragrant 
flow noted to open at very varying hours between 
sidaignt. a midday (Moulmein, 15-ii-02). 

Growin Microcos, Linn., opens its flowers between 7 and 
8 a.m.; then the citron-yellow petals bend back giving space 

Grewia arbutilifolia, Juss., has flowers fring slightly in 
that the stigma lies beyon nd the anthers. These anthers 
dehisce as the flower opens (Parlakimedi, Raens Circars, 
2. x- 

258 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

Grewia asiatica, Linn.,! was seen to be visited by Xylocopa 
at Saharanpur (26-v-06). 


Although the devices for securing pollination which can be 
found in the Malvaceae vary with the size of the flower in 
suitability to a great variety of visitors, there is considerable 
similarity in their flowers: an nd it convenient to put 
together here in one place all the notes that I wish to make. 
From Hibiscus lasiopetalus waa is a >a bird-flower though 
Althaea rosea and cotton which, as given above, obtain bird- 
visits, there is a gradual anaition in Tenate size of the flow 
and of the suitable insects, which somehow has left but little 
mark on the pee of the parts of the flowers 

No . 4 of this series was on the pollination of cotton 
detailing ob Pitlbiis made in Behar and a part of Note No. 7 
dealt with observations on cotton in Berar. was anxious 
when writing those two notes to prevent a deduction being 
made from Professor Gammie’s observations at Poona to the 
effect that cotton is yey self-pollinated. Since then the 
Howards, A. and G. C. L., in the Memoirs of the Department of 
Agriculture of India, Botanic series, iii, p. 261, have written 


sometimes at Pusa. To the visitors already recorded Papilio 
polytes may be added (Nandurbar, Tapti valley, 29-ix-09). 
The yellow flowers of Gossypium intermedium, Tod., and 

Sida cordifolia, rong opens its flowers about 8 a.m. 

they close at noon, when the styles have bent so as to have 
brought the stigmas among the anthers. Sida acuta, Burm., 
opens its flowers at abou a.m., the anthers dehiscing 
afterwards, and later in the morning self-pollination becomes 
not improbable (Calcutta, 15 to 19-ix “re Sida rhombifolia, 
Linn., opens its flowers between 9 and 10 a.m. (Akrani plateau 
2 to 10. x-09) or later up to noon (Nandu ony 29-ix-09). Sida 
peice” n., opens an hour after the last on the Akrani 

—.01; Bardwan, 20-ix-07). Hibiscus cannabinus, Linn., 

' I am indebted to Mr. R. 8. Hole for naming this, my field number 
27223. He adds that it is the form of the specs, por be ampliore, 
which is common in the plains of Northern India 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 259 

has been studied by the Howards (1. c., p. 261), who record 
that the flowers open early. I found A, to open at 7 a.m. 
in observations nee at Nandurbar (l-x-09). Hibiscus 
ficulneus, Linn., opens its flowers towards 10 a.m. (Myingyan, 
12-11-02: Moutie, 10-ii-04). Hibiscus panduraeformis, Burm., 

The above series of observations requires amplifying, and 
is only published now because I am obliged to leave the ampli- 
in Indie to be done by others. I never had the leisure myself 

To the flowers of Sida acuta butterflies were seen to be 
visitors near Calcutta (15-ix-02). Butterflies also seem to be 
the chief visitors to the flowers of Urena lobata, Linn., 
thus :— 

HYMENOPTERA. Acutgata. One Apiid, Calcutta, 20- 
x-O1, LEPIDOPTERA. Ruopatoera. Papilio spp. Calcutta, 
, Terias s 

terai, 26 xi-07; term 
Arakan, 7-i-07. HeTEROCERA.  Theehla sp. Calcutta, 26-x-07, 

Sphingid, N atran, 7-i-07. 

To the flowers of Malachra capitata, Linn. Xylocopa 
? latipes has been seen visiting, but not persistently, as well as 
black ants (Calcutta, 27-x-01). The staminal c lumn_ is 
usually bent somewhat to one side of the flower. 

Unspecialised flowers. 

I arrange _ ers observations by the systematic 
position of plan 

Argemone mexicana, Linn. 

1 T am oe indebted to Mr. H. G. Carter, my successor in Calcutta, 
for this determination. 

Not a single visitor has been 

260 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [NS., XII, 

seen on the flowers of this plant although it has been under 
observation repeatedly! in many different parts of India; but 
self-fertilisation is accomplished in the closing of the flowers at 

44 per plant at Dalking Sarai in Tirhut. The petals close on the 
anthers between 6 and 9 p.m.; and fall off at dawn on the 
next day. 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla, DC., has been seen to be 
visited by Xylocopa latipes for honey (Calcutta, 15-ix-01). 
Early in the morning the stigma is thrust out of the closed petals 
and so exposed before the anthers. Soon after this the petals 

expand. Later the anthers come into 5 aay with the stigma. 

Monteiro says in his “ Angola and the River Congo’’ (London, 
1875), ii, p. 205, Pat a Sphingid fertilizes | this plant in Portu- 
guese e West Afric 

Flacourtia Ramontchi, L’Her., was seen to be visited by 
Apis indica at Parsua in the Nepal teral (27-xi-07). 

Meiochia corchorifolia, Linn., has flowers which close 
towards midday. A butterfly was seen to visit them (Bardwan, 
September, 1903). 

recorded i in Note No. 2. Since that note was Picked Mr. R. s. 

visitor for honey at Pusa and Dacca (vide Memoirs bor acne 
of Agriculture, India, Botanical series, IV, 1912 

Tribulus terrestris, Linn., has flowers ou eet 
in size, which open fairly early in the morning and may wither 
at noon. Every flower sets fruit, probably by pollination in its 
closing, for when they open the anthers and the stigma are 
separat Apis florea and a smaller Apiid, Lycaenids, a moth, 
“gh ——- beetle were seen in the flowers ( Myingyan, 

Oxalis corniculata, Linn., has been seen visited by 
Lycaenids and after their visits the stigmas were observed to be 
pollinated (Calcutta, 22-iv-01). 

Glycosmis emnigtctlea| Correa. The five scant arch over 

The vi villagers in Behar use the oil of Argemone mexicana a stedide 
ably, picking the capsules with iron or wooden tongs. They get their 
ff th 

ing some sport promising the needed race, I have fact awanvas sich 
poe oo but I regret to say that ui bade: not found the desired 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 261 

the sexual organs and also narrow the way to the honey. The 
Hymenopteron Scolia aureipennis, Lep., was seen twice on the 
flowers (Plassey, 3-ix-07) sucking honey; and the Hymenop- 
tera Humenes conica, F., and Sphex lobaius, L., were seen doing 
the same in Calcutta (2-xi-01), the latter diligently. 

Toddalea aculeata, Pers., was found to be visited by a 
small bee at Pongging in the Abor Hills The anthers do not 
touch the stigma at all. 

Aegle Marmelos, Correa, has very sweet-scented flowers 
which attract a considerable variety of insects (Dacca, 2- 

are more likely to be in different stages than in the same, so 
that fertilisation of neighbouring flowers can be accomplished 
easily. Their duration is about three days. Polystes hebraeus, 
F., and another Hymenopteron have been seen as visitors, 
an ant, a small Dipteron and a beetle (Calcutta, 15-ix-Ol) ; 
the same species of Polystes and other insects were seen on the 
flowers at Nandurbar, Tapti valley, sucking honey (27-ix-09). 

Zizyphus nummularia, W. and A., which is very similar. 
to the last, was seen visited by the Hymenopteron Megaspis 
crassus, F., at Nandurbar (27-ix-09). 

Vitis trifolia, Linn., is very well visited at Calcutta for 
the sake of its freely exposed honey by HYMENOPTERA. 
Acuteata. Apis florea, L., diligently. Polystes hebraeus, F., 
and another Vespid. LEPIDOPTERA. Ruopa.ocera. small 
butterflies, DIPTERA. Syrpstpan, Helophilus sp., Syrphus, 
sp., SARCOPHAGIDAE. Sarcophaga sp. (15 to 18-viii-O1). 

- Papiria hirsuta, Hook. f. is visited by Bibionids and other 
small flies at Kobo, Upper Assam (25 to 26-ii- 12). 

florea (Bardwan, 10-ix-02).. The first named has been seen as a 
visitor in the Malay Peninsula on many occasions. 

Acacia arabica, Willd., was seen to be visited by HY- 
MENOPTERA. Acuzata, Xylocopa sp. (Akot, 17-ix-09). at 
DOPTERA. Rnopatocera. Papilio polytes, te avers y 
(Akot, 17-ix-09; Jalgaon, 26-ix-09), Danais sp. (Jalgaon, 

262 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [NS., XII, 

26-ix-09), Catopsilia crocale, Cramer (Jalgaon, 26-ix-09), T'ertas 
sp. (Jalgaon, 26-ix-03). 

Sedum rosulatum, Edgew., was observed by Dr. N. 
Annandale at Simla on 16-v-09, and he has been so ‘good as to 
amen 0 to me the following list of visitors taken on the 
flowers : 

DIPTERA. BOMSYEDAS. Anthrena himalayensis, Brunetti ; 
A. aperta, Walker ; Usia sedophila, rhe aaa marginata , 
Brunetti; Sepsina .B, Sepsis cynipsea, L.; 8S. fulvolateralis, 
Brunetti ; S. bicolor, Wiedemann. 

Pentapanax Leschenaultii, Seem., was seen to be visited 
by numerous individuals of Apis at , Rapahing Showing in the 
abet Hills (3-iii-12). 

Vanquiera spinosa, Roxb., was visited by Apis indica at 
Pagnat, south of Amherst (12-i1i-08). 

Fie. 10.—Flower of Evolvulus nummularioides, seen from the side. 

: olvulus nummularioides, Linn., is a simple upwardl 
directed flower, which opens about dawn and ti as ard 
midday. There is no visible honey ; sa me florea is a con- 
stant eae for pollen through May, d September, and 
perhaps in other months in Calcutta. " Gelf-pollimation is see 
improbable as the anthers dehisce just after the opening of t 

flower and the stigmas lie among them with no constant ‘elutive 

pium indicum, Linn., was seen to be visited by a 
bisteeeny ee 3-viii-01). : 

Cynoglossum micranthum, Desf., was seen to be visited 
by a Syrpbid at Bhamo (2-04). 

Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Forsk., — seen to be abun- 
dantly visited by a butterfly of the genus Lycaena and by a 
Vespid at Barnes Junction, Northern ag (18-viii-09). 

Gentiana capitata, Ham., var. strobiliformis, C. B. Clarke, 

was found to be cleistogamic on Phallut, Sikkim Himalaya, 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 263 

Gentiana bryoides, Burkill, which grows with the las 
opens its flowers in the sunshine but is self-pollinating On 

Solanum verbascifolium, Linn., was seen visited by Antho- 
phora zonaia, seeking honey in vain (Calcutta, 15-ix-01). 
oparia dulcis, Linn., is visited by small bees for pollen 
in Calcutta (3-viii-01). 
Lippia nodifiora, Rich., attracts but few visitors. Apis 
was seen on it sucking honey at Pusa, Tirhut (26-v-07). 

Boerhaavia repens, Linn., ~ been seen visited by two 
species of butterflies, and by o e species of the Syrphidae. 
(Calcutta, 11-viii-O1; 11-ix-01, pes 01 and 20-ix-01). 

Achyranthes aspera, Linn., was seen to be visited by Apis 
dorsata at Dacca (9-v-11). 

ntigonum leptopus, Endl. The following visitors have 

Apis indica, the latter most abundant. Apis florea, Xylo 
aestuans and X. latipes have also been seen on the flowers in 
ei numbers in Malacca and Singapore 

olygonum capitatum, Ham., has seltpolinatin in the 
teaees of the flowers (Rengging, Abor Hills, 27-i-12). It is 
however freely visited by Syrphids at Dheteapani (31-v-11), 
and by the Syrphid Zristalis, as well as by the bee Apis florea 
at Kobo in Upper Assam (10-iii-12). 

Polygonum chinense, Linn., was seen to be visited by a 
Lycaenid at Kobo (4-xii-11). 

tropha gossypifolia, Linn., was seen visited by a Papilio 
at Phusesy (3-ix-07), and also by an Apiid. 

Sapium insigne, Benth., gets the visits of a Melipona to the 
large extra floral nectaries which are associated with its inflores- 
cences (Amherst, 12-iii-08). 

Euphorbia pilulifera, Linn., is not uncommonly run over 
by a black ant which obtains honey here the glands round the 
flowers (Domohani, North Bengal, 19-vi-09). 

Asparagus filicinus, Ham., has flowers pleasantly scented 
by day, but they seem scentless at night. The anthers are 
about 3 mm. from the stigmas. Apis florea and a species of 
Byes, as well as a Calliphora, have been seen on the 
flowers (Calcutta—01). 

Cyanotis axiliaris, Roem. and Schultes, a its violet 
flowers in the morning and the anthers and stigma 

264 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

after which the flower withers (Calcutta, 24 to 28-ix-01). Cyano- 
tis fasciculata, Roem. and Schulte’s, opens its flowers at the 
same hour (Sangli near Miraj, 9-x-02). 

Arenga saccharifera, Labill., and Caryota urens, Linn., 
to the ground their male flowers in enormous numbers, 

portunities. The male flowers of Arenga saccharifera which fell 
on a Monday in Calcutta were still affording pollen to bees on 
the following Sunday. 

Andropogon Sorghum, Brot., and Pennisetum typhoi- 
deum, Rich., have been seen to be visited by small bees for 
pollen in the country near Bellary (26-xi-02). 


Typhonium trilobatum, Schott, I examined a few years ago 
in Dacca. The mechanism was found to be exactly as described 
by Miss Cleghorn in this Journal, X. 1914, pp. 421-424. The 
following beetles were taken within the lower chamber, and 
kindly named for me by Mr. F. M. Howlett. 

COLEOPTERA. ScaraBerpaz. Onthophobus sp. ; Cacobius 
vulcanus ; Cacobius sp., Aphodius moesius, F. STAPHYLINIDAE. 
2 or 3 spp. Niriputipax. Carpophilus sp. (Dacca, 6 to 10-v-11). 
Four species of beetles, unidentified, were also taken within the 
chamber near Calcutta (27-v-01). 

__ Amorphophallus campanulatus, Blume, was found to be 
visited by flies of the genera Calliphora and Sarcophaga, 
attracted by the foul smell (Calcutta, 22-v-04). 

Alocasia fornicata, Schott, of which the smell was not 
offensive, had within its lower chamber many small Diptera, 

which were not being held prisoners (Chuadanga, Lower Bengal, 

1916.] The Pollination of Flowers in India. 265 

Journal the mechanism by which pollination is brought about: 
and to her remarks the only thing that I find to add is, that I 
suspect the presence in the chamber of two smelling compounds 
on account of the way in which the odour of the inflorescence 
is at one time strongly offensive and at another not exactly 

Arisaema speciosum, Mart. Small Diptera were found 
within the spathe on the mountain of Tonglu, Sikkim 
Himalaya (18-v-09). 

Sauromatum guttatum, Schott. At Pathankot in the 
Panjab the following visitors to the flowers were observed : 
HYMENOPTERA. Acuteata. Apiidae, 1 sp.; LEPIDOP- 
TERA, 1 moth; DIPTERA, several spp.; COLEOPTERA, 
several spp. (7-11i-02). 

Ant-patrols and extrafloral nectaries. 

food from them black ant has been observed at the 
corresponding extrafloral nectaries of Cassia occidentalis, 
Linn. (Dinajpur, 15-viii-06). A the same place on t 

of muc 
at Gauhati (2-ix-06). 


pa ees 
Pes > 5 ah 

iti eee ee 

16. A note on the Terai Forests between the Gandak 
and the Teesta. 

By I. H. Burxix. 

The Terai from the Gandak to the Teesta is a sill with a 
very slight slope from north to south, most rainy in the east 

all its gree But man, the one animal wi he power of 
a i e measure of see cies’ fire, has by this 
means partially overcome nature ; to date a om the south 

in the areas which happened to be most easily burned clean, 
and which, on account of the position of administrative cen- 
tres were also most persistently attacked. 

It is fairly evident that some of the rivers,—those with 

racter of the vegetation which covers it, so that the surface of 
the soil on the cones is made more easy to travel over at seasons 

and the sal having been th ere encouraged, rowing only 
on the sandy soils, the diversity naturally ee between the 
vegetation the river cones and i wer hollows has 

acquired yet more marked dinsimnilaeitfes. Man has undoubt- 
edly tai this firing through centuries ; he has always been 
in a hurry to burn; and where particulary he came and passed 
into the forests, the more marked has influence been, pro- 
gressing from the first stage where the sal is encouraged, to the 

second, where the firing being too — it is destroyed ; and 
the forest gives place to savannah, to grass, and then i is ready 
to come under the gh. 

The rivers did more than determine where the forest should 

268 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

be eaten into from its south edge: they determined where 
the through roads should lie. Two main trade routes from 
time immemorial have traversed the Terai: and though the 

coming from the Tang-la crosses the Jalep-la and descends 
with a westward trend via Daling (now via Kalimpong) towards 
the Teesta. 

healthy belt. 

There are other sand-carrying rivers between the Gandak 
and the Teesta, such as the Bagmati, the Kumla, the Kan- 
kai, the Mahananda, and largest of all, the Kosi; and there is 
reason to believe that man has at times made more headway 

reclaimation from forest). On the Kan the forest now 
recedes in a deep bay, which has deepened much 

1916.] A note on the Terai Forests. 269 

Having attained the plains, the trade routes bent round 
towards the best marts. The western route, for instance, in- 

th d ed 
against Burdhan-kot (Bhut-tang-kot or Bhut-boundary fort), 
which was his undoing. In 1216, in the spring apparently, 
ne set out, was defeated by men in bamboo armour?;: an 

what he could learn of this great defeat ; but he mixed into 
the story the geography of the western trade-route, whereas it 
was up the eastern that the expedition went. Some Kuch 
chief, called by Minhaj the Rai of Kamrud, with a bone to 

Gaur was at this date or shortly afterwards a city of 
1,200,000 inhabitants. Yet petty Rajput chiefs ruled the 
marches so near to it as northern Purneah, and were not 

1 The earlier markets were north of the Ganges; but the last south 
of it—an interesting fact which historians must take account of. 

2 Thi of Bamboo armour may be seen in the Indian Museum, 
the Thibetans still using it. 

270 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

pression, and the rarity in the whole countryside of ruins of 
permanent habitations, ana the folk as having been too 
r for the administration to spread over them. Population 

must have been very scanty; cultivation very backward: 

and when Saif Khan is recorded as having brought half of the 
land between Purneah and the mountains under cultivation, the 
Raja of Morung beyond is recorded as paying tribute in game, 

not having other means wherewith to doso. Likewise on the 
northern side of the Terai the inhabitants of the hills seem to 
have been feeble folk, for we have no knowledge of them in 
history; and when the Gurkhas had won their life-and-death 
struggle with the Newars, the whole of the wide stretch up to 
Sikkim was overrun with apparent ease. Thus in review does it 
seem that the want ofa traderoute through the Terai anywhere 
between the two important ones of the Gandak and Teesta left 
the ac na of the land on either side of the Terai belt in a 
backward state 

Saif Khan’s work was helped forward by another circum- 

ce, unconnected with his own ability : Newars who had fled 
eke ‘the Gurkhas, settled at the southern limits of the bha- 
ver and commenced to clear land (vide Bu chanan- ee in 
Montgomery Martin’s ‘‘ Eastern India,’’ iii, 1838, p. 197). 

At a little later date we find that the: East India Com- 
pany’s Trade Agent at Patna maintained a buying subagent 
ot a Re on the Mahananda, whose duty it was to obtain 

ing, made there from jute, and to send it down country. 
The eeateie “of the subagency shows that the country on the 
eastern trade route was much cultivated. But I have no 
knowledge of any such subagent _ placed along the south- 
ern side he the Terai towards the w 

It is probably written in Gishatwan th uitioate unpub- 
lished pepe at the India Office how much of the north of 
Purneah in 1811 was in forest, how much was in grass and how 
much was peri the plough. Such reales would be most 
eambayessn ‘ extracted. As it is, Montgomery Martin’s ac- 

count of neah is a very incomplete Siscduotions of what 
Hamilton wr seiite: 

Hamilton (as reproduced) records the existence of a sal 
forest of small extent in the north-west corner (north-east was 
printed by Martinin error) of the Purneah district, and of several 
similar woods on the northern border of Bahadurganj and 
Udrai, producing in the last more Butea frondosa, Roxb., and 
Bombaz malabaricum, DC., intermixed, than sal. Bamboos, 
he reports, to have been scarce, especially north of Araria, 
though slightly more abundant ‘south-eastwards, Dalbe ergia 
Sissoo, Roxb., he records as planted on the lower Mahananda 
and west of the Kosi. Now conditions are changed, Every- 

1916.] A note on the Terai Forests. 271 

but the mango trees are rarely old. Other trees are in no 
variety and rare everywhere, or are often entirely absent over 
large areas. The patches of sal south of the Nepal border have 
almost disappeared. Bombax malabaricum is rare; Butea is 
only a little more common ; Odina Wodier, Roxb., occurs some- 
times in the east. In 1911 I passed through the country near 

The little variety in the woody vegetation over these wide 
tracts is evidence of periodic and severe firing at no very re- 
mote date, whereby the forest was destroyed first to a savan- 
nah, and then to what remains now through such a state as 
we see at the present time on the great gravel bank of the East- 
ern Duars towards Nagrakata. 

The apperance of the forest which has gone, we can in 
part picture from the northern parts which persist. A short 
account of what is to be found in Nepal on the western trade 
route may be read in the Records of the Botanical Survey of I ndia 
(Vol. iv., 1910, p. 67), and of what is under the Darjeeling 
Himalaya in articles by Mr. J. S. Gamble in the Indian 
Forester, i., p. 73, and Messrs. J. W. A. Grieve and E. O. Sheb- 
beare in the same, xl., 1914, p. 147. 

At a very remote period the bhaver may have merged 
southwards gradually, into a third type of forest having Bar- 
ringtonia acutangula, Gaertn , as its most prominent member. 
Such a forest, up to a quite recent date, lined the northern 

eighties, than the Terai; but has been swept away by the 
northward migration of the Sontals. 

! This map is dated 1857, additions to 1895. How old the name 
Salguri is, consequently does not appear from it. 

272 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.] 


. The natural vegetation of the Terai between the Gan- 
dak and the Teesta is forest. 

2 e sand-carrying rivers which traverse it, by altering 
the nature of the surface soil promote the growth of the sal 
tree, Shorea robusta 

3. This effect is local, and determines the distribution of 
sal forest and diverse forest. 

4. Man finds it easier to burn in the sal forest than in 
the diverse forest: and by moderate burning he encourages 
the growth of the sal, thus intensifying the differences be- 
tween the two kinds of forest. - 

. But as the pressure of man becomes heavier, the 
whole forest is destroyed by the firing; and, the pressure vary- 
ing according to population, the south limit of the Terai forest 
exhibits bays where this attack has progressed most. Both 

rom the greater ease of burning the areas covered by sal, and 

from the greater population which the neighbourhood of the 
rivers is able to support in comparative health, these bays are 
on the courses of the sand-carrying rivers. 

6. The Gandak and the Teesta, the largest rivers of this 
part of the Terai except the perhaps-very-modern Kosi, have 
had from time immemorial trade routes connected with them, 

, > 

Heene which by their size would need large clearings about 

8. But between the trade routes both north and south of 
the Terai forest, want of a through traffic kept the land from 
developing, and the inhabitants of Northern Purneah and of 
the sueaings north of Purneah, remained economicaily back- 

In the eighteenth century, Northern Purneah emerged 
into a transition phase between forest and cultivation, such as 
we can see in the Eastern Duars at the present time. 

in the process nearly all the formerly existing tree 
growth was burned off, and although we find now that the 
landscape is full of trees, they are bamboos and mango-trees 
whose planting is certainly very recent. 

ecient ana lin cen 2 tie Cac sa ae I 

17. Some old Records of the Madras Army 

Edited by the Ruv. H. Hosten, S.J. 

List oF Otp Recorps. 

Books. Orders as to disposal. 
1. Roll of recruit and pension to boys 
4th Madras Light Cavalry, dated 
8 lu 

~a-¥e i 
8th Madras Light Cavalry, dated | To be sent to the 

854, 1 volume. adras Government 
18th Madras Native Infantry, dated Record Office. 
, | volume 

2. Letter book, Adjutant General’s 
‘ Office, Madras, dated 1784-86, 1. 

3. Portion of an Invaliding Roll, \ ee sent to Major G. 

. Oakes, 88th Car- 
Madras, dated 1872. natic Infantry. 

. 1 paper-covered book of coloured 
pattern drawings of regimental | To be sent to the Sec- 
badges for knapsacks. , retary, United Ser- 

. 1 paper-covered lithographed book vice Institution of 
of elephant artillery mountings, India, Simla. 

ras. : 

274 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

‘ Documents. 
1. List of English prisoners in Pondi- 
cherry, dated 1759 (in French). 
2. List of French prisoners at Fort 
St. George, dated 1759. 
3. General abstract of English prison- 
ers at Pondicherry, dated 1759. 
List of English and French prison- 
ers exchanged, dated 1759. 
List of French ships at the Cape 
and Mauritius in February 1759. 
6. Copy of a letter from Colonel Clive 
to Admiral Watson, [dated 1757]. 
a letter from Admiral 


. Copy o 
Watson to Colonel Clive, dated 1757. / 

Coloured Plates. 

1 bundle coloured drawings of 
regimental colours of Madras regi- 
bundle coloured drawings of 
Queen’s colours of Madras regiments ; 




bar | 

signed by Queen Victoria. 

5. 2 water colour sketches of men of 
14th Sikhs and 20th Punjabis, dated 

Drawings in colour and ink of 
articles of dress. 


3. 1 lot drawings of breast pl 
Madras ventinadee: ne 

[N.S., XII, 

To be sent to the 

Asiatic Society of 
Bengal for publica- 
tion on the. . . under- 
standing that the 
originals will be 
returned.... to be 
preserved in the Im- 
perial Library.! 

of India, Simla. 

! ** Tmperial Library ”’ was ch to In Vase uM lami su Or 
anged perial Record Department 
Fite OD. Camp, Government of India, Army oe er Fort 

William, 22nd February, 1911. 

1916.) Some oid Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 275 

On February 23rd, 1911, Dr. E. Denison Ross, the Officer 

in charge of the Records of the Government of In dia, addressed 

to the Asiatic cen fe cage ct the seven papers detailed 
above gore ** Docum 

ee was anxious to have the ‘‘ Documents ’’ edited. 

a search into the a “tikely books, such as 8. 0. Hill’s 
Bengal in 1756-57 (3 vols.), C. R. Wilson’s Old Fort William 
in Bengal (2 vols.), his Harly Annals of the English in Bengal 

(3 tomes), and H. Davidson Love’s Vestiges of Old Madras, 1640-' 

1800 (3 vols.), shows that these papers were unknown heretofore, 
we publish them here in their chronological order. The w orks 
just mentioned furnish the historical setting and Gapesiee us 
from further comment. 


Copy of a Letter from Colonel Clive to Adméral Watson 
(Calcutta, 24th February 1757).} 
I should be wanting in my Duty to the President and 
Council of Madrass if I was not to return you thanks in their 

subsisting in England. 

The Hondwable peace lately concluded with the Nabob of 
tb ratified in the most firm & sacred Manner and “Co 
ainty of a Neutrality with the French Guaranteed by 
il: I make no doubt put the Company’s Affairs upon the Videoaes 
footing in these parts and I am persuaded that attention you 
have hitherto bestowed on _ in Fepaigel will induce you not 
to forget the Company’s Inte on the Coast. It is not 
impossible, Sir, but the poe ae sent//by the 20 Gun Ship, 
may ayers those lately received at the Coast, this seems 

ere, = : 
under Great Concern for the consequences. All the Company’s 
extensive & valuable Acquisitions run the Risque of being 

! Two leaves 12} x 74 inches * oy" 

[P. 1. 

[P. 2.] 

[P. 3.] 

[P. 1.] 

" 276 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

taken from them, for the want of your Squadron and the large 
Reinforcement of Military sent from the coast for the Recovery 
of the Company’s Rights & Privileges in this Kingdom. 

Give me leave therefore in the Name of the united East 
India Company to desire the.... ... ! of all the Assistance 
you can possibly spare the Gentlemen on the Coast of Chor- 

instructions from the President and Committee, desire 
I will apply to you for//a Passage for some of the [rejturning 
Force. Should you therefore think proper to send any of the 
Squadron upon the Coast, give me leave to make this applica 

Sir, with the greatest Respect, 
CaLcurta: Your most obedient hum. Serv*: , 
24th Feby. 1757. Rosert Crive. 
Cartes Watson, Esqre., &c., &c. 
[Endorsement]: N. 4. Copy of Letter from / Colo! Clive to 

Adml. Watson / to be entd. in Comm. 18th Apr. / Entd. / 
Charles Floyer /S.L. Douglas? 


Copy of Admiral Watson’s answer to Col. Clive 
(Fort William, 27th February 1757).8 

Service his Majesty’s Squadron has been of to the Company’s 
Affairs in this Province. If my mite has contributed anything 
tortheie al igcs * IT am well pleased: But I cannot think their 

believe they woud® be in as much d ng 
again as ever they were if the Squadron and Troops were to go 

, One word illegible. 2 8. J. Do net ; Douglas » 
3 Two leaves 123 x 74 inches uglas? §. P. Douglas 

* One word illegible. Probably: success. 5 Sic. 

1916.] Some old Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 277 

out of the River, before//every Article of the Peace was fulfill’d 
and their Fortificati tions put into a better Posture of Defence. 

e Apprehensions you are under for the mpy.’s 
Settlements on the Coast are so very different from the Opinion 
of the Governor and Council at Madrass; that I ieee: — 
sending you an Extract of their Letter to me in r to 
representations I made them relating to their otilaniant if the 

whole Squadron should proceed on this ——— and a French 
Squadron arrive in my absence. They sa 

** tion anes we have seriously reflec e thro we 
‘‘shall leave ga eigen with a aciac get ylssies for our 

“that we Soar even an Enemy [as ?] powerful as has been 

rom such an opinion founded oe, after a ee Reflec- 
tion on ‘their Situation I can have no good 
suppose they have need of any Assistance from i] bite Squadron. 

settled in the manner you represent, there was also a possibility 
of getting the it ships ready to go out of the River this 
Season, and { tho* my Appearance at Madrass would be of 

Squadron, it is now become impossible to get the necessary 
Repairs done to sseaape ben to proceed to the Coast, and 
Imprudence of such a step............ ' before the Neutrality 
was firmly se(ttled) with the French, would be the height of 
Folly, it being so far from a certainty that such a Treaty will 
be concluded that the Council at Chandernagore are not 
invested with Powers to settle it. 
believe I shall have occasion to send the twenty 
Ship and Sloop to Madrass very soon, if you have any com 
to the coast that I can comply with, I will gladly give their 
Captains orders accordingly 
Fort Wiu.1am. Your most obedient humble Servant, 
27th Feby. 1757. Cas. Watson. 
To Cot” Crive. 

[Endorsement]: No. 5, Copy of Admirl. Watson’s / Answer 
to Colo! Clive /To be entd. in Comm. 18th Apr. Entd. 
Charles Floyer / a. Douglas./ * 


! Two words illegible. 2 §. J. Douglas? S. P. Dougtlas ? 

[P. 2.] 

[P. 3.] 

[P. 1.] 

[P. 2.] 

278 Journal of the Asvatic Society of Bengal. {N.S., XII, 

List of French Ships at the Cape and Mauritius in February, 

At the Cape. 
Men. Guns 

et rt Ship .. DeRuis ie 600 6 
Fort L’Obry nk 600 64 
Cen .. DeSurville Ancié . 650 66 
or D’ Orleans -- De Surville Cadet . 500 60 
Vengeur.. .. Palliere oh 500 «64 
Condé .. Rosbo ‘ 336 50 
Achilles, King’ 8 ship -. Mariniere Me wi pote 

yren Do. Frigate. ipa ee yea 
Zephir Do. do. .. Le Grass Wi 30 
—— a .. St. Martin 100 
Ballei .. dela Londe) Vessels of b 
Chasuat P . Ommeral called Flutes of 145 
Elephant . Winceslaus feet keel carrying 
oe : - Murphy 130 Men eac n 
Penelop .. Tremogen have ports for 30 

Geantlan, Prize guns on one 
At Mauritius. 

Minotaur, King’s Ship.. L’ Aiguille chef d’Escadre .. 74 
Actif Do. .. Beauchain 64 

Zodiaque Do. -- D’Aché, Pape Ms eiecat re 

Comte de Provence .. La Chaj aad © 

Duc de Bourgogne... Boia” . 

St. Louis .. .. Johannes _+  @ 
oras oa -- Begdeloire a ‘. 

Sylphide ., .. Marian . 30 

Argenson, the same as the Condé (at Madagascar) Sechelle 

and Duc de Berry are also at the Island, but un 
e Condé is said to be intended for an Hospital Ship, the 
pets SM old to be laid up, and the Vengeur in a bad Condi- 

n & Guns in the above Account are agreable [sic] to 
the es aT deliverd to the Dutch upon the Arrival of the Ships 
at the Cape. They have many more Men on board than their 
Complement which they sent them to be Victualled as Provi- 
sions were exceedingly Scarce at the Island. 

Jonathan Melling, Mate of the Betsy, a Guinea-ship taken 

! Two leaves, each 12 x 7} inches. 

1916.] Some old Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 279 

by the Fortune and Argenson on their Passage to India, on the 
16 March 1758, declares that as many men as possi le were 
turned over from the Ships at the Islands on board those sent 
to the Cape, and that he judges there could not be more than 
1600 men left on board//the different ships at the Islands wn 
were preparing to careen and that they had besides onl 
“marines. The Ships at the Cape were not expected to. me 
Careen’d so as to get up on the coast in Time. 

The Penelope sail’d from the Cape to the Islands the latter 
end of Janry.—and the Chameau, Hermione and Elephant 
the 10th Febry. caiea with Corn, Wins, &c* 

The Achilles, King’s ship, with the Bye and Zephir, Fri- 
gates, left Brest ‘the 14th Octr. 1758 and arrived at the Cape 
the 15th Janry. 1759 where they Victualled with great Expe- 
dition and saild from thence the 17th Febry. They are sup- 
posed to be intended for a cruising Squadron, their Destina- 
tion not being known, Mr. de la Mariniere, the Commander, 
having seald Orders which were to be o en’d | 15 Leagues to 
the Westward of the Cape. It was also Reported that the 
French sh ncaa the Brillant of 64 Guns & two more 
Ships. T rtain Accounts of any Reinforcement 
of Land Vain dies saved at the Islands. 

sement on the back of the second leaf]: Account of 
the Preastt ) Squadron destin’d for India / in 1759. / 

1 Number illegible. 


280 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XI, 

oder Be A General Abstract of the English Prisoners at Pondicherry. ' 
[8th March 1759]. 

1 Serjeant-Major. 
4 Serjeants. 



Bombardiers. Fort St. David, Viza- 
Gunners. gapm., & Chettipett. 
Pensioners. 10 Serjeants. 

Train. 7 Serjeants. 

oo sd 

: Matrosses, 

1 Serjeant-Major. 
4 Serjeants. 
5 Corporals. 
_ Contihele. » Madrass, &c. 

1 Carpenter. 


De ers & Seamen belonging to His 
166. Majesty" s late Ships...... yr (tyicc. es 

15 Seamen taken on the Coast of Guinea. 

Tora - 697 
Pondicherry, 8th March 1759. 
Geo. Dawson. 

N.B.—Casualties since the Month of November not In- 
cluded 4 

! Two leaves, Pg x 10 inches. Second leaf blank. 
2 i ble. What appears to be the names of 2 oa A ships. 
Viaslopeeabaist on p. 4 illegible ; paper pasted ov 

1916.] Some old Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 281 


List of English and French Prisoners exchanged 
[29th July 1759]! 


Morse enis 
Dawson Panou.? 
Smith ae .. Dorée.® 
Thomas Minchin . ve ..  Ferriere. 
John Bla eh .. Sainé.* 
Richard ar Deshave. 

Creuzé mort en * joie t 1758 ‘echangé e en 

lieu pour un autre et peut étre ee 
pour Mr. . DeSt. Martin. 
a Pondishery lie 29 Juillet 1759. 
Duval De Leyrit 

[Endorsement]: Act of Exchange. / Reced. with Mr. Lally’s / 
Letter dated 3rd Sep": 1759./ 

: Two leaves, 12x 72 i = ee ; second leaf bla 
2 Panon? The wife of on . Panon died =" Patna, year unknown 
(Patna ied argh Inscriptions. 
Dorés 4+ Lainé, 

[P. 1.] 

[P. 4.] 

282 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

List of French Prisoners at Fort St. George, October 10th, 1759.) 

1. Bellehumeur, Serjeant. 27. Lisle D’amour, Centinel. 

2. Beaucard, Voluntier. 28. Econe, Do. 

3. Lachaux, Trooper. 29. Orleans, Do 

4. Merville, Do. 30. La Tulipe, Do 

5. Gasterpold, Hussar 31. Sans Soucis, Do 

6 ayzeley, Do. 32. St. Leger, Do. 

7. Perrick, D 33. La Sagesse, Do. 

8. Vincent, Do 34. La Tendresse, Do. 

9. ara 0 35. Belle Rose Do. 
10. Fra 36. Carlx, Do. 
1l. La Wiclette: Centinel 37. Le Beaux, Do. 
12. Vaqueville 38. Alexandre, Do. 
13. Piquar, o 39. oy, Coffrey. 
14. Le Cadre, Do. 40. Lorent, Topass. 
15. La Pauruve, Do. 
16. Berger, oO. 
17. BoySantSoif, Do. eet 
18. Belle Etoille, Do 1 Serjeant. 

1 Voluntier. 

2 Tro saci 

6 Hus 
a Centinel 

24. Navains 1 1 Topass. 
25. Luxus, oO. 
26. Blaing, Do. Total 40 [changed to] 37.” 

ment]: List of French Prisoners / at Madras / sent 

with ~ President's / Letter to Mr. Lally / dated 10th October 

! Two leaves, — x 9}; the penis blank, 
before the names. os, 12, 13, 38 ar baphgei out. 
The number os is crossed out and 37 substituted, but correspond- 
pe Bh oe have not been made in the detailed numbers shown in the 

We have put numbers 

1916.] Some old Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 283 

Four folio leaves, 16} x 11 inches; title-page elaborately 
Title-page|: Etat /Des_ Prisonniers Anglais / / Déténus 

t des Prisonniers / Anglais détenus diay / Les” prisons 
de Bantiehery) 

TROUPPES DE Roy. 17. Samuel Crosse. 

1, Richard Aleau, itl amin 18. Ricard Cortesse. 
2. Jean Berge, Sergen 19. James Meloc. 

3. James ae ene Capl 20. Jean Robinson. 
4. Jéan Stor 21. Joseph Robinson 
'5.. Thomas eke 22. Daniel Angliche 
6. Edouard Clak. 23. William Denis. 
7. Martin Steller 24. Francis Matesse. 
8 Thomas Haseanhe 25. Jean Guillaume. 
9. Jean Jauberton 
10. William Flaite. ARTILLERIE. 
11. Robert. 26. Jacques Merisy, Sergent. 
12. Nicolas dejousse. 27. William Ritchelle. 
3. James chizette. 28. Robert Nol. 
14. James Woalede. 29. James Gris 
15. Benjamin Sader 30. Daniel Brond. 
16. Mathieu honjoue. 31. William Selisse. 

A we! 

1 We have put a number near each of the names and we add here 
under . alternative readings. Many of the names are difficult to 
read. make a guves at the proper spelling of some of the names. 
Many nity baffling : they look more like French, Breton or Dutch than 
En oa 
. Alcan? 3. Rotekemd? 5. Tekesse? Zekesse? 6. For Clark ? 
15. Sadler ~_ ee ? For Mallock ? 22. For E nglish ? 30. Brond ? 
Bra 34. For Baker? 42. Merne? 44. For Watt? 45. Probably 

nd: a ? i H 

: 4 F udeles ° 
Camel? 93. For Chandler 94. For Dean? 98. Voldiguié. 100. 
For Youd ? 105. For Bellamy? 106. For Davies? 107. For 

aouse ? 
114. Bene ? a : 

Soleq? 121. Boulimun 122. Micaut? 124. Heltem? 126. For 
7 1Sb: ? 40. 

: 167 and F ‘ 
son? 170. For Hallam? 173. For t ardine ? 174. Matekij if ? Mateksf ¢ 
184. For Wilford? 185. Houlrodre? Honbrodre ? 

P, 2 blank. ] 
[P. 3.] 

284 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

32. Jacob Chehatenne. _ 75. Samuel May. 
33. Samuel Zeller. 76. Jean Redek. 
34. Jean Beker(s). 77. Samuel Youlse. 
35. Jacob Desso. 78. Guillaume Rao. 
79. Joseph Marsaun. 
[P. 4.] TROUPPES DE COMPAGNIE. 80. Thomas tabré. 
1. Thomas Michel 
3 isp _ 82. Jean Prainne. 
38. Thomas Woeles. Me nels aa 
39. Jean Carete. a) gn J = ie cag 
40. Georges Stamere. 5. 86, Ake Simoth 
ms a rreeonag | @ 7. William Teller 
. William Merue. DQ ; 
43. William Senne. UR be 
44, pha Ouatte 90. Th Philippe. 
[Oualle?] : 
45. Thomas Rabincon. 4 oe oop tali 
46. Samire Dare. : 
47. Joseph Branson. Pee 
48. Jean Randelou. 95. J eu te k i 
49. : pete mca 96. naa ian 
50. Jean Maguene. des 
SL. Wiliam imines. | «97 Thomas Logon 
52. Jean Macquinieré. 2| 99. William Kedelec. 
53. Jean Forbroacq. 3 100. Th J A 
54. Benjamin Barjet. ey 101. rene: Ske bone 
, ee . . 
7 ome oy hae 102. Charles Revenel. 
57. Johan Daij.: 103. Thomas Quebenne. 
58. Georges Waten. 105. dean Beboae 
60 Thnmaa Baraos: snely 106. Robert Devisse. 
: : 107. Jean Andresson. 
Fusiuiers. 108. Samuel Gestenne. 
| 109. Robert Smith. 
61. James Valer. | 110. Jean Bameesse. 
62. Abraham Baterosse. | 111. Thomas Guiemsel. 
63. Henry Emelton. _ 112. Thomas Spouly. 
64. Mathiea Esai | 113. Richer Herouade. 
65. Nicolas roo. 114. James Benegraur. 
66. William Halem. 115. Richard d’ Artemie. 
67. Richard Frost. 116. Georges Chapette. 
68. Thomas Kerdaglé. 117. William Tauson. 
69. Jean Brand. ‘118. James Bro 
70. Jean Guillaume 119. Thomas Fbleq. 
71. Jean i Habicq. 120. Jacob Cheloume. 
72. Jean Moe 121. Jean Boulimusse. 
73: cee tae Laly. 122. Thomas Micaur. __[P. 6. 
74. Thomas Hoelle. 123. Thomas Demonte. 

1916.] Some old Records of the Madras Army (1757-1759). 2 

124. Thomas Hettem. 

é m. 
131. Wiliam Hequemam., 

132. Kovard 

133. William 

134. Richard Valinton. 
135 Charles 

139. Barny Kraneston. 
140. Jean 

141. William Tueas. 
142. Jallux Not 

143. Johan Berchette. 

156. Jacques Lanes. 
157. Jaur Fines. 




165. Leopol desse. 
. Michel Waldenne. 
. Jean Wiedorhard. 
1 ETS: 
| 175: 
| 179. 
| 180. 
By ios 
| 182. 
| 190. 



Charles Fine. 

David Sesame 


titi earch: 
Jean Wohette. 
Thomas Partiton. 
Thomas Chinqueme. 

Jean Andreson. 

James Saess. 

Robert Jardenne. 
Barny Matekf. 
Guillaume Repingal. 
Richard Tournem 

Jean tig Houbradic. 
Jacob D 
Jean Deed e. 
Conderan Spenerqueke. 
Alexandre Courmier. 
Thomas Pour Dieu. 


TrouppEs DE Roy. 


bo bo bo 



15 dont 1 de mort. 
130 es : 

286 Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.] 

Sergens ae Spee | 
Canonniers ne gt 9 Ae me 10 
Total général : 190 hommes.! 

LP. 3.) [Endorsement]: List / English Prisoners / at retour / 
Reced. with M. Lally’s Letter / of the 28rd Octr. 1759. 

| We a tot se ee 191. Si Ba i de Roy: 2 sergeants, 
1 corporal, "32 ort s (total 25); T s de mpagnie : “io sergeants, 15 
corporals, 130 : rsa (ota 155) ; | Aveitloeie ‘ sergeant, 10 others (total 
11); grand tota 


18. Note on the Ta’rikh Salatin A faghinah. 
By H. Beverives, LCS. (Retired). 

Ahmad Yadgar’s history of the Afghan Kings of Delhi and 
Agra has been described by Elliot and Dowson hg the beginning 
of vol. V of their pieiery. of India. There is a modern and 
undated copy of the work in the Library of re Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. MS. No. 137, and this appears to be the only one in 

In bi preface, Ahmed Yadgar says he wrote his book at 
the suggestion of a king whom he calls Badshah ‘Alampanah 
Abu’I- Mugafiar | Daud Shah. This has been taken to mean the 


and put to death in July, 1576. But the titles are ithe 
grandiose for a prince who had so short and inglorious a reign. 
The magnificent titles might not be out of place if Ahmad 
Yadgar wrote as a bigoted partizan of the Afghans, but this is 
not the case, for his sympathies seem to be with Babur and his 
descendants. And this would be natural, for his father was in 
the service of Humayuin’s brother Mirza ‘Askari. He tells 
us that he wrote his book because the histories of Minhajad-difi 
Jurjani and Ziya-i-Barni were discussed at an interview he ha 

with the king, “and that the latter remarked to him that no one 

e Imperial Library (Bohar collection), however, possesses a 
pric copy of the work. The ~~ —— al Library copy (MS. 3887) com- 
prises 198 folios and is written ordinary ta‘lig by ecne 

t is free from rae beats “of spelling I have noticed in . the 
Asiatic Society’s copy and is a better copy than that in our possessi 

ike our copy it begins thus 
zit - oy ty <—d9>5/ eels cling Si 
The concluding words are :-— 
~ bile foe gt SQL Es jt yee ASO) I aed lac caw 
* yer} rac cs998 ld) ~ 03 ales 
Spaces for headings and insertion of intr a words like ~ 
( verse ), weKa (story ), etc. are left blank throughou 
The passage containing the raison d étre of the ciel runs thus :— 
sh) - sh o5y'> halt gat sly alle abbots vyi'em dso yo < jy) af 
I feel no doubt that the —— He wee in the above passage is 

n adjective meaning ‘ auspicious, ted 
by a distinguished Otientalist, the caaeeee Humayin. —Philological Secre- 

288 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [NS., XII, 

‘Adli, but has interpolated, after the account of Ibrahim, the 
history of Babur and Humayiin. He writes like a gossiping old 

year 935 a.H. (1523-29) by Babur’s officers, and says the 
place has remained a desert ever since though 160 years have 
elapsed since then. This would make the year of writing 1095 
(935 + 160) or 1684 a.p. But such a date seems impossible, for 

. a 7 

in describing the reign of Humayun the author says that his 

of the MS. and is as follows: ** In La‘tf az pidar-i-khud ke daran 
> (It is worth 

reference from Mr. Blochmann.) At this time Ahmad Yadgar’s 
father must have been a man approaching middle life, if 

note at p. 42 of vol. V that he saw the difficulty about the 
160 years, and remarked, ‘if this be correct, the date of the 
composition of this work is later than has been supposed.’’ 

here is a difficulty caused by Ahmad Yadgar’s reference to th 

1916.} Note on the Ta’ rikh Salatin Afaghinah. 289 

Tabaqat Akbari, the author of which did not die till 1003 A.H., 
1595, though he may have been writing his history for many 
years previously. Ahmad Yadgar’s references to and his copy- 
ing from Niz&am-ud-din‘s history relate, I think, to the history 
of Humayin, and I would suggest that this history, which 

Rajah of Kahlir at Sirhind, and sent a punitive expedition 
against the Mundahars of Kaithal (in the Karnal district). 

NN Nae NN Nhl On 

19, Talcher Plate of Gayadatungadeva. 
By R. D. Banurai, M.A., Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
(With Plates ITI—IV.) 

This copper-plate was sent to me in March, 1911, by Mr. 
L. E. B. Cobden Ramsay, I.C.S., Political Agent, Orissa Feu- 
datory States, in connection with the work of iting the 
posthumous works of the late Dr. T. Blo ch, Superatendane 
Archaeological sean de Eastern Circle. I found that the plate 
had not been seen by Dr. Bloch. According to the information 
supplied by Mr. hail the plate belongs to the Talcher State, 

and it has been edited by Babu Nagendranath Vasu, Prachya.- 

The gy pe is incised on a single rap of ye copper 
measuring 5}” x 4” with a projection on the top to which is 
attached a seal, elliptical in shape, major axis measuring me 
and the minor 1-13/16”. The seal seems to be cast in 
lighter metal, probably brass. The credit of discovering the 
first copper-plate inscription of Gayadatungadéva, in ve 
prosaic surroundings, belongs to Prof. Nilmani Chakravartti 
of the Presidency College, Calcutta, who found it in the 
library of the Aaage Society of Bengal. This inscription 

been edited by Prof. Chakravartti in 1909.2 The present 
_ inscription is oun gi than the Asiatic Society’s plate 

efers to the reign of the same king. The seal is 
identical with that of the Asiatic cae s plate, but the 
letters are no longer legible. the top of the letters we 
have the crescent, and below, the bull Nandi and a tree to its 
left. The inscription on the first side of the plate is almost 
identical with that on 11. 1-18 of the Asiatic Society’s plate. 
It records the grant of a certain village made to three 
Brabmanas by a king named Gayadatungadeva, who claimed 
to have descended from the Tunga ( Rastrakita ? ?) family and 
belonged to the Sandilya gotra. are fami ily is said to have 

Rohitagiri : aha 

Ga Aner s titles are Roremtimanatenre- semonhogente 

1 The Archaeological ian of Mayurabhanja, Vol. I, pp. 152 it. ee 
with plates. 
a & P. A.S.B., Vol. V, p. 347. 
3 Rohtas tas Inscription of the Tomara Mitrasena—J.A.S.B., Vol. VIII, 
p. 695. 

292 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 

panchamahatabda,’’? but he does not use Royal or Imperial 
titles. At the same time I must note that the mere mention 
f the Yamagarta mandala does not prove that he was a 

ndala. It should be noted in this connection that this is 
the first specific mention of the Varendra mandala in an 

the Kanva branch of the Yajirveda. Vrstideva was a 
student of the Kanva branch of the Yajarveda like Devagarma, 
but he belonged to the Vatsya gotra. His father was Llallada 
and his grandfather Dhaduka, his family having emigrated 
from Savathi, i.e., Sravasti. At the time of the grant they were 
inhabitants of the Yamagarta mandala. No special mention 

made of Ramadeva as it is apparent that he is a son o 
Vrstideva just mentioned. On palaeographical grounds the 
inscription may be referred to the eleventh century A.D. 
edit the inscription from the original :— 

First Side. 
1.—Om’ svasti[1* |Ava[d* |dho[d* Jdhata dvipa-ganda-sthala- 
2.—da-malita* madhukaravali-jha[m*]krne (t-ai)ka-prado- 
sat = pravudha-*, 
sa icici routes Rik-sama-yajur-véda dhvanibhir =° 

_ Divaha-pr 
+.—tikrta-sakala-janapadat ° anavarata-dvija-huta-hu— 
ACS 2 SAMMI Ts BRET gee gee 
1J & P.AS.B., Vol. V, 1909, p. 348. 
3 Expressed by a symbol. 3 Read malina. 
Read pravy dha-téj6-vipra-varair=rik—. 
_ § Read dhvanibhir=—. § Read padad=ana—. 

1916.] Talcher Plate of Gayadatungadeva. 293 

5.—ta-dhima-samchayo!-prahasita-samasta-risi ?-vasakat. 
6. eo nent parvsto-ds (?} rindata (?) tunga 

(is —kita “tano[h) je PR mamdale gata-dirvararati 3 
gicaigee Ta] = dvirada-vara-ghata-kumbha-pitha- prahara- 

9. Chek nikara-karal = asi-dhara sphuranti drishtva bha- 

10.—nivarita prahasitavati yasya + grime bhumau sa Sr 
11. —Gayadatunga prathite-prthu-yasas = tunga-vamsad = 

12. reer 3 aéoarya-bhiito nija-bhuja-mahim6-rjita pu- 
jitasr (S77 
13. raja vanaryasatro satatam =api-chala niéchala yasya- 
14. lakshmi® Sirndilya-gotrad=utpan ( n) a ROHITA- 
15.—ta raja Sr ie Jagattunga ripa-virya’ valanvita 

tasy anvay 

16. Salénatuiga ‘St (Sri) man=urjita-vikrama tasya 
vabhtiva dha[rmma*}. 

17. jfio dugdh= maid chandrama [1] PARAMA- 

GADEVA kus (§)ali 

19. Etan=mandale-smina® bhavino simanta-simav vajini. 

20.—jana tis? yathariha [m]* vodhafya]ti kusa (éa) 

aya-ty = 
21. disayati !° ati viditam-astu bhavatam 

Second Side. 
22.—Tunkera vishaya samva[d |Jdha Vamaitallo gramoyam 
23.—tu sima!' paryanta Varendra-mandale Mutharutha- 
bhata- grama. 

24.—vinirgata Odes. vishays Savirabhate grama vastavya 

~5.—Sa (Sya) pa gotra Vatsyayana '-Naidhruva-pravara 
Yajirved = achara— 
26.—na Kanva—sakhadhyayina '* bhataputra Devaégarma 

} Read cope = bh 5 an. 

2 Read Rshi. e 4 Read dureasiras. + Read yasya. 

5 Read Sad=virya. ; Read Laksmih 7 Read rirya. 

3 Read °smin 4 Read yatharham. '0 Read adisati. 

'l Read Catuh-sim@. _—'!? Read Vdtsyayma. —18 Read °dhyayine. 

294 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 
27.—ta Dhanasarma naptre gramordha améa Savathi vinir- 

gata Ya— E 
28.—magarta-mandala-vastavya Vastya! gotra pafich-arsha 
29.—ra Yajiir-vedacharana Kanva-*sakhadhyayina® bhata- 

30.—tra Vrstideva® Llallada-suta Dhaduka naptre amsacha— 
31.—turtha mila bhataputra Vrstidevasuta® Ramadeva 
32.—AmSa chaturtha mala trinodaka rapya 40 chatvari 
33.—anke ripya 40,4 tambrasdsani®-krtya prada [t] to-s 

ma |— 
34.—bhi [h] yava [ch] chandrarka-taraka ac hatabhat-apra- 

35.—data paradatam=va’ yo harati’ vasundhara® sa 

vishth : 
36.—yam krimi [r*] bhutva pitribhi [h*] saha pachyate iti. 

Norr.—Mala seems to mean high or cultivable land: cf. 
Bloch in J.A.S.B., Vol. V, 1909, p. 348, for other mentions of the 
word in inscriptions. 


Om, S 
having many valleys, with its body marked by the Kings of the 
Tunga dynasty, (where) the evenings are made to resound with 
the hum of bees, dirtied by the temporal juice constantly flow- 
ing from the cheek of elephants, newly captured and (for that 
_Teason) restive; where all the towns have been fully purified 
by the sound of the Rk, Sama and Yajur-vedas (proceeding) 
from great Brahmanas, whose spiritual power has been awakened, 
where all the residences of the sages had been made smil. 
ing by the accumulation of smoke (!!!) arising from constant 

gotra, whose great prowess was wondered at (i.e., was a subject 
of wonder), whose prosperity was honoured as it was acquired 
by the greatness of his own prowess, who held five long and 

1 Read Vateya. 2 Read Kanva. 3 Read °dh: Gyine. _ 
* Read Vratideva. 5 Read Vrstideva. 6 Read tamraésasani.° 
y Read din paradattarn. 3 Read haret. 

i a m. \0 This sentence is not complete. 
1 This sentence also is incomplete. 

1916.] Talcher Plate of Gayadatungadeva, 295 

honoured sessions of sacrifices, and in whose case fortune, though 

In this mandala, the future feudatories of the towns, whose 
conquered are being made to understand, ac- 

(is being given) half of the village to Bhataputra Devasarma, 

grandson of Dhanasarma; a quarter share of the ma/a is given 
to Bhataputra Vrstideva, who was an emigrant from Savathi 
(Sravasti), an inhabitant of the Yamagartta mandala (wh: 
belonged) to the Vatsya gotra (who had) pravaras with names 
of the five sages, (who belonged) to the Kanva $akha of the 
Yajurveda, (and) who was the son of Llallada (and) grandson of 
Dhahuka. A quarter share of the mala (is being given) to 
Ramadeva,son of the bhataputra Vrstideva, with grass and water, 
Ripya (? price) forty-four, in figure rupya 44; is given by us 
by means of this copper-plate-grant. (Let it be) un-enterable 

Chatas and Bhatas so long as the moon and the star last. 
(Here follows one of the usual imprecatory verses). 

Jour As. Soc. Beng.,Vol. XII, 1916. Plate ll. 


Tah es 

SR eos a 



: A “4 > ~ Spe dat | 
pws b ¥, < mika 
; eh > 4 24 
ba Cam hans: | FEI 

Jour. As. Soc. Beng.,Vol. XII, 1916 Plate IV. 

20. A New Persian Authority on Babur ? 

By L. F. Rususproox WILLIAMs. 

e discrepancies between the Indian and the Persian 
historians who deal with the relations between Babur and Shah 
Isma‘il, are well known, and capable of a more or less satisfactory 
explanation. But the discrepancies between Khwandamir and 

aidar Mirza are of a different order. Each writer was excep- 
tionally well-informed : each gathered his information at first 
and, yet the contradictions are often glaring. This is the 
more to be regretted, in that each is a source of the utmost 
importance for Babur’s history Sanne the years a.p. 1510-11. 
ave some hopes that a third writer has come to aecene who 
may perhaps help to clear up some of the disputed poin 
While I was working in the famous library of H. i the 
Nawab of Rampur, I was fortunate enough to make the 

ime m 
gentleman, who possesses an excellent collection of historical 
works, has been kind enough to furnish me with excerpts which 
he thinks will help me in Nod investigation of Babur’s career. 
One of these excerpts was from a work quite unfamiliar to me, 
the Ahsanal-Siyar of Mirza Barkhwardir Turkmain. The 
extract was of great value for the events of a.p. 1510-11, al- 
though it was quickly apparent that the author was greatly 
indebted to the Habibal-Siyar 
A subsequent visit to Rampur put me in possession of the 
following particulars. The volume consists of 411 pages num- 
bered in a modern hand, each page measuring 6” by 93”. The 
writing is a fairly clear semi-nasta‘liq—the hand of a scholar 
rather than of a scribe. There are twenty-two lines to the 
page. The volume was purchased by the present owner in 
Lucknow some years ago, and the flyleaf bears a note that it 
had been purchased twice before, once in Shahjahanabad, once 
Lucknow. One of the previous owners has written a Per- 
sian couplet, expressing his appreciation of the fact that his 
ownership is but transitory. The general sce re of the 
volume is Bcd, although the illuminated ad-piece on the 
page bearing the bi’smi’liah has been cut ary and the page 
itself is neatly mounted upon modern paper, glued into the 
binding. Worms have wrought little damage. 
The original work was apparently in four volumes, of which 
’ the present is the fourth and concluding instalment : for on 
p- there is mention of the author's second volume, and on 

298 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [N.S., XII, 1916.) 

p. 322 of his third volume. The whole seems to have been dedi- 

cated to Shah Isma‘il Safawi, and the present volume, which 

is plainly the conclusion of the whole, closes with an account 

of the perfections of this monarch and a recital of his praises. 
The contents are as follows :— 

Pages 1-6 Preface, in which the author states that he, 
being a Shi‘a, has been led to combat some 
of the errors made in Khwandamir’s account 
of this period. It is noteworthy that the 
date of composition of the Habibal-Siyar is 
stated to be a.u. 927. 

Pages 6-280. A detailed history of Shah Isma‘il’s reign. 

Pages 280-305. An account of the poets and philosophers 
then flourishing in Persia. 

Pages 306-411. A collection of curious stories, geographi- 
cal descriptions, and the like, mainly bor-- 
rowed from Khwandamir, the Matla‘al-Sa‘- 
dain, and other sources. 

The date of composition of the work was a.H. 930, as is 
shown by the ta’rikh. 

se jad and Usitt, S14) 58) 
I hope to publish before 
Barkhwardar’s book, 

to Khwandimir. My ob 

JULY, 10916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of mcs — was held on 
Wednesday, the 5th July, 1916, at 9-15 

Lieut. -Cot. Str Lronarp Rogers, Kt., C.1.E., M.D., 
BS. Putt. fas., PAS SB. EBS., LMS.. President, 
in the chair 

The ‘elise members were present :— 

Maulavi Abdul Wali, Dr. N. Annandale, Babu Nilmani 
Chakravarti, Dr. F. H. Gravely, Sir Thomas Holland, K.C.LE., 
Dr. W. C. Hossack, Rev. H. Hosten, 8.J., Rev. R. Oka, Maha- 
sera ie em Haraprasad Shastri, C.I. E., Dr. Satis Chandra 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Twenty-four presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Babu Ramakanta 
rH ttn had expressed a desire to withdraw from the 

The —— Secretary also a the death of Mr. Ed- 
ward Thornto 

The oe gentlemen were balloted for as Ordinary 
Members :— 

Mr. J. MacKenna, J.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to the Gov- 
ernment of India, Pusa, pan proposed by Dr. N. Annandale, 
seconded by Mr. 8. W. Kem Colonel H. T. Pease, C.LE.., 
M.R.C.V.S.. Principal, Panjab Verity College, Lahore, pro- 

by Dr. N. Annandale, seconde by Mr. S. W. Kemp; 
Mr. W. S. — ty Me Assistant, Messrs. Shaw Wallace 
& Co., proposed R. D. Mehta, C.I.E., seconded by Dr. 
F. H. Gravely ; Boba agrees Sarkar, Zemin dar, 69, Belia- 
ghata Main Road, Calcutta, proposed b y Mahamahopadhyaya 
Haraprasad Shastri, seconded by Babu *N ilmani Chakravarti ; 
Syed Naseer Hosein Khankhayab, Zemindar ‘sind Landholder, 
78, Prinsep Street, ae proposed by Maulavi Aga Muham- 
mad Kazim Shirazi, econded by Mr. O. F. Je Z. R. 
Zahid Suhrawardy, M. Ac, BL; voor gg amie 3, Wellesley 
Ist Lane, Calcutta, proposed bythe Hon. Justice Sir Asutosh 
Mukerjee, Kt., seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad 
Shastri, C.I.E. 

Maham sis liecas a Haraprasad Shastri exhibited a MS. 
of Buddhist Tantric Sanskrit of the tenth century in which 
Bombay is mentioned. 

The President announced that there would be no meeting 
of the Medical Section during the month. 

AUGUST, 1916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 2nd August, 1916, at 9-15 P.M. 

Lizvut.-Cot. Str Lronarp Rogers, Kt., C.1.E., M_D., 
BS, 0 wt, ee, Ein ees, FRS., LMS., President, 
in the chair 

The A members were present :— 

Dr. Annandale, Dr. P. J. Bruhl, Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri, 
Dro. C. Gernerts Miss M. L. Cleghorn, Babu Hem Chandra 
Das Gupta, Dr. F. H. Gravely, Mr. H. G. Graves, Dr. W. C. 
Hossack, Mr. 8S. W. Kemp, Rev. R. Oka, Mr. W. ‘i. Phelps, 
Dr. Satis Chandra Vidvabhusana, Mr. E. Vredenburg. 

Visitors :—Mr. C. Cleghorn, Miss O. Cleghorn, Mr. A. Clark» 
Mrs. Kemp. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Twenty-three presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Sir Clements 
Markham, K.C.B., an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

The following gentleman was balloted for as an Ordinary 
Member :— 

Pandit Ashwani Kumar Shukla, B.A., LL.B., Revenue 
Officer, Mewar State, Udaipore, proposed by Pandit Shiam 
Bihari Misra, seconded by Pandit Sri Ram Dikshit. 

Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri exhibited a orem new Goby in 
which the ro carries the eggs in a pair of pouches 

Dr. N. Annandale exhibted a new genus of limbless skink 
from an island in the Chilka Lake. 

Dr. F. H. Gravely exhibited some Indian trap-door spiders 
and their nests. 

Miss M. L. Cleghorn exhibited a living specimen of a very 
rare Indian toad (Kaloula pulchra). 

The following paper was read. :— 

Zoological Results of a Tour in the Far East. 1. The Mol- 
lusca of Lake Biwa, Japan—By N. ANNanvDaLE, D.Sc., 
F.A.S.B., Zoological Survey of India. 

This paper is being published in the Memoirs, Vol. VI. 

e sident announced that there would be no meeting. 
of the Medical Section during the mont 

BR areal oe 95 

NOVEMBER, 1916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the pated was held on 
Wednesday, the lst November, 1916, at 9-15 

Lieut-Cot. Str Leonarp Rogsrs, Kt., C.LE., M.D., 
B.S., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.S., F.AS.B., F.RS., TALS. President, 
in the chair. 

The following members were present :— 

Maulavi Abdul Wali, Dr. N. Annandale, Rev. H Hosten, 
S.J., Hon. Mr. F. J. Monahan, Mr. M. J. Seth, Mahamahopa- 
dhyaya Haraprased Shastri, C.I.E., Dr. Satis Chandra Vidya- 

Visitors : ane H. M. Cowie, R.E., Mr. E. Stephen, Mr. 
J. H. noe 
The minutes of the August meeting 1 and confirmed. 

Seventy presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported the death of Sir William 
Ramsay (an Honorary Fellow) and of Babu Satis Chunder 
Banerjee, Rai Bhawri Das Bhatra, Capt. 8. Morton, 24th Pun- 
jabis; Mr. R. V. Russell, _Maulavi Sofuila Saifuddin Ahmed, 

Scare say of the Society. 

_ The General Secretary also reported that Dr. P. K. Ray, 
Babu Moti Lal eae Dr. Manmatha Nath Chaterjee and Sir 
Pardey Iukis, K.C.S_I. _ had expressed a desire to withdraw from 
the Society. 

The President announced that in accordance with Rule 38 
of the Society’s Rules, the names of the following eight mem- 
bers had been posted up as defaulting members since the last 
mie and their names had now been removed from the Mem- 

List :-— 

Maulavi Habibur Rahman Khan, Allahabad. 
Babu Chandra Kumar Sarkar, Kowkanik. 

Babu 8. P. Sanyal, Maghaule. 

Pandit Tulsi as Misra, Kanauj. 
Mr. R. 8. Bhatnagar, Sha apur 

Baba Briz Mohan Geonka, Calcutta. 

Mr. R. 8S. Ramulu Chitty, Madras. 

exliv Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Nov., 1916. - 

The following two gentlemen were elected Nepal Mem- 
bers during the recess in accordance with Rule 7 

Rev. W. S. Sutherland, D.D. 

Rev. Hilarion Basdekas. 

The following anager was proposed as an Honorary 
Fellow :— 

Dr. Go A. Boulenger F.B.S., LL.D., British Museum. 

He is versally Sok newiedgod as the greatest living 
authority on septiles and has written one of the most valuable 
volumes in the “‘ Fauna of British India” —it appeared 26 years 


The — gentleman was balloted for as an Ordinary 
Mr. Adar Chandra Mitra, B.L., Law Publishing Press, Cal- 
cutta, proposed by Mahamahopadyaya Satis Chandra Vidya- 
bhusana, seconded by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri. 

H. Hosten, S.J., exhibited two pictures showing 
prey with a Christian girl, whose name is given as Maryam 
Zamani Begam 

Maha: mahopadhyaya syria rae pe exhibited a palm- 
leaf manuscript in Valte-lu-ttu character. 

e manuscript belonged to ibs family collection of Sir 
Sankaram Nair, the Education member of the Siosrega) Council. 
It is written in Valte-lu-ttu character, which is a very rare 
kind of writing. Only one other document in this script is 
known to the antiquarian, and that is a document dated in the 
= sonia It confers on a Jew named Iussuf Rabbani a 
principality in Cochin. The language in which the work is 
written, is Old Tamil, like that of the Cochin document, but the 
numerals in which the leaves of the MSS. are marked belong to 
a later date, viz. fifteenth or sixteenth century. There are 
about a hundred leaves ponseaubively marked. There is a blank 
space on the reverse side 3. 

The word Valte Pra tees means rounl hand as opposed to 
Koren or es square hand. It is not known when the 
out of currency. A Nambubari Brahman 
peal says lint it ceased to be a current character more 
(hak a hundred years ago. Dr. Busnell says it went out in the 
seventeenth century. Perhaps this is one of the last MS. 
written in that character. The Kore-lu-ttu, or square hand, is 
still current. 

The following papers were read :— 

ago, and he is still contributing papers to Indian Journals of 


Nov., 1916.} Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. exiv 

1. Ormuri or Bargisia Language.—By Str GEORGE GRIER- 
son, K.C.I.E. 
This paper will be published in the Memoirs. 
. Nahapana and the Saka Era—By Raxknat Das 
Banergt, M.A. 
3. The Malda meat J and cia Book, 1680-1682. 
Edited by Tut VEN’BLE W. 
4. Folklore in = sccue aes hax Banavour B. A. 

some Indian Ceremonies for Disease T'ransference.— 
6. A New Persian Bashonily on Babur ?—By L. F. R. 
Papers 3, 4, 5 and 6 are being published in the Journal. 
The President announced that there would be no meeting 
of the Medical Section during the month 

DECEMBER, 1916. 

The Monthly General Meeting of the i apa was held on 
Wednesday, the 6th December, 1916, at 9-15 P 

Lizvt.-Cot. Str Lronarp Rogers, Kt., C.I M.D., 
Br. wo Os., WiC. BAS.B., E.RS.. LMS., pate a 
in the chair. 

The following members were present :— 

Dr. Annandale, Rev. H. Basdekas, Dr. H. G. Carter, 
Miss M. L. ne ee Babu Hem Chandra Das Gupta, Maulavi 
Mahomed Kazim Shirazi, Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, Mr. 
E. ne 

Visitors :—Mrs. Carter, Miss O. Cleghorn, Mr. C. Cleghorn 
and ribet others. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Forty-one presentations were announced. 

The General Secretary reported that Dr. David Hooper 
- and Mr. B. K. Basu, I.C.S., had sana: a desire to withdraw 
from the Society. 

The President announced that the following twenty-six 
members being largely in arrears of subscriptions had been 
declared defaulters and that their names would be posted up 
in accordance with e 38 :— 

Maulavi Abdus Salam, Liana Magistrate, Calcutta. 

Maulavi Abul Aas, sag? 34 

Munshi Ahmed Hosein Khan, , Shelum, 

Maulavi Abdur Rahim, Calcutta. 

S. A. Ashgar, Esq., Bar-at-law, Calcu 

Babu Taahi Chunder Ghose, Pleader Calcutta. 


Babu Manmatha Nath Moitra, Sees 
Syed Muzaffar Ali Khan, Mazaffarnagar. 

Nawab Murtaza Hosain Khan, Lucknow. 

exlviii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Dec., 1916. 


Babu Girindra Kumar Sen, Calcut 

Syed Fida Ali, Arrah. 

Babu Sri Ram Poplai, Jullundur City. 
Kumar Shyma Kumar Tagore, Calcutta. 

The following gentleman was balloted for and elected an 
Honorary Fellow :— 

Dr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., LL.D., British Museum. 

The following gentlemen were balloted for and elected 
Ordinary Members :-— 

The Anagarika Dharmapala, General Secretary Mohabodhi 
Society, No. 44 College Square. Calcutta (for re-election), pro- 
posed by Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, seconded by Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Haraprasad Shastri ; Sri Baman Dasji Kaviraj, 
Ayurvedic and Unani Physician, 152, Harrison Road, Calcutta, 
proposed by Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana, seconded by 
Dr. F. H. Gravely. 

Maulavi Aga Muhammad Shirazi on behalf of Dr. A. Suhra- 
wardy read the following obituary notice of the late Shams-ul- . 
Ulama Shaikh Mahmud Gilani :-— 

The death of His Eminence Shamsul-Ulama Shaikh Mah- 
mud Gilani removes a prominent figure from the Muslim world 
of letters, and oriental scholarship once more suffers an ir- 
reparable loss. : 

Shaikh Mahmud Gilani was the fifth son of Shaikh Nasir- 
uddin Gilani, the renowned Mujtahid of Persia. On account of 

daughter in marriage to him. Six sons were born is mar- 
riage. of whom Shaikh Abdullah and Shaikh Muhamud attaine 
fame outside Persia. 

iting in his person the traditions, influence and learning 

Calcutta University. The late Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, 
who was one of the pupils of the Shaikh. conferred upon him 
the title of Shamsul Ulama (the sun of the Ulama). He was 

Dec., 1916.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. exlix 

the first recipient of this title, which, indeed, was especially 
created for him by Lord Dufferin. The Shaikh was further 
selected by his Lordship for the office of a minister in the 
Hydrabad State, but he beeen to accept the appointment as 
unsuited to one of his ing disposition and pious nature. 
He was one of the sides Fellows of the University of Caleutta. 
For nearly twenty-five years he had been Examiner in Arabic 
and Persian to the various Indian Universities, Though he 
lived in retirement and seldom left his residence, the Calcutta 
University recently appointed him University Lecturer in Ara- 
bic and Persian, and the Government of Bengal granted him a 
literary pension only last year in recognition of his erudition. 
commanding presence, stately figure and gifted with 
natural eloquence he stood unrivalled as a preacher, spiritual 
Pie and scholar. A high priest of the Shiahs, he was held 
igh esteem and reverence by Shiahs and Sunnis alike. A 
man of retiring disposition, he never cared to have his name on 
a title-page. but his great scholarship was Gantintealy placed 
at the disposal of other distinguished orientalists like Jarrett. 
Ranking, Phillott and others, who had sieaga front gh in their 


jurisprudence written in his yo outh was published in Najaj 
(Mesopotamia) and is still exclusively used ther 

or many years he was a member of the Philological Com- 
mittee of this — which benefited by his valuable advice 
and mature counsels. 

After a short cone he died on Friday, the 22nd September 

1916 The Office of the Board of Examiners, the University 
classes and the Madrasah were closed in his honour 

Mr. EK. Vredenburg exhibited some Indian fossil shells of 
Turbinella for comparison with the recent Indian “‘ Chank. 

The following papers were read :— 

(1) On Secrecy and Silence in North Indian Agricultural 
Ceremonies.—By Sarat CuHanpra Mitra. Communicated by 
the Anthropological Siavelirg 

This paper is being published in the Journal. 

(2) Zoological Results of a Tour in the Far East. Batrachia 
and Reptiles —By Dr. N. ANNANDALE. 

(3) W iloaioat Results of a Tour in the Far East. Aquatic 
Hemiptera from Tale Sap, saggy Sitam.—By C. A. Patva. 
Communicated by Dr. N. ANNAN 

Papers 2 and 3 are being fae in the Memoirs, Vol. VI. 

ident announced that the next adjourned meetin 

The ing 
of the Medical Section would be held on Wednesday, the 13th 
December, 1916, at 9-15 p.m 

el Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. [Dec., 1916.] 

_ The Adjourned Meeting of the Medical Section of the So- 
ciety was held at the aod s Rooms on Wednesday, the 13th 
December, 1916, at 9-15 P 

Lizut.-Cot. Str Lronarp Rocrrs, Kt., C.1E., M. DD. 
BS., E.R.CP., F.R.CS., F.A.S.B., F.RS.. LMS.. President, 
in thie chair. 

ee following members were present :— 

Dr. U. N. Brahmachari, Dr. Harinath Ghosh, Col. C. R. M. 
ae IMS., Lt.-Col. R. E. Lloyd, I.M.S., Major D. McCay, 

Visitor :—Dr. H. Douglas Cameron. 

The minutes of the April meeting were read and con- 

Lieut.-Colonel Sir Leonard me Kt., C.I.E., M.D., B.S., 
F.R.C-P., F.R.CS., F.A.S.B., FBS. LMS: read a paper en- 
titled “Chronic Splenomegaly in Lower Bengal w ith special 
an to the prevalence and clinical differentiation of Kala- 

Rai Bahadur Dr. Upendra, Nath Brahmachari, M.A., M.D., 
ie rea iS a pace entitled “Fourth Report on the treatment 
) a-aza 

Ce ee ee ae Rise ak ele Bl Sag